Incwadi

Incwadi kuyinto efundwayo. Ziningi izincwadi emhlabeni, futhi incwadi ibhaliwa ngumuntu ngakho ke uma umuntu eloba ngaphakathi kwebhu lelo bhuku libizwa ngokuthi yincwadi. Zikhona izincwadi ezingabhalwanga lutho ezimele umuntu ukuthi azibhale. Incwadi noma izincwadi zibaluleke kakhulu kubantu ngoba yizona eziletha imfundiso kithina, imfundiso yamandulo leyo abantu abaningi abayikhohliwe. Izincwadi zisebenza njengendawo yokulondoloza imiqondo kanye namacebo wabantu. Lokhu kungasetshenziswa emva kweminyaka.

Izincwadi ziqukethwe umlandu wabantu, imfundiso, amakhono kanye nokunye okuningi. Thina singabantu ngeke sikwazi ukugcina konke esikwaziyo ezinqondweni ngoba sizokukhohlwa. Izinkondlo zika Zulu zigcinwa ngaphakathi kwezincwadi.

Abalwi Nkululeko Yezomnotho v Somlomo woMkhandlu Kazwelonke

Abalwi Nkululeko Yezomnotho v uSomlomo woMkhandlu Kazwelonke kanye nabanye; IDemocratic Alliance v LikaSomlomo weSigungu Sikazwelonke kanye Abanye [2016] ZACC 11 isahlulelo ezinkulu Inkantolo Yomthethosisekelo waseNingazimu Afika lapho ithola ukuthi uMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika Jacob Zuma engalandeli soMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika ngokwehluleka ukusebenzisa izincomo uMvikeli woMphakathi ka- eNkandla bika.

Benedict Wallet Vilakazi

UDokotela Benedict Wallet Vilakazi (6 ngoMasingana 1906 – 26 ngoMfumfu 1947 ) wabe engumbhali ovelele wenzincwadi, izinkondlo, izichazimazwi kanye namanoveli olimi lwesiZulu. Ngonyaka we-1946 waba nguwokuqala webala elinzundu eNingizimu Afrika ukwethweswa iziqu zobuDokotela (Ph.D.). Kepha nakuba iningi limazi ngemisebenzi yakhe elotshiweyo, bambalwa abazi ngempilo yalo leli qhawe.

DBZ Ntuli

Deuteronomy Bhekinkosi Zeblon Ntuli (08 kuNhlaba we-1940) owaziwa ngoD.B.Z Ntuli okuyisifinyezo samagama akhe womathathu kanye nesibongo sakhe. UNtuli ungumbhali wamanoveli, izincwadi kanye nezindaba ezimfushane waseNingizimu Afrika ubhala ngolimi lwesiZulu. UNtuli ungomunsye wababhali abanegalelo elikhulu ukuthuthukisweni ukufundwa kanye nokuhlewa kolumi lwesiZulu. Uphinde ahumushe izinwcwadi ezibhalwe ngolimi lwesiNgisi azihumushele esiZulwini, incwadi egqamile ayihumusha ile kaNelson Mandela, esihloko sithi Uhambo Olude Oluya eNkululekweni (Long Walk to Freedom). UNtuli ungomunye wabasunguli benhlangano yebabhali eyaziwa ngokuhti Usiba.

Deepin

Deepin (ngaphambilini Hiweed Linux noma Hiwix) iyinhlangano ukusatshalaliswa Linux Chinese for computer ngokusekelwe Debian (engazinzile). Ukusatshalaliswa ekuqaleni ngokusekelwe Morphix, kodwa kamuva, ngo- 2005, kwaba kabusha lebhalwako lephatselene Debian ke, ngo- 2010, ngo- Ubuntu kanye kamuva, ngo-2015, ngo- Debian (engazinzile). deepin yasungulwa kakhulu Deepin Wuhan Technology Co., Ltd. futhi ukusetshenziswa, ngokuzenzakalelayo, imvelo desktop Deepin Desktop Environment (DDE), olwakhiwa usebenzisa ubuchwepheshe HTML5; uhlelo kuhlanganisa nezinye izicelo kuhlanganise DMusic, Deepin Movie, Deepin Store, CrossOver emulator kanye office suite nokuphathelene WPS Office. Kuze kube okufushane 2014.3 deepin the office suite nokuphathelene WPS Office owawenza kuphela emakethe Chinese kanye nazo zonke ezinye izinguqulo base ifakwe LibreOffice.

