Ubisi

Ubisi into esamanzi akhiqizwa ngama-mammary glands atholakala ezilwaneni ezingama-mammals. Lokhu kuwukudla kokuqala kwezilwanyana nezingane ngaphambi kokwazi ukudla okunye ukudla. Ubusi lokuqala olubizwa ngokuthi yi-lactation luqukethe i-colustrum, elihambisa ama-antibodies kamama aye enganeni futhi lokhu kungehlisa ubungozi bezifo eziningi enganeni.

Milk glass
Ubisi
Ikhasi Elikhulu

Usizo Ngokubhala

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Inkomazi

INkomazi uhlobo lwenkomo yesifazane. Inkomazi iphinde ibizwe ngeNsengwakazi, ngoba yiyo esengwa ubisi.

Isifo sohudo

Uhudo or ukukhishwa yisisu yisimo sokukaka into ethambile noma engamanzi okungenani izikhathi ezintathu ukunyakaza kwesisu ngosuku. Kujwayele ukuthi kube yizinsukwana ezimbalwa kanti futhi kungaholela ekuphelelweni amanzi emzimbeni ngenxa yokulahlekelwa amanzi amaningi. Izimpawu zokuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni zijwayele ukuqala ngokuphelelwa ukunwebeka okujwayelekile kwesikhumba kanye nokushintsha kwendlela umuntu ayiyo. Lokhu kungaqhubeka kunciphise ukuchama, ukulahlekelwa umbala wesikhumba, ukushaya kwenhliziyo ngamandla, kanye ukwehla kwezinga lokuphendula ngenkathi kuya kulokhu kukuqinisa.Amakaka athambile kodwa angemanzi ebantwaneni abancela ubisi lwebele, kungenzeka, kube yinto ejwayelekile.Imbangela ejwayelekile kuvamise ukuba ukutheleleka ngesifo samathumbu kungaba ngenxa yegciwane, ibhaktheriya, isilwanyana esiphila ngokudla igazi, noma isimo esaziwa gastroenteritis.Lokhu kutheleleka ngezifo kuvamise ukutholakala ekudleni noma emanzini angcoliswe amakaka, noma komunye umuntu naye othelelekile. Kungahlukaniswa kube yizinhlobo ezintathu: uhudo olungamanzi lwesikhathi esifishane, uhudo olunegazi lwesikhathi esifishane, kanti uma kuqhubeka kuze kuphele amasonto angaphezulu kwamabili, kubizwa ngohudo olubeleselayo. Uhudo olungamanzi lwesikhathi esifishane lungaba yimbangela yokuthelelwa ikholera. Uma kunegazi kuphinde kwaziwe ngokuthi dysentery. Zikhona nezinye izinto eziningi ezingabanga uhudo kodwa ezingathelelani ngezifo ezifana: hyperthyroidism, okungezwani ne-esidi, isifo sokuvuvukala kwamathumbu, imithi eminingi, kanye nesifo samathumbu angakwazi ukubekezelela okuthile phakathi kokunye. Ezikhathini eziningi izintwana ezihlala emakakeni azidingeki ukuze kutholakale ukuthi yizo yini imbangela.Indlela esingavikela ngayo ukutheleleka ngohudo kungaba ukwenza ngcono ukuthuthwa kwendle, ukuphuza amanzi ahlanzekile, kanye nokuwasha izandla.Ukuncelisa ubisi lwebele okungenani izinyanga eziyisithupha zokuqala kuyanconywa ngoba kuwumgomo wokugomela igciwane le-rotavirus. ingxube eyisisombululo sokoma ephuzwa ngomlomo (i-ORS), okungamanzi ahlanzekile anosawoti ongemningi kanye noshukela, yikona kwelapha ongakukhetha.amaphilisi e-zinc nawo ayanconywa.Lokhu kwelapha kulinganiselwa ekusindiseni izingane eziyizigidi ezingama-50 eminyakeni engama-25 eyedlule. Uma abantu benesifo sohudo kuyanconywa ukuthi baqhubeke nokudla ukudla okunempilo kanti nabantwana baqhubeke nokunceliswa ubisi lwebele. Uma ingxube yokuphuza eyi-ORS edayisayo ingekho, ungasebenzisa ozenzele yona ekhaya.Kulabo asebephelelwe amanzi kakhulu emzimbeni, kungase kudingeke ukuthi bafakelwe amanzi ngemithambo yegazi okwaziwa, intravenous fluids. Isikhathi esiningi; kodwa, kungalungiseka nangokuphuza izinto eziluketshezi ngomlomo. Okulwa namagciwanes, noma kungajwayele ukusetshenziswa, kunganconywa kulabo abanohudo olunegazi kanye nokushisa kakhulu komzimba, labo abakhishwa isisu kakhulu emva kohambo ngemotoukukhishwa yisisu emva kohambo ngemoto, kanye nalabo abamilwa yibhakutheriya ethile noma izilwanyana eziphila ngegazi emakakeni abo. I-loperamide ingasiza ukunciphisa izikhathi zokunyakaza kwesisu kodwa akunconywa kulabo abanesifo esinamandla.Balinganiselwa ezigidini eziyi-1.7 kuya kwezi-5 abantu ababa nesifo sohudo ngonyaka. Kujwayeleke kakhulu emazweni asathuthuka, lapho izingane ezincane ziba nesifo sohudo okungenani kathathu onyakeni. Emhlabeni jikelele, ngonyaka wezi-2012, yikho okuyimbangela ejwayelekile yokushona ezinganeni ezingaphansi kweminyaka emihlanu yobudala (isigidi esiyi-0.76 noma 11%). Iziqubu ezijwayelekile zohudo zivamise ukubangelwa ukungondleki kanti futhi yikho okuyimbangela kulabo abancane abangaphansi kweminyaka emihlanu yobudala. Ezinye izinkinga zesikhathi eside zingaba imiphumela yokungakhuli kahle komzimba nengqondo.

