111th United States Congress

Last updated on 1 November 2017

The One Hundred Eleventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government from January 3, 2009, until January 3, 2011. It began during the last two weeks of the George W. Bush administration, with the remainder spanning the first two years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The apportionment of seats in the House was based on the 2000 U.S. Census. In the November 4, 2008, elections, the Democratic Party increased its majorities in both chambers, giving President Obama a Democratic majority in the legislature for the first two years of his presidency. A new delegate seat was created for the Northern Mariana Islands.[5] The 111th Congress had the most experienced members in history: at the start of the 111th Congress, the average member of the House had served 10.3 years, while the average Senator had served 13.4 years.[6] This Congress has been considered one of the most productive Congresses in history in terms of legislation passed since the 89th Congress, during Lyndon Johnson's Great Society.[7][8][9][10]

111th United States Congress
110th ←
→ 112th
Capitol Building Full View.jpg
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2011
Senate President Dick Cheney (R),
until January 20, 2009
Joe Biden (D),
from January 20, 2009
Senate Pres. pro tem Robert Byrd (D),
until June 28, 2010
Daniel Inouye (D)
from June 28, 2010[1]
House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D)
Members 100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Democratic
House Majority Democratic
Sessions
1st: January 6, 2009 – December 24, 2009[2]
2nd: January 5, 2010[3] – December 22, 2010[4]
President Obama Swearing-In Ceremony.jpg
Inauguration of Barack Obama at the U.S. Capitol, January 20, 2009.
Barack Obama signs Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 1-29-09.jpg
President Obama signing the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 into law, January 29, 2009.
Sonia Sotomayor on first day of confirmation hearings.jpg
Sonia Sotomayor testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee on her appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court, July 13, 2009.
Joint blog close PS-0774.jpg
President Obama addressing Congress regarding health care reform, September 9, 2009.
9.12 tea party in DC.jpg
Tea Party protests in front of the U.S. Capitol, September 12, 2009.
2010 State of the Union.jpg
President Obama delivering the 2010 State of the Union Address, January 25, 2010.
Obama signing health care-20100323.jpg
President Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law, March 23, 2010.
Kagan is sworn before Senate Judiciary Committee.jpg
Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy swearing in Elena Kagan during her first day of testimony on her appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court, June 28, 2010
Eric Cantor and Barack Obama shake hands.jpg
Congressional leaders meeting with President Obama, November 30, 2010.
Obama signs Zadroga Act.jpg
President Obama signing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 into law, January 2, 2011.

Major events

Major legislation

Enacted

Health care reform

At the encouragement of the Obama administration, Congress devoted significant time considering health care reform. In March 2010, Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law, the first comprehensive health care reform legislation in decades that created the first National health insurance program, along with further amendments in the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. Other major reform proposals during the health care debate included:

Proposed

(in alphabetical order)
See also: Active Legislation, 111th Congress, via senate.gov

Vetoed

Treaties ratified

Major nomination hearings

Impeachments

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate

111th US Senate class photo.jpg
The United States Senate (in 2010)
111senate-20100720.svg
Party standings in the Senate for most of this Congress
  57 Democrats
  2 Independents, caucusing with Democrats
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic Independent
(caucusing with
Democrats)
Republican Vacant
End of previous Congress 48 2 49 99 1
Begin 55 2 41 98 2
January 15, 2009 56 99 1
January 20, 2009 55 98 2
January 26, 2009 56 99 1
April 30, 2009 57 40
July 7, 2009 58 100 0
August 25, 2009 57 99 1
September 9, 2009 39 98 2
September 10, 2009 40 99 1
September 25, 2009 58 100 0
February 4, 2010 57 41
June 28, 2010 56 99 1
July 16, 2010 57 100 0
November 29, 2010 56 42
Final voting share 58% 42%
Beginning of the next Congress 51 2 47 100 0

House of Representatives

US House apportionment (20090626).png
Final party distribution in the House of Representatives
  Democratic Party: 255 members.
  Republican Party: 179 members.
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic Republican Vacant
End of previous Congress 235 198 433 2
Begin 256 178 434 1
January 26, 2009 255 433 2
February 24, 2009 254 432 3
March 31, 2009 255 433 2
April 7, 2009 256 434 1
June 26, 2009 255 433 2
July 14, 2009 256 434 1
September 21, 2009 177 433 2
November 3, 2009 258 435 0
December 22, 2009 257 178
January 3, 2010 256 434 1
February 8, 2010 255 433 2
February 28, 2010 254 432 3
March 8, 2010 253 431 4
March 21, 2010 177 430 5
April 13, 2010 254 431 4
May 18, 2010 255 432 3
May 21, 2010 176 431 4
May 22, 2010 177 432 3
June 8, 2010 178 433 2
November 2, 2010 180 435 0
November 29, 2010 179 434 1
Final voting share 58.8% 41.2%
Non-voting members 6 0 6 0
Beginning of next Congress 193 242 435 0

