Wastren Europe

The phrase Wastren Europe at its maist general meanin means 'aw the kintras in the Wast o Europe'. The concept at different times haes haed different meanins, at times includin poleetical an cultural conseederations as weel as geographical. The praisent defineetion, as geographically defined bi the CIA Warld Factbeuk[1] includes:

Wastren Europe:

Soothwastren Europe:

CIA Western-Europe-map2
CIA Warld Factbeuk classification:
  Wastren Europe
  Soothwastren Europe

The Unit Naitions defineetion conseeders Wastren Europe tae conseest o the follaein nine kintras, cepna in the case o Unitit Nations Regional Groups, that includes northren an soothren Europe an aw:

Location-Europe-UNsubregions, Kosovo as part of Serbia
Stateestical regions o Europe as delineatit bi the Unitit Nations (UN defineetion o Wastern Europe merkit licht blue):
  Wastren Europe

See Forby

  1. CIA World Factbook

The Republic o Albanie (Albanie: Republika e Shqipërisë) is a Balkan kintra in sooth-wastren Europe. It haes a laund mairch wi Montenegro tae the north, the Republic o Kosovo in the nor'east, the Republic o Macedonie in the east an wi Greece in the sooth. It haes a coast on the Adriatic Sea tae the wast an a coast on the Ionie Sea tae the sooth-wast. Awtho it haes haed a recent history o truible is haes been seen as an emergin Democracy sin the 1990s.


The Alps are ane o the great muntain range seestems o Europe stretchin approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) athort aicht Alpine kintras frae Austrick an Slovenie in the east, Swisserland, Liechtenstein, Germany, an Fraunce tae the wast, an Italy an Monaco tae the sooth.


Fraunce (France French: [fʁɑ̃s]), offeecially the French Republic (République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a kintra wi territory in wastren Europe an several owerseas regions an territories. The European, or metropolitan, aurie o Fraunce extends frae the Mediterranean Sea tae the Inglis Channel an the North Sea, an frae the Rhine tae the Atlantic Ocean. Owerseas Fraunce include French Guiana on the Sooth American continent an several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific an Indie oceans. Fraunce spans 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) an haed a tot population o awmaist 67 million fowk as o Januar 2017. It is a unitary semi-presidential republic wi the caipital in Paris, the kintra's lairgest ceety an main cultural an commercial centre. Ither major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse an Bordeaux.

In the Airn Age, whit is nou metropolitan Fraunce wis inhaibitit bi the Gauls, a Celtic fowk. The aurie wis annexed in 51 BC bi Roum, which held Gaul till 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region an formed the Kinrick o Fraunce. Fraunce emerged as a major European pouer in the Late Middle Ages, wi its veectory in the Hunder Years' War (1337 tae 1453) strenthenin state-biggin an poleetical centralisation. During the Renaissance, French cultur flourished and a global colonial empire wis established, which bi the 20t century wad be the seicont lairgest in the warld. The 16t century wis dominatit bi releegious ceevil wars atween Catholics an Protestants (Huguenots). Fraunce acame Europe's dominant cultural, poleetical, an militar power unner Louis XIV. In the late 18t century, the French Revolution owerthrew the absolute monarchy, established ane o modren history's earliest republics, an saw the draftin o the Declaration o the Richts o Man an o the Ceetizen, which expresses the naition's ideals tae this day.

In the 19t century Napoleon teuk pouer an established the First French Empire, whase subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the coorse o continental Europe. Follaein the collapse o the Empire, Fraunce endured a tumultuous succession o govrenments culminatin wi the establishment o the French Third Republic in 1870. Fraunce wis a major pairteecipant in the First Warld War, frae which it emerged victorious, an wis ane o the Allied Pouers in the Seicont Warld War, but came unner occupation bi the Axis Pouers in 1940. Follaein leeberation in 1944, a Fowert Republic wis established an later dissolved in the coorse o the Algerian War. The Fift Republic, led bi Charles de Gaulle, wis formed in 1958 an remeens tae this day. Algerie an nearly aw the ither colonies acame independent in the 1960s wi minimal controversy an teepically reteened close economic an militar connections wi Fraunce.

Fraunce haes lang been a global centre o airt, science, an filosofie. It hosts Europe's fowerth-lairgest nummer o cultural UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids an receives aroond 83 million foreign tourists annually, the maist o ony kintra in the warld. Fraunce is a developit kintra wi the warld's saxt-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an nint-lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. In terms o aggregate hoosehauld wealth, it ranks fowert in the warld. Fraunce performs well in internaitional rankins o eddication, heal care, life expectancy, an human development. Fraunce remeens a great pouer in the warld, bein ane o the five permanent members o the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil wi the pouer tae veto an an offeecial nuclear-wappen state. It's a leadin member state o the European Union an the Eurozone. It is an aa a member o the Group o 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO), an La Francophonie.

