112th United States Congress

Last updated on 30 September 2017

The One Hundred Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2011, until January 3, 2013. It convened in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2011, and ended on January 3, 2013, 17 days before the end of the presidential term to which Barack Obama was elected in 2008. Senators elected to regular terms in 2006 completed those terms in this Congress. This Congress included the last House of Representatives elected from congressional districts that were apportioned based on the 2000 census.

In the 2010 midterm elections, the Republican Party won the majority in the House of Representatives. While the Democrats kept their Senate majority, it was reduced from the previous Congress.[3] This was the first Congress in which the House and Senate were controlled by different parties since the 107th Congress (2001–2003), and the first Congress to begin that way since the 99th Congress (1985–1987). In this Congress, the House of Representatives had the largest number of Republican members, 242, since the 80th Congress (1947–1949).[4] It was also the first Congress since 1947 in which no member of the Kennedy family served, and it was viewed as one of the most politically polarized Congress since Reconstruction, and the least productive since the Second World War, with record low approval ratings.[5]

112th United States Congress
111th ←
→ 113th
United States Capitol west front edit2.jpg
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013
Senate President Joe Biden (D)
Senate Pres. pro tem Daniel Inouye (D)
until December 17, 2012
Patrick Leahy (D)
from December 17, 2012
House Speaker John Boehner (R)
Members 100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Democratic
House Majority Republican
Sessions
1st: January 5, 2011[1] – January 3, 2012[2]
2nd: January 3, 2012[2] – January 3, 2013

Major events

2011 State of the Union.jpg
President Obama delivered the 2011 State of the Union Address on January 25, 2011
Barack Obama with Gabrielle Giffords at the 2012 State of the Union 01-24-12.jpg
After delivering the 2012 State of the Union Address on January 24, 2012, President Obama embraces Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, who had been shot the previous year.

Potential government shutdown

A failure to pass a 2011 federal budget nearly led to a shutdown of non-essential government services on April 9, 2011, with the furlough of 800,000 government employees appearing imminent.[10] President Obama met Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and House Speaker John Boehner in the days preceding the deadline but was unable to come to an agreement to pass a budget. A one-week budget was proposed to avoid a government shutdown and allow more time for negotiations; however, proposals from both parties could not be accommodated. Obama said he would veto a proposed Republican budget over Republican social spending cuts. This was also backed by Senate Democrats who objected to such cuts as that of Planned Parenthood.[11][12][13] However, an agreement was reached between the two parties for a one-week budget to allow for more time to negotiate after Republicans dropped their stance on the Planned Parenthood issue.[12] The two parties ultimately agreed on a 2011 federal budget the following week.

There were many reactions to the possible shutdown with some saying the economy could be hurt during a fragile recovery[14] and others saying the lack of an unnecessary bureaucracy would not be noticed.[15] There was also criticism that while senators and representatives would continue to get paid others such as the police and military personnel would either not be paid for their work or have their payments deferred.[16]

Debt limit crisis

President Obama %26 John Boehner debt ceiling negotions. JPG.JPG
Speaker Boehner meeting with President Obama at the White House during the 2011 debt ceiling crisis

On August 2, 2011, the United States public debt was projected to reach its statutory maximum. Without an increase in that limit the U.S. Treasury would be unable to borrow money to pay its bills. Although previous statutory increases have been routine, conservative members of the House refused to allow an increase without drastically reducing government spending. Over several weeks and months, negotiators from both parties, both houses, and the White House worked to forge a compromise. The compromise bill, the Budget Control Act of 2011, was enacted on August 2.

Major legislation

Enacted

Proposed

See also: Active Legislation, 112th Congress, via senate.gov

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate

112USSenateStructure.svg
Senate party standings (at the beginning of this Congress)
  51 Democrats
  2 Independents, both caucusing with Democrats
Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 56 2 42 100 0
Begin 51 2 47 100 0
May 3, 2011 46 99 1
May 9, 2011 47 100 0
December 17, 2012 50 99 1
December 26, 2012 51 100 0
January 1, 2013 46 99 1
January 2, 2013 47 100 0
Latest voting share 53% 47%
Beginning of the next Congress 53 2 45 100 0