Leadership

[ Section contents: Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R)House: Majority (D), Minority (R) ]

Senate

46 Dick Cheney 3x4.jpg
Dick Cheney (R)
(until January 20, 2009)
Joe Biden official portrait crop.jpg
Joe Biden (D)
(from January 20, 2009)
Robert Byrd official portrait.jpg
Robert Byrd (D)
(until June 28, 2010)
Daniel Inouye, official Senate photo portrait, 2008.jpg
Daniel Inouye (D)
(from June 28, 2010)

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Members

Senate

In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 2010; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 2012; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 2014.

111th US Congress Senate.svg
Senators' party membership by state for most of 2010
  2 Democrats
  1 Democrat and 1 Republican
  2 Republicans
   1 Independent and 1 Democrat
Harry Reid official portrait 2009 crop.jpg
Democratic Leader
Harry Reid
Richard Durbin official photo.jpg
Democratic Whip
Dick Durbin
Sen Mitch McConnell official cropped.jpg
Republican Leader
Mitch McConnell
Jon Kyl, official 109th Congress photo.jpg
Republican Whip
Jon Kyl

House of Representatives

111th US Congress House of Reps.svg
Percentage of members from each party by state, at the opening of the 111th Congress in January 2009, ranging from dark blue (most Democratic) to dark red (most Republican).
111thHOUSE.svg
Members' party membership by district, as of May 25, 2010
  Democratic
  Republican
Steny Hoyer, official photo portrait, 2008.jpg
Democratic Leader
Steny Hoyer
James Clyburn, official Congressional Majority Whip photo.jpg
Democratic Whip
Jim Clyburn
John Boehner official portrait.jpg
Republican Leader
John Boehner
Eric Cantor headshot.JPG
Republican Whip
Eric Cantor

Changes in membership

Senate

Senator Byrd funeral service.jpg
Funeral service for Senator Robert Byrd, who died June 28, 2010. He was the longest-serving senator and the longest-serving member in the history of Congress.[39][40]

Four of the changes are associated with the 2008 presidential election and appointments to the Obama Administration, one senator changed parties, one election was disputed, two senators died, one senator resigned, and three appointed senators served only until special elections were held during this Congress.

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Minnesota
(2)
Disputed Incumbent Norm Coleman (R) challenged the election of Al Franken (D). The results were disputed, and the seat remained vacant at the beginning of the Congress. Following recounts and litigation, Coleman conceded, and Franken was seated. Al Franken
(D)
July 7, 2009[41]
Illinois
(3)
Vacant Barack Obama (D) resigned near the end of the previous Congress, after being elected President of the United States.[42] His successor was appointed December 31, 2008, during the last Congress, but due to a credentials challenge, his credentials were not deemed "in order" until January 12, and he was not sworn in to fill his seat until 12 days after the initiation of this Congress.[43] The appointed successor filled the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010. Roland Burris[44]
(D)
January 12, 2009[43]
Delaware
(2)
Joe Biden
(D)
Resigned January 15, 2009, to assume the position of Vice President.[45]
The appointed successor held the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010.
Ted Kaufman[46]
(D)
January 16, 2009[47]
Colorado
(3)
Ken Salazar
(D)
Resigned January 20, 2009, to become Secretary of the Interior.
The appointed successor held the seat for the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
Michael Bennet[48]
(D)
January 21, 2009[49]
New York
(1)
Hillary Clinton
(D)
Resigned January 21, 2009, to become Secretary of State.
The appointed successor held the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010.
Kirsten Gillibrand[50]
(D)
January 26, 2009
Pennsylvania
(3)
Arlen Specter
(R)
Changed party affiliation April 30, 2009.[32] Arlen Specter
(D)
April 30, 2009
Massachusetts
(1)
Ted Kennedy
(D)
Died August 25, 2009.
The appointed successor held the seat until the elected successor took the seat.[51][52][53]
Paul G. Kirk
(D)
September 25, 2009
Florida
(3)
Mel Martinez
(R)
Resigned September 9, 2009, for personal reasons.[54]
The appointed successor held the seat for the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
George LeMieux
(R)
September 10, 2009[55][56]
Massachusetts
(1)
Paul G. Kirk
(D)
Appointment expired February 4, 2010, following a special election.[57]
The winner of the election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ended January 3, 2013.
Scott Brown
(R)[58]
February 4, 2010
West Virginia
(1)
Robert Byrd
(D)
Died June 28, 2010.[59]
The appointed successor held the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010.[60]
Carte Goodwin
(D)[33]
July 16, 2010[61]
Delaware
(2)
Ted Kaufman
(D)
Appointed January 15, 2009. The appointment lasted only until the November 2, 2010 special election, in which he was not a candidate.[62]
The winner of the special election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ended January 3, 2015.
Chris Coons
(D)
November 15, 2010[63][64]
West Virginia
(1)
Carte Goodwin
(D)
Appointed July 16, 2010. The appointment lasted only until the November 2, 2010 special election, in which he was not a candidate.
The winner of the special election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ended January 3, 2013.
Joe Manchin
(D)
November 15, 2010[63][64]
Illinois
(3)
Roland Burris
(D)
Appointed January 12, 2009. The appointment lasted only until the November 2, 2010 special election, in which he was not a candidate.
The winner of the special election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ended with this Congress.
Mark Kirk
(R)
November 29, 2010[63][64]