French Revolution

The French Revolution (French: Révolution française) wis an influential period o social an poleetical upheaval in Fraunce that lasted frae 1789 till 1799, an wis partially carried forward bi Napoleon during the later expansion o the French Empire. The Revolution owerthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods o poleetical turmoil, an finally culminatit in a dictatorship bi Napoleon that forcibly brocht mony o its ideals tae Wastren Europe. Inspired bi liberal an radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the coorse o modren history, triggerin the decline o theocracies an absolute monarchies while replacin them wi republics an democracies. Throu the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave o global conflicts that extendit frae the Caribbean tae the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as ane o the maist important events in human history.


Germany (/ˈdʒɜːrməni/; German: Deutschland, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), offeecially the Federal Republic o Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, listen ), is a federal pairlamentary republic in central-wastren Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an aurie o 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), an haes a lairgely temperate saisonal climate. Wi aboot 82 million indwallers, Germany is the maist populous member state o the European Union. Efter the Unitit States, it is the seicont maist popular immigration destination in the warld. Germany's caipital an lairgest metropolis is Berlin, while its lairgest conurbation is the Ruhr (main centres: Dortmund an Essen). Ither major ceeties include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf an Leipzig.

Various Germanic tribes hae inhabitit the northren pairts o modren Germany syne clessical antiquity. A region named Germanie wis documentit afore 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expandit soothwart. Beginnin in the 10t century, German territories formed a central pairt o the Haly Roman Empire. During the 16t century, northren German regions acame the centre o the Protestant Reformation.

In 1871, Germany acame a naition state when maist o the German states unified intae the Proushie-dominatit German Empire. Efter Warld War I an the German Revolution o 1918–1919, the Empire wis replaced bi the pairlamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment o the naitional socialist dictatorship in 1933 led tae Warld War II an the Holocaust. Efter a period o Allied occupation, twa German states war foondit: the Federal Republic o Germany (commonly kent as Wast Germany) an the German Democratic Republic (commonly kent as East Germany). In 1990, the kintra wis reunifee'd.In the 21st century, Germany is a great pouer an haes the warld's fowerth-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP, as well as the fift-lairgest bi PPP. As a global leader in several industrial an technological sectors, it is baith the warld's third-lairgest exporter an importer o guids. Germany is a developit kintra wi a very heich staundart o livin susteened bi a skilled an productive society. It uphaulds a social security an universal heal care seestem, environmental pertection an a tuition-free varsity eddication.Germany wis a foondin member o the European Union in 1993. It is pairt o the Schengen Aurie, an acame a co-foonder o the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member o the Unitit Naitions, NATO, the G8, the G20, an the OECD. The naitional militar expenditur is the 9t heichest in the warld. Kent for its rich cultural history, Germany haes been continuously the hame o influential airtists, filosofers, muisickers, sportsfowk, entrepreneurs, scientists, ingineers, an inventors.


Ingland /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ is a kintra that is pairt o the Unitit Kinrick.

Kinrick o Great Breetain

The Kinrick o Great Breetain, (kent as the Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain, forby) wis a state in Wastren Europe, that existed frae 1707 tae 1800. It wis shapit by the jynin o the Kinrick o Scotland an the Kinrick o Ingland, unner the Acts o Union 1707, tae mak ae kinrick athort the hail o the island o Great Breetain. Ae new pairlament an govrenment, seetuatit in Westminster in Lunnon, controlled the new kinrick. The twa unthirlt kinricks o Scotland an Ingland haed shared the ae same monarch sin James VI, Keeng o Scots, becam Keeng o Ingland in 1603 follaein the daith o Queen Elizabeth I.

The Kinrick o Great Breetain wis follaed by the Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Ireland in 1801 whan the Kinrick o Ireland wis absorbed wi the enactment o the Act o Union 1800 follaein the suppression o the Irish Rebellion o 1798.


Kosovo is a Balkan kintra in sooth-wastren Europe. It haes a laund mairch wi Montenegro tae the nor'wast, Serbia in the nor'east, the Republic o Macedonie in the south an wi Albanie in the sooth east.


The Grand Duchy o Luxembourg (Luxembourgis: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg. Frainch: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg) is a wee laundlockit kintra in Wastren Europe laund mairched alang wi Fraunce, Belgium an Germany. It haes near aboot 500,000 indwallers.


The Principality o Monaco (Frainch: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu; Occitan: Principat de Mónegue; Italian: Principato di Monaco), for ordinar juist kent as Monaco is a ceety-state in Wastren Europe atween the Mediterranian Sea an Fraunce. It is the wee-est French speakin kintra in the hale warld.