Ukungondleki

Ukungondleki noma Ukungabi namsoco isimo esidalwa ukudla okungenazo izakhimzimba ezanele noma okunezakhamzimba eziningi zize zibange izifo. Izakhamzimba ezibalwayo zingabandakanya: amakhalori, amaprotheni, isitashi, amavithamini noma amaminerali. Kuvamise ukusetshenziselwa ukubiza ukudla okungenazo izakhamzimba ezanele uma amakhalori, iphrotheni noma izakhamzimba ezincane ezibalulekile engenele; kodwa, kuphinde kubandakanye ukudla okunezakhamzimba eziningi ngokweqile.Uma ukushoda kwezakhamzimba kwenzeka ngesikhathi ukhulelwe noma ngaphambi kweminyaka emibili yobudala kungase kudale izinkinga zesikhathi eside ekukhuleni ngokomzimba nangokwengqondo. Ukungabi nawo kakhulu umsoco, okwaziwa ngendlala, kungaba nezimpawu ezibandakanya: ukuba mfishane, umzimba owondile, amazinga aphansi kakhulu omdlandla, kanye nokuvuvukala kwemilenze kanye nesisu.Abantu futhi bavamise ukuthola izifo kanti futhi bajwayele ukugodola. Izimpawu zokungabi nazo izakhamzimba ezincane ezibalulekile kuya ngokuthi yisiphi isakhamzimba esishodayo.Ukungabi nawo umsoco imvamisa kudalwa ukungatholi ukudla okusezingeni eliphezulu esingakudla. Lokhu kuvamise ukudalwa amanani aphezulu okudla kanye nenhlupheko. Uma ungazange uncelise ubisi lwebele kungase kube nomthelela, ngoba eziningi zezifo ezithelelanayo ezifana: ne-gastroenteritis (ukuvuvukala kwesisu namathumbu), inyumoniya, umalaleveva kanye nesimungumungwana okukwenyusa isidingo somsoco wezakhamzimba. Kukhona izinhlobo ezimbili zokungabi namsoco: ukungabi namsoco wephrotheni yamandla kanye nokungabi namsoco ekudleni esikudlayo. Ukungabi namsoco wephrotheni yamandla kunezindlela ezimbili ezimbi kakhulu: i-marasmus (ukuntuleka kwephrotheni nekhalori) kanye nekhwashu (ukuntuleka kwephrotheni). Ukungabi khona komsoco okujwayelekile kubandakanya: ukuntuleka i-ayoni, i-ayodini kanye vithamini A. Ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, ngenxa yokunyuka kwesidingo salezi zakhamzimba, ukushoda kwazo kuba yinto ejwayelekile. Kwamanye amazwe asathuthuka ukuba nomsoco ongaphezulu kodingekayo ngokuba yisidudla sekuthanda ukujwayeleka emphakathini njengokungabi namsoco. Ezinye izimbangela zokungondleki zibandakanya i-anorexia nervosa (ukonda ngokweqile) kanye ne-bariatric surgery. Kubantu abadala ukungondleki kuba yimvamisa ngenxa yezinto ezithinta umzimba, ingqondo kanye nenhlalakahle.Imizamo yokwenza ngcono izakhamzimba yizona zindlela ezisebenzayo zokusiza ukukhula. Ukuncelisa ubisi lwebele nakho kunganciphisa ukungondleki kanye