House of Representatives

Five changes are associated with appointments to the Obama Administration, four directly and one indirectly. Two representatives changed parties, one died, and five resigned. House vacancies are only filled by elections. State laws regulate when (and if) there will be special elections.

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Illinois 5th Vacant Rahm Emanuel (D) resigned near the end of the previous Congress after being named White House Chief of Staff.
A special election was held April 7, 2009
Michael Quigley
(D)
April 7, 2009
New York 20th Kirsten Gillibrand
(D)
Resigned January 26, 2009, when appointed to the Senate, replacing Hillary Clinton who became Secretary of State.
A special election was held March 31, 2009.
Scott Murphy
(D)
March 31, 2009
Northern Mariana Islands At-large Gregorio Sablan
(I)
Changed party affiliation February 23, 2009.[37]
Previously an Independent who caucused with Democrats in House
Gregorio Sablan
(D)
February 23, 2009
California 32nd Hilda Solis
(D)
Resigned February 24, 2009, to become Secretary of Labor.
A special election was held July 14, 2009.
Judy Chu
(D)
July 14, 2009
California 10th Ellen Tauscher
(D)
Resigned June 26, 2009, to become Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security.
A special election was held November 3, 2009.
John Garamendi
(D)[65]
November 3, 2009[66]
New York 23rd John M. McHugh
(R)
Resigned September 21, 2009, to become Secretary of the Army.[67]
A special election was held November 3, 2009.
Bill Owens
(D)[68]
November 3, 2009
Alabama 5th Parker Griffith
(D)
Changed party affiliation December 22, 2009.[69] Parker Griffith
(R)
December 22, 2009
Florida 19th Robert Wexler
(D)
Resigned January 3, 2010, to become president of the Center for Middle East Peace & Economic Cooperation.[70]
A special election was held April 13, 2010.
Ted Deutch (D) April 13, 2010
Pennsylvania 12th John Murtha
(D)
Died February 8, 2010.
A special election was held May 18, 2010.
Mark Critz (D) May 18, 2010
Hawaii 1st Neil Abercrombie
(D)
Resigned February 28, 2010,[71] to focus on run for Governor of Hawaii.
A special election was held May 22, 2010.
Charles Djou (R) May 22, 2010
New York 29th Eric Massa
(D)
Resigned March 8, 2010,[72] due to a recurrence of his cancer, as well as an ethics investigation.
A special election was held contemporaneously with the November 2, 2010 general election.
Tom Reed (R) November 2, 2010[64][73]
Georgia 9th Nathan Deal
(R)
Resigned March 21, 2010, to focus on run for Governor of Georgia.
A special election runoff was held June 8, 2010.
Tom Graves (R) June 8, 2010
Indiana 3rd Mark Souder
(R)
Resigned May 21, 2010, after an affair with a staff member was revealed.[74]
A special election was held contemporaneously with the November 2, 2010 general election.[75]
Marlin Stutzman (R) November 2, 2010[64]
Illinois 10th Mark Kirk
(R)
Resigned November 29, 2010, after being elected to the United States Senate in a special election Vacant until the next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