Edwin Cameron

U-Edwin Cameron (wazalwa ngo-15 kuFebhuwari 1953 ePitoli ) wayengumahluleli (iJaji) eNkantolo yoMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika . Waziwa kakhulu ngezimalungelo abantu abane-HIV/ AIDS kanye nokuba yisishoshovu maqondana namalungelo alabo abathandana ngobulili obufanayo (gay rights) wanconywa nguNelson Mandela ngokuthi "njengomunye wamaqhawe amasha" aseNingizimu Afrika.

I

I incwadi futhi nenombolo 9 I-alfabhethi.

Isifo segciwane le-Ebola

Isifo segciwane le-Ebola (EVD) or Imfiva Ye-Ebola eyophisayo (EHF) yisifo esihlasela abantu ngegciwane le-Ebola. Igciwane le-Ebola. Izimpawu zaso zijwayele ukuqala ezinsukwini ezimbili kuya emavikini amathathu emva kokuthintana negciwane, kanye nemfiva, umphimbo obuhlungu, ubuhlungu bemisipha, kanye nekhanda elibuhlungu. Ngokujwayelekile isicanucanu, ukubuyisa kanye nokukhishwa yisisu kuyalandela, kanjalo nokwehla kwamandla okusebenza kwesibindi kanye nezinso. Lapho-ke, abanye abantu baye baqalwe yizinkinga zokopha.Igciwane lingatholakala ngokuthinta igazi noma uketshezi lwasemzimbeni lesilwane esithelelekile (ngokujwayelekile izinkawu noma amalulwane ezithelo). Ukusabalala ngomoya akukaqoshwa kwezemvelo. Amalulwane ezithelo kukholakala ukuthi athwala aphinde asabalalise igciwane ngaphandle kokutheleleka. Uma abantu sebethelelekile, isifo sithathelana phakathi kwabantu ngokunjalo. Abesilisa abasindile basengadlulisa isifo nge sidoda isikhathi esingaba yizinyanga ezimbili. Ukuze kwenziwe ukuxilonga okuyikho, kuye kudingeke ukuba kuqinisekiswe ukuthi izifo ezinezimpawu ezifanayo njengo malaleveva, ikholera kanye nezinye izifo zegciwane lemfiva eyophisayo azikho. Ukuqinisekisa ukuxilongwa okushaya khona amasampula egazi ahlolelwa igciwane, kuhlolwe izivikelamzimba, igciwane le-RNA, noma igciwane uqobo lwalo.Izindlela zokuvikela zibandakanya ukunciphisa ukusabalala kwesifo kusuka ezinkawini ezithelelekile kanye nezingulube kuya ebantwini. Lokhu kungenziwa ngokuhlola ukuthi izilwane ezinjengalezi azithelelekile yini zibulawe bese izidumbu zazo zingcwatshwe ngendlela uma isifo sitholakele. Ukupheka inyama ngendlela efanele kanye nokugqoka izimpahla zokuvikela lapho kuphathwa inyama nakho kungasiza. kanjalo nokugqoka izimpahla zokuvikela kanye nokugeza izandla lapho useduze nomuntu onaso isifo. Amasampula oketshezi lwasemzimbeni kanye nezicubu ezinesifo kufanele kuphathwe ngokuqikelela okukhulu.Alikho ikhambi eliqondene nokwelapha lesi sifo; imizamo yokusiza abantu abathelelekile ibandakanya ingabe ukwelashwa ngokubuyiselwa amanzi emzimbeni ngokomlomo (amanzi okuphuza anoshukela nosawoti) noma uketshezi olufakwa ngamapayipi. Isifo lesi sibulala izindimbane zabantu: siye sibulale ama-50% kanye nama-90% alabo abasuke sebethelelekile ngegciwane laso. I-EVD yaqala ukubonakala e- Sudan kanye nase-Democratic Republic of Congo. Isifo sivame ukuba sivumbuke ezindaweni ezingakwi-equator lwe-Sub-Saharan Africa.Kusukela ngowe-1976 (lapho yabonakala khona okokuqala) kuze kube ngowezi-2013, yingcosana engaphansi kwe-1,000 yabantu abatheleleke ngonyaka. Isiga esikhulukazi sokuqubuka kwalesi sifo yilesi esiqhubekayo Ukuqubuka kwe-Ebola eNtshonalanga Afrika ngowezi-2014, nokuthinta i-Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia kanye-ke ne-Nigeria. Kusukela ngo-August 2014 bangaphezu kwezi-1600 abantu abatholakale nalesi sifo. Imizamo yokuthola ikhambi isaqhubeka; kodwa-ke okwamanje, alikatholakali.