House of Representatives

112USHouseStructure.svg
House party standings (at the beginning of this Congress)
  193 Democrats
  242 Republicans
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Republican
End of previous Congress 255 179 434 1
Begin 193 242 435 0
February 9, 2011 241 434 1
February 28, 2011 192 433 2
May 9, 2011 240 432 3
May 24, 2011 193 433 2
June 21, 2011 192 432 3
July 12, 2011 193 433 2
August 3, 2011 192 432 3
September 13, 2011 242 434 1
January 25, 2012 191 433 2
January 31, 2012 192 434 1
March 6, 2012 191 433 2
March 20, 2012 190 432 3
June 12, 2012 191 433 2
July 7, 2012 241 432 3
July 31, 2012 240 431 4
August 15, 2012 190 430 5
November 6, 2012 193 241 434 1
November 21, 2012 192 433 2
December 3, 2012 191 432 3
January 2, 2013 240 431 4
Latest voting share 44.3% 55.7%
Non-voting members 6 0 6 0
Beginning of next Congress 200 233 433 2

Leadership

[ Section contents: Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R)House: Majority (R), Minority (D) ]

Senate

Daniel Inouye Official Photo 2009.jpg
Daniel Inouye (D)
(until December 17, 2012)
Leahy2009.jpg
Patrick Leahy (D)
(from December 17, 2012)

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Members

For the first time in congressional history, over half its members were millionaires as of 2012; Democrats had a median net worth of $1.04 million, while the Republicans median was "almost exactly" $1.00 million.[22][23] In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 2012; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 2014; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 2016.

Senate

112th United States Congress Senators.svg
Party membership by state
  2 Democrats
  1 Democrat and 1 Republican
  2 Republicans
   1 Independent (caucuses with Democrats) and 1 Democrat
Harry Reid official portrait 2009 crop.jpg
Democratic Leader
Harry Reid
Richard Durbin official photo.jpg
Democratic Whip
Dick Durbin
Mitch McConnell official portrait 112th Congress.jpg
Republican Leader
Mitch McConnell
Jon Kyl, official 109th Congress photo.jpg
Republican Whip
Jon Kyl

House of Representatives

112th US Congress House of Reps.svg
Percentage of members from each party by state, ranging from dark blue (most Democratic) to dark red (most Republican).
112th US House.svg
Members' party membership by district.
  Democratic
  Republican
112th Congress Freshmen Class.jpg
Freshman class of the House of Representatives, January 2011
Eric Cantor, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Republican Leader
Eric Cantor
Kevin McCarthy2.jpg
Republican Whip
Kevin McCarthy
Speaker Nancy Pelosi.jpg
Democratic Leader
Nancy Pelosi
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip.jpg
Democratic Whip
Steny Hoyer

Changes in membership

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Nevada
(1)
John Ensign
(R)
Resigned May 3, 2011 due to an Ethics Committee investigation.[26]
A successor was appointed April 27, 2011 to serve the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
Dean Heller
(R)[27]
May 9, 2011[28]
Hawaii
(3)
Daniel Inouye
(D)
Died December 17, 2012 [29]
A successor was appointed December 26, 2012 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Brian Schatz
(D)
December 27, 2012
South Carolina
(3)
Jim DeMint
(R)
Resigned January 1, 2013, to run the Heritage Foundation[30]
A successor was appointed January 2, 2013 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Tim Scott
(R)
January 2, 2013[31]

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
New York 26th Christopher Lee
(R)
Resigned February 9, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[32]
A special election was held May 24, 2011.[33]
Kathy Hochul
(D)
June 1, 2011
California 36th Jane Harman
(D)
Resigned February 28, 2011 to become the head of the Woodrow Wilson Center.[34]
A special election was held July 12, 2011.[35]
Janice Hahn
(D)
July 19, 2011
Nevada 2nd Dean Heller
(R)
Resigned May 9, 2011, when appointed to the Senate.[27]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[36]
Mark Amodei
(R)
September 15, 2011
New York 9th Anthony Weiner
(D)
Resigned June 21, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[37]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[38]
Bob Turner
(R)
September 15, 2011
Oregon 1st David Wu
(D)
Resigned August 3, 2011, due to a personal scandal.
A special election was held January 31, 2012.[39]
Suzanne Bonamici
(D)
February 7, 2012
Arizona 8th Gabrielle Giffords
(D)
Resigned January 25, 2012, to focus on recovery from 2011 Tucson Shooting.[40]
A special election was held June 12, 2012.[41]
Ron Barber
(D)
June 19, 2012
New Jersey 10th Donald M. Payne
(D)
Died March 6, 2012.[42]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[43]
Donald Payne Jr.
(D)
November 15, 2012
Washington 1st Jay Inslee
(D)
Resigned March 20, 2012 to focus on gubernatorial campaign.[44]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[45]
Suzan DelBene
(D)
November 13, 2012
Michigan 11th Thaddeus McCotter
(R)
Resigned July 6, 2012 due to personal reasons.[46]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[47]
David Curson
(D)
November 13, 2012
Kentucky 4th Geoff Davis
(R)
Resigned July 31, 2012 due to personal reasons.[48]
A special election was held November 6, 2012[49]
Thomas Massie
(R)
November 13, 2012
California 18th Dennis Cardoza
(D)
Resigned August 15, 2012 due to personal reasons.[50] Vacant until the next Congress
Illinois 2nd Jesse Jackson Jr.
(D)
Resigned November 21, 2012, due to a personal scandal. Vacant until the next Congress
California 51st Bob Filner
(D)
Resigned December 3, 2012 to become Mayor of San Diego. Vacant until the next Congress
South Carolina 1st Tim Scott
(R)
Resigned January 2, 2013 when appointed to the US Senate.[24] Vacant until the next Congress