  • Anti-Value Added Tax Caucus
  • Afterschool Caucus
  • Americans Aboard Caucus
  • Armenian Caucus
  • Army Corps Reform Caucus
  • Appalachian Caucus
  • Bipartisan Disabilities Caucus
  • Biomedical Research Caucus
  • Building a Better America Caucus
  • Coalition for Autism Research and Education
  • Congressional 4-H Caucus
  • Congressional Academic Medicine Caucus
  • Congressional Addiction, Treatment and Recovery Caucus
  • Congressional Adult Literacy Caucus
  • Congressional Afghan Caucus
  • Congressional Air Force Caucus
  • Congressional Anti-Terrorism Caucus
  • Congressional Arts Caucus
  • Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus
  • Congressional Assyrian Caucus
  • Congressional Automotive Caucus
  • Congressional Azerbaijan Caucus
  • Congressional Battlefield Caucus
  • Congressional Bike Caucus
  • Congressional Bipartisan Cerebral Palsy Caucus
  • Congressional Biotechnology Caucus
  • Congressional Black Caucus
  • Congressional Boating Caucus
  • Congressional Border Caucus
  • Congressional Bourbon Caucus
  • Congressional Brazil Caucus
  • Congressional Career and Technical Education Caucus
  • Congressional Caucus on Armenian Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on Central America
  • Congressional Caucus on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Congressional Caucus on Foster Youth
  • Congressional Caucus on Hellenic Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on India and Indian Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Intellectual Property Promotion and Piracy Prevention
  • Congressional Caucus on the Judicial Branch
  • Congressional Caucus on Korea
  • Congressional Caucus on the Netherlands
  • Congressional Caucus on Prescription Drug Abuse
  • Congressional Caucus on Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Uganda
  • Congressional Caucus on U.S.-Lebanon Relations
  • Congressional Caucus on Youth Sports
  • Congressional Caucus to Fight and Control Methamphetamine
  • Congressional Childhood Cancer Caucus
  • Congressional Children's Caucus
  • Congressional China Caucus
  • Congressional Climate Caucus
  • Congressional Coastal Caucus
  • Congressional Coast Guard Caucus
  • Congressional Complementary and Alternative Medicine Caucus
  • Congressional Constitution Caucus
  • Congressional Correctional Officers Caucus
  • Congressional Croatian Caucus
  • Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus
  • Congressional Czech Caucus
  • Congressional Diabetes Caucus
  • Congressional Dietary Supplement Caucus
  • Congressional Directed Energy Caucus
  • Congressional Emergency Medical Services Caucus
  • Congressional Energy Savings Performance Caucus
  • Congressional Ethiopian-American Caucus
  • Congressional E-911 Caucus
  • Congressional Farmer Cooperative Caucus
  • Congressional Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of Ireland Caucus
  • Congressional Fire Services Caucus
  • Congressional Fitness Caucus
  • Congressional Food Safety Caucus
  • Congressional Former Mayors Caucus
  • Congressional Fragile X Caucus
  • Congressional French Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of Jordan Caucus
  • Congressional Global Health Caucus
  • Congressional Green Schools Caucus
  • Congressional Gulf of Mexico Caucus
  • Congressional Hearing Health Caucus
  • Congressional High Tech Caucus
  • Congressional Hispanic Caucus
  • Congressional Home Health Caucus
  • Congressional Homelessness Caucus
  • Congressional Horse Caucus
  • Congressional House Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional HUBZone Caucus
  • Congressional Human Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Humanities Caucus
  • Congressional Immigration Reform Caucus
  • Congressional Insurance Caucus
  • Congressional Intelligent Transportation Systems Caucus
  • Congressional International Anti-Piracy Caucus
  • Congressional International Conservation Caucus
  • Congressional International Religious Freedom Caucus
  • Congressional Internet Caucus
  • Congressional Invisible Wounds Caucus
  • Congressional Iraqi Women's Caucus
  • Congressional Israel Allies Caucus
  • Congressional Kidney Caucus
  • Congressional Labor and Working Families Caucus
  • Congressional Life Science Caucus
  • Congressional Management Caucus
  • Congressional Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional Media Fairness Caucus
  • Congressional Medical Professionals Caucus
  • Congressional Men's Health Caucus
  • Congressional Mental Health Caucus
  • Congressional Mentoring Caucus
  • Congressional Military Family Caucus