Isihlanzandaba

Isihlanzandaba noma isikhahlamezi Umshini ocishe ufane nocingo olushaywayo kodwa lona luyaloba incwadi ewumbiko. Lokho okubhaliweyo kuyincwadi kuphuma ngale okuya kuye noma ukuthunyelwa kuye kuyincwadi ebhaliwe. Isihlanzandaba sehlukile ocingweni noma ithegramu (telegram) ngoba kusona udaba afufingqwa.

Izonto ezinye

Umakhale khukwini ( Cell Phone )

Umakhale Khukwini : usuyindlela yesimanje elula yokuxhumana nabangani,abazali,noma izihlobo ezikude

Kunenani elandaya labantu abasebenzisa omakhale khukwini emhlabeni wonke

Isikhahlamezi ( Fax ) Lena ingenye yezindlela zokuthumela incwadi noma kuphi emhlabeni ngaphandle kokusebenzisa isitempu seposi , kuningi okungathunyelwa nge sikhahlamezi amaphepha, izithombe,kuhlanganise nama fayili

Khenani Makhoba

Dkt Khenani Lloyd Makhoba (* Ntulikazi 1954-† Nhlaba 2019) ngungoti wesiZulu owabe engumlobi wezincwadi zolimu lwesiZulu futhi wayephinde aba ngumfundisi eNyuvesi yakwaZulu ekhempasini yasoNgoye, efundisa isiZulu emkhakheni weziLimi namaSiko ase-Afrika (African Languages and Culture. UMakhoba ungomunye wabantu ababa negalelo elikhulu ekuthuthukiseni ulimi lwesiZulu. Ngaphandle kokufundisa isiZulu Ongoye wabuye wabhala incwadi esihloko sithi: Amancoko Okuqala lapho ebhala khona ngamahlaya esiZulu angahumusheki kahle uma eyiswa olimini lwesiZulu .

Maurice Sendak

Maurice Bernard Sendak (ukuphimisa /ˈsɛndæk/; 10 ngoNhlangulana 1928 – 8 ngoNhlaba 2012) umdwebi nomlobi wezincwadi zezingane weMelika. Uyaziwa ngencwadi Where the Wild Things Are, first ubebhala ngo-1963. Sendak ubezalwa eBrooklyn, ngabazali amaPholisi uSadie (née Schindler) noPhilip Sendak, umsiki. Ubethanda izincwadi nefilimu Fantasia ngaWalt Disney. Sendak ubegqamile ngoba ubaloba nobedweba incwadi Where the Wild Things Are.

Mbuyisa Makhubo

UMbuyisa Makhubu (owazalwa ngo-1957 noma ngo-1958) ungumfana wesikole waseNingizimu Afrika oneminyaka engu-18 ubudala obhekene necala lokuthwala uHector Pieterson esithombeni esidumile esithathwe nguSam Nzima emuva kokudutshulwa ngesikhathi sokuvukela iSoweto ngo-1976. Siyakwamukela kwi workshop yoku-editha yabothisha, sicela ulungise amaphutha kuleWikipedia. Ngemva kokukhishwa kwesithombe, wahlukunyezwa yizinsizakalo zokuphepha, futhi waphoqeleka ukuba abalekele eNingizimu Afrika . Umama wakhe, uNombulelo Makhubu, utshele iKhomishana yeQiniso neConciliation ukuthi wathola incwadi evela eNigeria ngo-1978, kodwa wayengazizwa kuye kusukela ngaleso sikhathi. Ushonile ngo-2004, kubonakala sengathi wayengazi ukuthi kwenzekani endodaneni yakhe. UMbuyisa ungomunye wabashisekeli baseNingizimu Afrika unikezele isiphephelo eNigeria ngokushesha ngemuva kwesigameko saseSoweto. Wayengomunye wabathathu abahlezi esikoleni esiphakeme sokugibela eNingizimu-eNigeria eNigeria - Ikhomishana Kahulumeni Kahulumeni, iWarri ngonyaka wezemfundo ka-1976/77. Kodwa bonke behluleka ukuxazululwa, futhi baqhubekile phakathi nonyaka. Ngo-2013, kwavela ukuthi indoda, uVictor Vinnetou, uboshiwe eCanada iminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye emacala okuthutha abantu baseMakhubu. Izivivinyo ze-Genetic zenziwa ukuze zithole ukuthi lo muntu unguMbuyisa Makhubo ngempela. Kamuva kwabikwa ukuthi izivivinyo ze-DNA azizange ziqinisekise ukuthi lo muntu uthi unguMakhubu, ukudumazeka komndeni kaMakhubu, nakuba ukuhlolwa kwe-DNA kubikwa ukuthi kwenzeke kulungu lomndeni ngaphandle kobudlelwano begazi kubo bobabili abazali.