Committees

[ Section contents: Senate, House, Joint ]

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint appointments

Caucuses

  • Anti-Value Added Tax Caucus
  • Afterschool Caucus
  • Americans Aboard Caucus
  • Armenian Caucus
  • Army Corps Reform Caucus
  • Appalachian Caucus
  • Bipartisan Disabilities Caucus
  • Biomedical Research Caucus
  • Building a Better America Caucus
  • Coalition for Autism Research and Education
  • Congressional 4-H Caucus
  • Congressional Academic Medicine Caucus
  • Congressional Addiction, Treatment and Recovery Caucus
  • Congressional Adult Literacy Caucus
  • Congressional Afghan Caucus
  • Congressional Air Force Caucus
  • Congressional Anti-Terrorism Caucus
  • Congressional Arts Caucus
  • Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus
  • Congressional Assyrian Caucus
  • Congressional Automotive Caucus
  • Congressional Azerbaijan Caucus
  • Congressional Baby Caucus
  • Congressional Battlefield Caucus
  • Congressional Bicameral Arthritis Caucus
  • Congressional Bicameral High-Speed & Intercity Passenger Rail Caucus
  • Congressional Bike Caucus
  • Congressional Bipartisan Cerebral Palsy Caucus
  • Congressional Biomass Caucus
  • Congressional Biotechnology Caucus
  • Congressional Black Caucus
  • Congressional Boating Caucus
  • Congressional Border Caucus
  • Congressional Bourbon Caucus
  • Congressional Brazil Caucus
  • Congressional Career and Technical Education Caucus
  • Congressional Caucus on Armenian Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on Central America
  • Congressional Caucus for Competitiveness in Entertainment Technology
  • Congressional Caucus on CPAs and Accountants
  • Congressional Caucus on Effective Foreign Assistance
  • Congressional Caucus on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Congressional Caucus on Foster Youth
  • Congressional Caucus on Hellenic Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on India and Indian Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Intellectual Property Promotion and Piracy Prevention
  • Congressional Caucus on the Judicial Branch
  • Congressional Caucus on Korea
  • Congressional Caucus on Macedonia and Macedonian-Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases
  • Congressional Caucus on the Netherlands
  • Congressional Caucus on Prescription Drug Abuse
  • Congressional Caucus on Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Uganda
  • Congressional Caucus on U.S.-Lebanon Relations
  • Congressional Caucus on Women in the Military
  • Congressional Caucus on Youth Sports
  • Congressional Caucus to End Bullying
  • Congressional Caucus to Fight and Control Methamphetamine
  • Congressional Chesapeake Bay Watershed Caucus
  • Congressional Chicken Caucus
  • Congressional Childhood Cancer Caucus
  • Congressional Children's Caucus
  • Congressional China Caucus
  • Congressional Climate Caucus
  • Congressional Coal Caucus
  • Congressional Coast Guard Caucus
  • Congressional Coastal Caucus
  • Congressional Coastal Communities Caucus
  • Congressional Complementary and Alternative Medicine Caucus
  • Congressional Congenital Heart Caucus
  • Congressional Constitution Caucus
  • Congressional Correctional Officers Caucus
  • Congressional Cranberry Caucus
  • Congressional Croatian Caucus
  • Congressional Crohn’s & Colitis Caucus
  • Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus
  • Congressional Czech Caucus
  • Congressional Diabetes Caucus
  • Congressional Dietary Supplement Caucus
  • Congressional Directed Energy Caucus
  • Congressional Dyslexia Caucus
  • Congressional Electromagnetic Pulse Caucus
  • Congressional Emergency Medical Services Caucus
  • Congressional Energy Savings Performance Caucus
  • Congressional Entertainment Industries Caucus
  • Congressional Explosive Ordnance Disposal Caucus
  • Congressional E-911 Caucus
  • Congressional Farmer Cooperative Caucus
  • Congressional Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Congressional Fire Services Caucus
  • Congressional Fitness Caucus
  • Congressional Food Safety Caucus
  • Congressional Former Mayors Caucus
  • Congressional Fragile X Caucus
  • Congressional Fraternal Caucus
  • Congressional French Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of Ireland Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of Jordan Caucus
  • Congressional Global Health Caucus
  • Congressional Green Schools Caucus
  • Congressional Gulf of Mexico Caucus
  • Congressional Hearing Health Caucus
  • Congressional High Tech Caucus
  • Congressional Hispanic Caucus
  • Congressional HIV/AIDS Caucus
  • Congressional Home Health Caucus
  • Congressional Homelessness Caucus
  • Congressional Horse Caucus
  • Congressional House Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional HUBZone Caucus
  • Congressional Human Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Humanities Caucus
  • Congressional Immigration Reform Caucus
  • Congressional Insurance Caucus
  • Congressional Intelligent Transportation Systems Caucus
  • Congressional International Anti-Piracy Caucus
  • Congressional International Conservation Caucus
  • Congressional International Religious Freedom Caucus