  • Congressional Mine Warfare Caucus
  • Congressional Mining Caucus
  • Congressional Missing and Exploited Children's Caucus
  • Congressional Mississippi River Caucus
  • Congressional Modeling and Simulation Caucus
  • Congressional Motorsports Caucus
  • Congressional Multiple Sclerosis Caucus
  • Congressional Natural Gas Caucus
  • Congressional Neuroscience Caucus
  • Congressional Native American Caucus
  • Congressional Nursing Caucus
  • Congressional Olympic and Paralympic Caucus
  • Congressional Organic Caucus
  • Congressional Out of Poverty Caucus
  • Congressional Pakistan Caucus
  • Congressional Pediatric & Adult Hydrocephalus Caucus
  • Congressional Pollinator Protection Caucus
  • Congressional Port Security Caucus
  • Congressional Portuguese-American Caucus
  • Congressional Prayer Caucus
  • Congressional Progressive Caucus
  • Congressional Real Estate Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Housing Caucus
  • Congressional Savings and Ownership Caucus
  • Congressional Scouting Caucus
  • Congressional Second Amendment Caucus
  • Congressional Serbian Caucus
  • Congressional Shipbuilding Caucus
  • Congressional Singapore Caucus
  • Congressional Ski and Snowboard Caucus
  • Congressional Smart Contracting Caucus
  • Congressional Soccer Caucus
  • Congressional Social Work Caucus
  • Congressional Songwriters Caucus
  • Congressional Spina Bifida Caucus
  • Congressional Sportsmen's Caucus
  • Congressional Steel Caucus
  • Congressional Stop DUI Caucus
  • Congressional Submarine Caucus
  • Congressional Taiwan Caucus
  • Congressional Tibet Caucus
  • Congressional Travel & Tourism Caucus
  • Congressional TRIO Caucus
  • Congressional United Kingdom Caucus
  • Congressional Unmanned Systems Caucus
  • Congressional Urban Caucus
  • Congressional Victim's Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Vision Caucus
  • Congressional Waterways Caucus
  • Congressional Western Caucus
  • Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus
  • Congressional Wine Caucus
  • Congresswomen's Caucus
  • Congressional Zoo and Aquarium Caucus
  • Diversity and Innovation Caucus
  • Economic Competitiveness Caucus (House/Senate)
  • Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Friends of Job Corps Congressional Caucus
  • Friends of Scotland Caucus (House/Senate)
  • Friends of Norway Caucus
  • Friends of Switzerland Caucus
  • Future of American Media Caucus
  • German-American Caucus
  • GOP Doctors Caucus
  • Historic Preservation Caucus
  • Hong Kong Caucus
  • House Baltic Caucus
  • House Congressional Sovereignty Caucus
  • House Democratic Caucus
  • House Oceans Caucus
  • House Organic Caucus
  • House Recycling Caucus
  • House Rural Education Caucus
  • House Small Brewers Caucus
  • House Sugar Caucus
  • Hudson River Caucus
  • Hungarian American Caucus
  • Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus
  • India Caucus
  • Indonesia Caucus
  • International Conservation Caucus
  • International Workers Rights Caucus
  • Interstate 69 Caucus
  • Intelligent Transportation Caucus
  • Kenya Caucus
  • Law Enforcement Caucus
  • LGBT Equality Caucus
  • Liberty Caucus
  • Multiple Sclerosis Caucus
  • National Guard and Reserve Components Caucus
  • National Landscape Conservation System Caucus
  • National Marine Sanctuary Caucus
  • National Service Congressional Caucus
  • Navy-Marine Corps Caucus
  • New Democrat Coalition
  • North America's Supercorridor Caucus
  • Northern Border Caucus
  • Northeast-Midwest Congressional Coalition
  • Nuclear Issues Caucus
  • Out of Iraq Caucus
  • Passenger Rail Caucus
  • Patriot Act Reform Caucus
  • Pell Grant Caucus
  • Physics Caucus
  • Populist Caucus
  • Ports Caucus
  • Public Broadcasting Caucus
  • Public Service Caucus
  • Qatari-American Economic Strategic Defense, Cultural and Educational Partnership Caucus
  • Rare Disease Caucus
  • Recording Arts and Sciences Congressional Caucus
  • Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucus
  • Research and Development Caucus
  • River of Trade Corridor Congressional Caucus
  • Sex and Violence in the Media Caucus
  • Silk Road Caucus
  • Special Operations Forces Caucus
  • State Maritime Academy Caucus
  • Sudan Caucus
  • Sustainable Energy and Environment Coalition
  • Tea Party Caucus
  • TEX-21 Congressional Caucus
  • Unexploded Ordnance Caucus
  • U.S.-Afghan Caucus
  • U.S.-Mongolia Friendship Caucus
  • U.S.-New Zealand Congressional Caucus
  • Victory in Iraq Caucus
  • Youth Challenge Caucus
  • Zero Capital Gains Tax Caucus