Morris Isaacson High School

UMorris Isaacson High School yisikole samabanga aphansi e- Soweto . Eyasungulwa ngo-1956, lesi sikole sathatha indima ebalulekile ekuqaleni kokuvukela kweSoweto ngo-1976.

Naledi High School

I-Naledi High School yisikole samabanga aphansi sikahulumeni ku-892 Nape Street eSoweto . Isikole sithatha indima ebalulekile ekuqaleni kokuvukela kweSoweto ngo-1976.

Qedani Mahlangu

UQedani Dorothy Mahlangu (wazalwa ngomhla ka 12 Meyi ngo 1968, eBethal, eMpumalanga) wayenguMEC wezeMpilo neNthuthuko yabantu eGauteng wesula esikhundleni ngemuva kokuba kukhishwe umbiko, ukhishwa ngu-ombudsman wezempilo, ngesimo sokushona kweziguli ezingu 94 ezazigula ngengqondo kanti lo mbiko wabuye waziwa njengamanyala ezempilo esidimeni waziwa ngokuthi yi-The Life Healthcare Esidimeni Scandal. Ube sezikhundleni ezehlkene kuhulumeni wase-Gauteng ukusukela ngo 2004, ezibandakanya ukba nguMEC wezeMpilo, kanti waqokwa kulesi sikhundla phakathi kweminyaka ka 2009 - 2010 kanti futhi wabuyela kulesi sikhundla ngonyaka ka 2014 ukuya kunyaka ka 2017.Ngisho noma esule esikhundleni sokuba yiLungu Lesigungu esiphethe (Member of Executive Committee) kanye neLUngu leSishayamthetho seProvinsi, uMahlangu uselokhu eyilunga lesiGungu esiphethe se-ANC eGauteng.

Rolfes Robert Reginald Dhlomo

URolfes Robert Reginald Dhlomo (1906 – 1971) wayengumlobi waseNingizimu Afrika, intatheli, nosomlando ozalwa eSiyamu, Edendale esifundazweni saKwaZulu . Incwadi yakhe An African Tragedy, eyashicilelwa ngowe-1928, yayiwumsebenzi wokuqala wokuqamba olotshwe ngowomdabu waseNingizimu Afrika ukuba uvele njengencwadi. Kanye nomfowabo uHerbert , wasebenzela njengentatheli nomhleli amaphephandaba i-Bantu World neLanga laseNatali. Wabhala amanoveli akhe alandelayo ngesiZulu.

Wabhala izincwadi ezinhlanu zomlando mayelana namakhosi akwaZulu, zasetshenziswa kakhulu njengemithombo yezomlando waseNingizimu Afrika kubafundi besikole ngesikhathi sobandlululo, kuze kube manje.

i-Selected Short Stories yakhe yashicilelwa kuqala ngowe-1975 yi-Institute for the Study of English in Africa. Ushicilelo olwalubuyekezwa lwashicilelwa eNingizimu Afrika yileyiya-Institute for the Study of English in Africa, e-Rhodes University, ngowe-1996 ISBN 0-86810-307-1