  • Congressional Internet Caucus
  • Congressional Invisible Wounds Caucus
  • Congressional Iraqi Women's Caucus
  • Congressional Israel Allies Caucus
  • Congressional Joint Strike Fighter Caucus
  • Congressional Kidney Caucus
  • Congressional Labor and Working Families Caucus
  • Congressional Life Science Caucus
  • Congressional Lupus Caucus
  • Congressional Management Caucus
  • Congressional Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional Military Family Caucus
  • Congressional Media Fairness Caucus
  • Congressional Medical Professionals Caucus
  • Congressional Men's Health Caucus
  • Congressional Mental Health Caucus
  • Congressional Mentoring Caucus
  • Congressional Military Family Caucus
  • Congressional Mine Warfare Caucus
  • Congressional Mining Caucus
  • Congressional Mississippi River Caucus
  • Congressional Missing and Exploited Children's Caucus
  • Congressional Modeling and Simulation Caucus
  • Congressional Moldova Caucus
  • Congressional Motorsports Caucus
  • Congressional Multiple Sclerosis Caucus
  • Congressional Natural Gas Caucus
  • Congressional Native American Caucus
  • Congressional Nepal Caucus
  • Congressional Nursing Caucus
  • Congressional Olympic and Paralympic Caucus
  • Congressional Organic Caucus
  • Congressional Out of Poverty Caucus
  • Congressional Pakistan Caucus
  • Congressional Prayer Caucus
  • Congressional Pollinator Protection Caucus
  • Congressional Ports-to-Plains Caucus
  • Congressional Port Security Caucus
  • Congressional Progressive Caucus
  • Congressional Real Estate Caucus
  • Congressional Rock and Roll Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Housing Caucus
  • Congressional Savings and Ownership Caucus
  • Congressional Scouting Caucus
  • Congressional Second Amendment Caucus
  • Congressional Serbian Caucus
  • Congressional Shipbuilding Caucus
  • Congressional Singapore Caucus
  • Congressional Ski and Snowboard Caucus
  • Congressional Smart Contracting Caucus
  • Congressional Soccer Caucus
  • Congressional Social Work Caucus
  • Congressional Songwriters’ Caucus
  • Congressional Spina Bifida Caucus
  • Congressional Sportsmen's Caucus
  • Congressional Steel Caucus
  • Congressional Stop DUI Caucus
  • Congressional Submarine Caucus
  • Congressional Taiwan Caucus
  • Congressional Tibet Caucus
  • Congressional Travel & Tourism Caucus
  • Congressional TRIO Caucus
  • Congressional United Kingdom Caucus
  • Congressional Urban Caucus
  • Congressional Unmanned Systems Caucus
  • Congressional Victim's Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Vision Caucus
  • Congressional Waterways Caucus
  • Congressional Western Caucus
  • Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus
  • Congressional Wine Caucus
  • Congresswomen's Caucus
  • Congressional Zoo and Aquarium Caucus
  • Diversity and Innovation Caucus
  • Economic Competitiveness Caucus (House/Senate)
  • Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Friends of Job Corps Congressional Caucus
  • Friends of Scotland Caucus (House/Senate)
  • Friends of Norway Caucus
  • Friends of Switzerland Caucus
  • Future of American Media Caucus
  • GOP Doctors Caucus
  • Historic Preservation Caucus
  • Hong Kong Caucus
  • House Baltic Caucus
  • House Congressional Sovereignty Caucus
  • House Democratic Caucus
  • House Oceans Caucus
  • House Organic Caucus
  • House Recycling Caucus
  • House Rural Education Caucus
  • House Small Brewers Caucus
  • House Sugar Caucus
  • Hudson River Caucus
  • Hungarian American Caucus
  • Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus
  • German-American Caucus
  • Kenya Caucus
  • Latino-Jewish Congressional Caucus
  • Law Enforcement Caucus
  • LGBT Equality Caucus
  • Liberty Caucus
  • Multiple Sclerosis Caucus
  • National Guard and Reserve Components Caucus
  • National Landscape Conservation System Caucus
  • National Marine Sanctuary Caucus
  • National Service Congressional Caucus
  • Navy-Marine Corps Caucus
  • New Democrat Coalition
  • North America's Supercorridor Caucus
  • Northern Border Caucus
  • Northeast-Midwest Congressional Coalition
  • Nuclear Issues Caucus
  • Out of Iraq Caucus
  • Passenger Rail Caucus
  • Patriot Act Reform Caucus
  • Pell Grant Caucus
  • Physics Caucus
  • Populist Caucus
  • Ports Caucus
  • Public Broadcasting Caucus
  • Public Service Caucus
  • Qatari-American Economic Strategic Defense, Cultural and Educational Partnership Caucus
  • Rare Disease Caucus
  • Recording Arts and Sciences Congressional Caucus
  • Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucus
  • Research and Development Caucus
  • River of Trade Corridor Congressional Caucus
  • Sex and Violence in the Media Caucus
  • Silk Road Caucus
  • Special Operations Forces Caucus
  • State Maritime Academy Caucus
  • Sudan Caucus
  • Sustainable Energy and Environment Coalition
  • Tea Party Caucus
  • TEX-21 Congressional Caucus
  • Unexploded Ordnance Caucus
  • U.S.-Afghan Caucus
  • U.S.-Mongolia Friendship Caucus
  • U.S.-New Zealand Congressional Caucus
  • Victory in Iraq Caucus
  • Wounded to Work Congressional Caucus
  • Youth Challenge Caucus
  • Zero Capital Gains Tax Caucus