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Membership lists

References

  1. ^ a b Hulse, Carl (June 28, 2010). "Inouye Sworn In as President Pro Tem". New York Times.
  2. ^ H.Con.Res. 223
  3. ^ Pub.L. 111–121
  4. ^ H.Con.Res. 336
  5. ^ Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Pub.L. 110–229
  6. ^ Glassman, Matthew Eric; Wilhelm, Amber Hope. "Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2015" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 28, 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  7. ^ CARL HULSE and DAVID M. HERSZENHORN (December 20, 2010). "111th Congress - One for the History Books". New York Times.
  8. ^ David A. Fahrenthold, Philip Rucker and Felicia Sonmez (December 23, 2010). "Stormy 111th Congress was still the most productive in decades". Washington Post.
  9. ^ Lisa Lerer & Laura Litvan (December 22, 2010). "No Congress Since '60s Makes as Much Law as 111th Affecting Most Americans". Bloomberg News.
  10. ^ Guy Raz (December 26, 2010). "This Congress Did A Lot, But What's Next?". NPR.
  11. ^ "Certificate of Election" (PDF). Office of the Minnesota Governor, via StarTribune.com. June 30, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 21, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
  12. ^ "Franken's Win Bolsters Democratic Grip in Senate - NYTimes.com". mobile.nytimes.com. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
  13. ^ See Pub.L. 110–430. Section 1 sets the beginning of the first session of the 111th Congress. Section 2 sets the date for counting Electoral College votes.
  14. ^ Kenneth Vogel. "Specter's first party switch". Politico.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  15. ^ Rothenberg, Stuart (November 28, 2012). "Supermajority Within Reach for Senate Democrats". Roll Call. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
  16. ^ Staff reporter (June 19, 2009). "House impeaches Texas judge". AP. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2012. (Archived by WebCite at )
  17. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page H7064 (June 19, 2009)
  18. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (June 30, 2009). "White House accepts convicted judge's resignation". AP. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  19. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page S7055 (June 25, 2009)
  20. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (July 22, 2009). "Congress ends jailed judge's impeachment". AP. Archived from the original on September 27, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2012. (Archived by WebCite at )
  21. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page S7833 (July 22, 2009)
  22. ^ Alpert, Bruce (March 10, 2010). "Judge Thomas Porteous impeached by U.S. House of Representatives". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  23. ^ 2010 Congressional Record, Vol. 156, Page H1335 (March 11, 2010)
  24. ^ Alpert, Bruce; Jonathan Tilove (December 8, 2010). "Senate votes to remove Judge Thomas Porteous from office". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  25. ^ 2010 Congressional Record, Vol. 156, Page S8609 (December 8, 2010)
  26. ^ The Democratic Senate Majority Leader also serves as the Chairman of the Democratic Conference.
  27. ^ a b "Thune Elected Republican Policy Committee Chairman". Office of U.S. Senator John Thune. June 25, 2009. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
  28. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (September 18, 2010). "Lisa Murkowski quits GOP leadership".
  29. ^ "Murkowski Keeps Panel Job; Barrasso Elected Vice Chairman". Roll Call. September 22, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
  30. ^ Burris was appointed on December 31, 2008, during the 110th United States Congress. However, he was not allowed to take the oath until January 15, 2009, due to the controversy surrounding Gov. Rod Blagojevich, who appointed him.
  31. ^ Al Franken was elected to the term beginning January 3, 2009, but did not take office until July 7, 2009, due to a recount and subsequent election challenge.
  32. ^ a b Arlen Specter announced his switch from the Republican to the Democratic party on April 28, and it officially took effect on April 30. "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress".
  33. ^ a b "Carte Goodwin to succeed Senator Byrd - for now". Christian Science Monitor. July 16, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
  34. ^ "Officials: House Democrat will switch to GOP". December 22, 2009.
  35. ^ "Wexler Begins New Job With Washington Think Tank". WBPF.com. January 4, 2010.
  36. ^ "Congressman John Murtha Passes Away at Age 77". Honorable John Murtha Congressional Website. February 8, 2010. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010.
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  38. ^ Access Denied. NationalJournal.com. Retrieved on August 12, 2013.
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