UNelson Mandela

Bona elinye ikhasi: Nelson MandelaUNelson Rolihlahla Mandela (/mænˈdɛlə/; wazalwa ngomhla ka 18 Julayi 1918 – washona ngomhla ka 5 Disemba 2013) wayengumlweli wenkululeko eNingizimu Afrika, owayelwa nembuso wobandlululo,usopolitiki, kanye nosiza abantu ngesihle ngezimali, owaba nguMongameli weNingizimu Afrika ukusukela ngo 1994 ukuya ku 1999. Waba nguMongameli wokuqala omnyama osebenza kuhulumeni, kanti futhi owayekhethwe kukhetho lokuqala lwenqubo yedimokhrasi. Uhulumeni wakhe wagxila kakhulu ekuqedeni izinsalela zenqubo yombuso wobandlululo ngokususa izikhungo zobandlululo ngokwebala ezazenziwe ngokomthetho wobandlululo lwebala kanti futhi egxila nasekubangeni umoya wokubuyisana phakathi kwezinhlanga zabamhlophe nabamnyama. Wasebenza kwezepolitiki njengomuntu omnyama womdabu onguMongameli weqembu le-African National Congress (ANC), ukusukekela ngo-1991 ukuya ku-1997.

NjengomXhosa owazalelwa emndenini wobukhosi wabaThembu, uMandela wafunda eyunivesithi yase-Fort hare kanye nase-yunivesithi yase-Witwatersrand, lapho afunda khona ngomthetho. Wayehlala eJohannesburg, kanti futhi wajoyina umzabalazo wezepolitiki wokulwa nenqubo yobukoloni, wajoyina iANC nokuba ngomunye wabaqala uphiko lwezentsha lwe-Youth League. Ngemuva kokuba umbuso wedlanzane lamabhunu weqembu le-National Party uqinise inqubo yombuso wobandlululo ngokwebala, owawusebenzela ukusiza abamhlophe kuphela, waqokwa ukuba nguMongameli wegatsha le-ANC leTransvali, waba nodumu nokwaziwa kakhulu ngesikhathi somkhankaso wokucikela phansi imithetho yobandlululo, umkhankaso owawaziwa ngokuthi yi-Defiance Campaign wango 1952, kanti waqokwa ukuba ngonsumpa kwinhlangano egatsheni leTransvaal, futhi nguye owaba ngumqhubi kwingqungquthela enkulu ngo-1955 eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Congress of the People. Ngesikhathi esebenza njengommeli noma igqwetha, waboshwa kaningi-ningi, eboshelwa ukucikela phansi imithetho yobandlululo, kanti yena nabanye abaholi be-ANC, baquliswa icala lokufuna ukuwisa umbuso wobandlululo ecaleni lodumu elaziwa ngokuthi yi-Treason Trial, elaqulwa ukusuka ngo-1956 ukuya ku 1961. Ngokugqugquzelwa yinqubo ye-Marxism, wajoyina iqembu lamabomvu le-South African Communist Party (SACP). Ngisho noma ekuqaleni wayezimisele ukuqhuba umzabalazo wokulwa nokubhikisha ngoxolo, yena ngokusebenzisana nabe-SACP basungula Umkhonto weSizwe ngo-1961, lapho khona abaqala umkhankaso wokucikela phansi izakhiwo zikahulumeni, umkhankaso owaziwa ngokuthi yi-sabotage campaign. Ngonyaka ka 1962, waboshwa waquliswa icala nokutholakala enecala lenguyazana yokuketula umbuso, kanti wagwetshwa isigwebo sokuhlala ejele impilo yakhe yonke, ecaleni eladuma kakhulu nokwaziwa njenge-Rivonia Trial.