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Elections

Membership lists

References

  1. ^ Pub.L. 111–289
  2. ^ a b Senate Calendar for January 20, 2012.
  3. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (November 2, 2010). "G.O.P. Captures House, but Not Senate". New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  4. ^ Abramowitz, Alan (December 12, 2010). "Get ready for the most conservative Congress ever". Salon.com. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  5. ^ "The Polarization of the Congressional Parties". January 30, 2016.
  6. ^ Yadron, Danny (January 6, 2011). "House Reads Constitution, Gets Civics Lesson". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  7. ^ "Odyssey Dawn: Phase One Of Libya Military Intervention". The Epoch Times. March 19, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2015.
  8. ^ "US troops complete their withdrawal from Iraq". Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
  9. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (January 24, 2013). "Senator Unveils Bill to Limit Semiautomatic Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  10. ^ Rowley, James (April 7, 2011). "U.S. Government Shutdown Threatens 800,000 People As Obama Seeks Solution". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  11. ^ "US budget talks remain deadlocked". Al Jazeera. April 8, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  12. ^ a b Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Faler, Brian (April 9, 2011). "Wrangle Over U.S. Budget Compromise Defines Next Two Years' Fiscal Debate". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  13. ^ "Pres. Obama and Congressional Leaders Reach Budget Deal". CSPAN. April 8, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  14. ^ Dodge, Catherine; Goldman, Julianna (April 8, 2011). "Long Government Shutdown Would Harm U.S. Economy, Hit Washington Hardest". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  15. ^ "Editorial: Government shutdown survival guide". The Washington Times. April 7, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  16. ^ Goldman, Julianna (April 7, 2011). "Boehner Gets Paid While Soldiers Wait When Congress Shuts Down Government". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Members of Congress 'shouldn’t be getting paid, just like federal employees shouldn't be getting paid' during a shutdown, Boehner said today on ABC’s 'Good Morning America'
  17. ^ "U.S. Senate, Democratic Committees". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  18. ^ "U.S. Senate Conference Secretaries". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  19. ^ a b c "U.S. Senate, Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee". Retrieved August 10, 2011.
  20. ^ Office of the Speaker of the House (December 2, 2010). "Pelosi Announces Steering and Policy Committee Members". PR Newswire. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
  21. ^ "Congressman Capuano's Update". FN Online. February 3, 2011. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  22. ^ "Millionaires' Club: For First Time, Most Lawmakers are Worth $1 Million-Plus". OpenSecrets Blog. The Center for Responsive Politics. January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
  23. ^ "Half of US Congressional politicians are millionaires". BBC News. January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
  24. ^ a b 2012 Congressional Record, Vol. 158, Page H7467 (December 30, 2012)
  25. ^ Access Denied. NationalJournal.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  26. ^ "Nevada Sen. John Ensign announces resignation". Politico. April 21, 2011.
  27. ^ a b Murray, Mark (April 27, 2011). "Sandoval appoints Heller to fill Ensign seat". NBC News.
