阿爾卡索瓦什和約

阿爾卡索瓦什和約(也称为阿爾卡索瓦什-托雷多和約)在1479年9月4日由卡斯提尔阿拉贡天主教君主和葡萄牙阿方索五世和他的儿子约翰王子簽訂。它结束西班牙王位繼承戰爭,以天主教君主在陆地上的胜利和葡萄牙在海上的胜利結束。[1][2]阿爾卡索瓦什和約的四个和平条约反映出:伊莎贝拉被认为是卡斯提尔的女王而葡萄牙达在大西洋霸權

该条约旨在规范:

  • 阿方索五世和天主教君主分別放棄卡斯蒂利亚的王位和葡萄牙的王位
  • 大西洋和海外领土的區分
  • 特拉斯塔玛拉的胡安娜
  • 天主教雙王的長女伊莎貝拉和約翰王子的嗣子阿方索的婚約,又被稱為Tercerias de Moura,且天主教雙王要以嫁妝作為戰爭賠款。[3]
  • 赦免的卡斯蒂利亚的胡安娜支持者

西班牙王位继承战争

Ferdinand of Aragon, Isabella of Castile
费迪南和伊莎贝拉

财产

Domafonsov
葡萄牙的阿方索五世

这个条约,由教皇詔書Aeterni regis在1481年批准,基本上给葡萄牙自由继续探索非洲海岸,同时保证卡斯提尔在加那利的主权。它还禁止卡斯蒂利亞的帆船無照航入葡萄牙的航線。此条约建立了西班牙和葡萄牙球在大西洋的控制,在一段时间造成开放的敌意,但也为未来奠定了基础和冲突。

长期的影响

此条约意味着,一旦卡斯蒂利亞統一了格拉纳达,而不是事实上的控制,伊莎贝拉和费迪南德能有几个方向可以扩展。因此获得了加那利群岛,但失去到摩洛哥的機倉,他们因而招聘克里斯托弗·哥伦布向西远航,並发现的财富多於几内亚十倍的財富。此条约成为托德西利亚斯条约(及其修正案),以及1884年柏林会议的前身。

参看

引用

  1. ^ Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius “In a war in which the Castilians were victorious on land and the Portuguese at sea, ...” in Foundations of the Portuguese empire 1415–1580, volume I, University of Minnesota Press, 1985, p.152.
  2. ^ Historian Malyn Newitt: “All things considered, it is not surprising that the Portuguese emerged victorious from this first maritime colonial war. They were far better organised than the Castilians, were able to raise money for the preparation and supply of their fleets and had clear central direction from ... [Prince] John.” In A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400–1668, Routledge, New York, 2005, p.39,40.
  3. ^ Mendonça, 2007, p. 102,103.

参考书目

书籍

  • BOWN, Stephen R.- 1494: How a family feud in Medieval Spain divided the world in half, D and M publishers inc., Canada, 2011.
  • DIFFIE, Bailey W. and WINIUS, George D. – Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580, Volume 1, University of Minnesota Press, 1985.
  • HANSON, Carl- Atlantic emporium: Portugal and the wider world, 1147–1497", volume 47 de Iberian studies, University press of the South, 2002. ISBN 978-1889431888.
  • LUNENFELD, Marvin- The council of the Santa Hermandad: a study of the pacification forces of Ferdinand and Isabella", University of Miami Press, 1970. ISBN 978-0870241437.
  • MENDONÇA, Manuela- O Sonho da União Ibérica – guerra Luso-Castelhana 1475/1479, Quidnovi, Lisboa, 2007, book description. ISBN 978-9728998882
  • NEWITT, Malyn (2005) A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400–1668, New York: Routledge.
  • ROBERTSON, Ian- Spain, the mainland", E. Benn, 1975.


记录

  • PALENCIA, Alfonso de- Gesta Hispaniensia ex annalibus suorum diebus colligentis, Década III and IV (the three first Décadas were edited as Cronica del rey Enrique IV by Antonio Paz y Meliá in 1904 and the fourth as Cuarta Década by José Lopes de Toro in 1970).

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