UMandela wahlala ejele iminyaka engu 27, waqala wahlala esiqiwini se-Robben Island, kanti kamuva wadluliselwa ejele lase-Pollsmoor, nasejele lase-Victor Verster Prison. Ngenxa yengcindezi yemizabalazo yamazwe omhlaba, kanye nokwesabela impi yobuhlanga phakathi kwabamhlophe nabamnyama, uMongameli uF.W de Klerk wakhulula uMandela ngo-1990. UMandela no-De Klerk bangenela izingxoxo zokuqeda umbuso wobandlululo kwase kugqugquzelwa ukhetho lwazo zonke izinhlangano ngo-1994, lapho khona uMandela ahola khona i-ANC ukunqoba okhethweni kanti waba nguMongameli. Emuva kwalokhu waqhuba uhulumeni kazwelonke wobunye (Government of National Unity), owahlahla uMthethosisekelo omusha, uMandela wagxila kakhulu kwinqubo yomoya wokubuyisana kwezinhlanga zabamhlophe nabamnyama ezweni, kanti futhi lokhu kwaholela ekusungulweni kweKhomishana Yamaqiniso nokuBuyisana eyayaziwa ngelokuthi yi-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ukuphenya ngokucikelwa phansi kwamalungelo obuntu ngesikhathi esedlule. Ngisho noma uhulumeni kaMandela waqhubeka nenqubo yohulumeni wesikhathi esedlule inqubo ye-liberalism kwezomnotho, uhulumeni wakhe, wasungula izindlela zokukhuthaza izinguquko kwezomhlaba, ukulwa nenhlupheko, kanye nokunabisa amasevisi onakekelo lwezempilo. Emkhakheni wamazwe omhlaba, wasebenza njengomlamuli kwicala lokubhonywa kweNdiza ye-Pan Am Flight 103, kanti futhi waba nguNobhala-Jikelele wenhlangano ye-Non-Aligned Movement ukusukela ngo-1998 kuya ku 1999. Kwisihlandla sesibili sombuso wazikhulula ukuba nguMongameli, isikhundla sobungameli sathathwa yisekela lakhe uThabo Mbeki. UMandela njengomhlonipheki ezweni, noma engeseyena uMongameli, waqhubeka nemisebenzi yokusebenzela isizwe ngesihle, esebenza kumkhankaso wokulwa ne-HIV/AIDS esebenza ngaphansi kwehlangano yakhe ayisungula ye-Nelson Mandela Foundation.

UMandela wayengumuntu abantu abangomqondi uhlangothi aye kulo empilweni yakhe yonke. Abamsolayo ngasohlangothini lwesokudla noma ontamolukhuni babemgxeka bethi uyikhomanisi, kanti labo abangasohlangothini lwesinxele abazishoshovu zomzabalazo babemgxeka ngokuthi ongumuntu ofuna ukusheshe axoxisane nokuxolela abasekeli bombuso wobandlululo. Kodwa waba ngumuntu ohlonishwa kakhulu kumazwe omhlaba ngentshiseko yakhe emzabalazweni nasekubangeni uxolo, wathola izindlondlo zokuhlonishwa ezingu 250, ezibandakanya i-Nobel Peace Prize, kanye nendlondlo yePresidential Medal of Freedom yaseMelika, kanye nendlondlo ye-Lenin Peace Prize yaseSoviet. Uhlonishwa kakhulu eNingizimu Afrika, lapho abizwa khona ngesithakazelo sakhe sesiXhosa sikaMadiba, noma uTata ("Ubaba"), kanti futhi uchazwa njengo"Baba Wesizwe".

UQedani Mahlangu

UQedani Dorothy Mahlangu (wazalwa ngomhla ka 12 Meyi ngo 1968, eBethal, eMpumalanga) wayenguMEC wezeMpilo neNthuthuko yabantu eGauteng wesula esikhundleni ngemuva kokuba kukhishwe umbiko, ukhishwa ngu-ombudsman wezempilo, ngesimo sokushona kweziguli ezingu 94 ezazigula ngengqondo kanti lo mbiko wabuye waziwa njengamanyala ezempilo esidimeni waziwa ngokuthi yi-The Life Healthcare Esidimeni Scandal. Ube sezikhundleni ezehlkene kuhulumeni wase-Gauteng ukusukela ngo 2004, ezibandakanya ukba nguMEC wezeMpilo, kanti waqokwa kulesi sikhundla phakathi kweminyaka ka 2009 - 2010 kanti futhi wabuyela kulesi sikhundla ngonyaka ka 2014 ukuya kunyaka ka 2017.Ngisho noma esule esikhundleni sokuba yiLungu Lesigungu esiphethe (Member of Executive Committee) kanye neLUngu leSishayamthetho seProvinsi, uMahlangu uselokhu eyilunga lesiGungu esiphethe se-ANC eGauteng.

William Blum

UWilliam Henry Blum (/blʌm/; wazalwa ngomhlaka 6 ku Mashi, 1933 washona ngomhlaka 9 – Disemba 9, 2018) ubengumbhali wezincwadi, usomlandu, kanye nomgxeki wenqubo yomgomo wase-United States foreign policy. Ubehlala eWashington, DC.

Ngezilimi ezinahlukene

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.