  28. ^ Heller in transition: One foot in House, one foot in Senate | Las Vegas Review-Journal. Lvrj.com (May 3, 2011). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  29. ^ "Sen. Daniel Inouye dies of respiratory complications". MSN News. Associated Press. December 17, 2012.
  30. ^ "South Carolina Republican US Sen. Jim DeMint resigning to take over at Heritage Foundation". The Washington Post. December 6, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
  31. ^ Scott's appointment took effect January 2, 2013, upon his resignation from the House of Representatives; he took the oath of office on January 3, 2013.[1]
  32. ^ "Lee Resigns After Photos Surface". Political Wire. February 9, 2011.
  33. ^ "Governor Cuomo Signs Bill to Ensure Military Voters are Treated Fairly in Special Elections, Calls Special Election in 26th Congressional District". Governor of New York's Press Office. March 9, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
  34. ^ Allen, Mike; Cohen, Richard E. (February 7, 2011). "Rep. Jane Harman to resign from House". Politico.com. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
  35. ^ "Governor Brown Issues Proclamation Declaring Special Election for 36th Congressional District". Governor of California Press Release. March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  36. ^ "Sandoval Sets Fall Special to Fill Heller's Seat". Roll Call. April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  37. ^ Camia, Catalina (June 20, 2011). "Anthony Weiner Officially Steps Down Tuesday". USA Today. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  38. ^ "Governor Cuomo Sets Special Elections for September 13 to Coincide with Statewide Primary Day". Governor of New York's Press Office. July 1, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  39. ^ Freking, Kevin (August 4, 2011). "Wu notifies governor, speaker of resignation". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
  40. ^ "Giffords resigns House seat to focus on recovery". Associated Press. January 25, 2012.
  41. ^ Nowicki, Dan (January 27, 2012). "Brewer sets Giffords seat election dates". AZCentral.com. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
  42. ^ "U.S. Representative Donald Payne dead at 77". New Jersey Real. March 6, 2012.
  43. ^ Livingston, Abby (March 30, 2012). "New Jersey: Special Election Dates For Payne Seat Set". Roll Call. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  44. ^ "Inslee resigning House seat for governor's race". Politico.com. March 10, 2012.
  45. ^ Cornfield, Jerry (March 29, 2012). "Gregoire: Election in works to replace Inslee". HeraldNet. The Daily Herald. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  46. ^ "Rep. Thaddeus McCotter resigns from Congress". Abcnews.com. July 6, 2012.
  47. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (July 10, 2012). "Michigan: Governor Calls Special Election for Thaddeus McCotter Seat". Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  48. ^ "Statement from congressman geoff davis". July 31, 2012.
  49. ^ Associated Press (August 17, 2012). "Beshear calls special election to replace Davis".
  50. ^ Doyle, Michael (August 14, 2012). "Capitol Alert: Rep. Dennis Cardoza announces resignation". Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  51. ^ S.Res. 5, 112th Congress
  52. ^ a b c d H.Res. 1, Electing officers of the House of Representatives, 112th Congress
  53. ^ "VIDEO: Speaker Boehner Swears In Father Patrick J. Conroy as House Chaplain". May 25, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  54. ^ Matthew A. Wasniewski (Matt) - Congressional Staffer Salary Data. Legistorm.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  55. ^ Sergeant at Arms-United States House of Representatives
  56. ^ See: Rules of the House: "Other officers and officials"

Further reading

External links

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