nokushona ebantwaneni, kanti nemizamo yokukhuthaza ukwenziwa kwalokhu iyawenyusa amazinga. Ezinganeni ezincane ukuzinika ukudla phezu kobisi lwebele uma sebephakathi kwezinyanga eziyisithupha kuya eminyakeni emibili kuyenza ngcono imiphumela. Kukhona nobufakazi obuhle obeseka ukusebenzisa izinsiza zokudla ezitholakala emsocweni odingekayo ngesikhathi ukhulelwe nasezinganeni ezincane ezweni elithuthukayo. Ukuyisa ukudla kubantu abakudinga kakhulu okungaba ukuhambisa ukudla kanye nokuhambisa imali ukuze abantu bezothenga ukudla ezitolo eziseduze nabo nakho kuyasebenza. Ukunika abantu ukudla esikoleni kuphela akwenele. Ukulawulwa kokungondleki okukhulu ekhaya lalowo muntu ukudla okwelaphayo osekulungele ukudliwa kungenzeka isikhathi esiningi. Kulabo abangondlekile okwenziwa nzima ezinye izimo zezempilo kunconywa ukuthi balashelwe esibhedlela. Lokhu kuvamise ukubandakanya ukulawula ukwehla kwezinga likashukela egazini, izinga lokushisa emzimbeni, ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni, kanye nokudla kancane kancane. Kunconywa ukuphuzwa kwama-antibiotic ngenxa yezinga eliphezulu lobungozi besifo. Izindlela zesikhathi eside zibandakanya: ukuthuthukisa ezolimo, ukuze kuzoncipha inhlupheko, kuthuthukiswe ukuthuthwa kwendle, kanye ukuhlonyiswa kwabesifazane.Ngonyaka wezi-2010 abantu ababengondlekile babeyizigidi ezingama-925 emhlabeni, okwakunyuke ngezigidi ezingama-80 kusukela ngonyaka we-1990. Esinye isigidigidi sabantu naso silinganiselwa ukuthi sintula amavithamini kanye nezakhamzimba. Ngonyaka wezi-2010 ukushoda komsoco wephrotheni yamandla kuthiwa yaholela ekushoneni kwabantu abangama- 600,000 okwehla kusuka kwabangama- 883,000 ngonyaka we-1990. Okunye ukuntuleka kwezakhamzimba, okubandakanya ukushoda kwe-ayodini kanye nokushoda kwe-ayoni, nakho kwabanga ukushona kwabantu abangama-84,000. Ukungondleki ngonyaka wezi-2010 kwaba ngu-1.4% wembangela yabo bonke ababa nokukhubazeka ezimpilweni zabo. Kukholakala ukuthi kulinganiselwa kokuthathu kokuyishumi kuyimbangela yokushona kwezingane ngenxa yokungondleki; kodwa-ke, akuvamisile ukuthi kushiwo lokhu njengesizathu sokushona kwengane. Ngonyaka wezi-2010 kuthiwa ukungondleki kwaba nomthelela ekushoneni kwabesifazane nezingane eziyisigidi esi-1.5 yize noma isilinganiso sesibalo singaba ngaphezulu kwezigidi ezi-3 . Ezinye izingane ezingaphezulu kwezigidi eziyi-165 ukukhula okufanele kulesi sifo. Ukungondleki kuvamisile emazweni asathuthuka.

Ngezilimi ezinahlukene

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