The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is pairt o the Kinrick o the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) alang wi the Aruba, Curaçao, an Sint Martin. It is locate in North-Wastren Europe an is laund mairched wi Germany an Belgium. It haes a coast line alang the German Ocean.

It haes gien alot o important penters an airtists throu-oot history, for ensaumple:

Paulus Potter

North Macedonie

The Republic o North Macedonie (Macedonie: Република Северна Македонија, Republika Severna Makedonija), juist kent as North Macedonie an aw, is a laundlockit kintra in the Balkans region o Sooth-Wastren Europe. It is laund mairched wi Serbie tae the North, Albanie tae the Wast, Greece tae the Sooth an wi Bulgarie tae the east. Efter a tuilyie ower the uiss o the name o Macedonie a greement wis made bi the Unitit Naitions in 1993 an the kintra gaed unner the name o Umwhile Yugoslav Republic o Macedonie.

In 2018, folliein a greement wi Greece, the kintra has chynged its name tae the Republic o North Macedonie.

Northren Ireland

Northren Ireland (Ulster Scots: Norn Iron) is ane o fower kintras o the Unitit Kinrick. It is in the north o the iland o Ireland, whaur it haes a laund mairch wi the Republic o Ireland, the ae pairt o the Unitit Kinrick wi an internaitional laund mairch. It wis foondit bi the Govrenment o Ireland Act, 1920.

It kivers 5,459 mi², aboot a saxt o the hail aurie o the iland, an haes 1,685,000 indwallers (Aprile 2001) — atwein a fowert an a thrid o the iland's hail population.

Republic o Ireland

Ireland or Airlann (Erse: Éire), deskrived as the Republic o Ireland (or Republick o Airlann in Ulstèr-Scotch) (Erse: Poblacht na hÉireann), is a kintra in wastren Europe, wi a population o mair nor 4 million. It maks up maist o the iland o Ireland, an haes a mairch wi Northren Ireland, pairt o the Unitit Kinrick. It is a unitar, pairlamentar republic. The legislatur, the Oireachtas, consists o a lawer house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected Preses (Uachtarán) that serves as the lairgely ceremonial heid o state, but wi some important pouers an duties. The heid o govrenment is the Taoiseach (Prime Meenister, leeterally 'Chief', a teetle nae uised in Inglis), that is electit bi the Dáil an appointit bi the President; the Taoiseach in turn appynts ither govrenment meenisters.

The state wis creautit as the Erse Free State in 1922 as a result o the Anglo-Erse Treaty. It haed the status o Domeenion till 1937 whan a new constitution wis adoptit, in that the state wis named "Ireland" and effectively becam a republic, wi an electit non-executive preses as heid o state. It wis offeecially declared a republic in 1949, follaein the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland becam a member o the Unitit Naitions in December 1955. It jynt the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor o the European Union, in 1973. The state haed na formal relations wi Northren Ireland for maist o the twentiet century, but in the 1980s an 1990s the Breetish an Erse govrenments wirkit wi the Northren Ireland pairties taewart a resolution tae "the Tribbles". Syne the signin o the Guid Fryday Greement in 1998, the Erse govrenment an Northren Ireland Executive hae co-operatit on a nummer o policy auries unner the North-Sooth Meenisterial Cooncil creautit bi the Greement.

Ireland ranks amang the tap twenty-five walthiest kintras in the warld in terms o GDP per capita, an as the tent maist prosperous kintra in the warld accordin tae The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. Efter jynin the EEC, Ireland enactit a series o leeberal economic policies that resultit in fest economic growthe. The kintra achieved conseederable prosperity atween the years o 1995 an 2007, that becam kent as the Celtic Teeger period. This wis hautit bi an unprecedentit financial creesis that begoud in 2008, in conjunction wi the concurrent global economic crash. Houiver, as the Erse economy wis the festest growin in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascendin league cairts comparin walth an prosperity internaitionally. For ensaumple, in 2015, Ireland wis rankit as the jynt saxt (wi Germany) maist developit kintra in the warld bi the Unitit Naitions Human Development Index. It an aw performs weel in several naitional performance metrics, includin freedom o the press, economic freedom an ceevil leeberties. Ireland is a member o the European Union an is a foondin member o the Cooncil o Europe an the OECD. The Erse govrenment haes follaed a policy o militar neutrality throu non-alignment syne immediately prior tae Warld War II an the kintra is consequently nae a member o NATO, awtho it is a member o Pairtnership for Peace.


The Rhine is an important an unco lang river in Europe. The river itsel is aboot 1,232 km (766 mi) lang, wi a common watter dischairge o mair nor 2,000 m³/s (71,000 cu ft/s). It flowes frae Swisserland til the ceety o Rotterdam in the Netherlands, tuimin in the German Ocean.

It is been ane o the heidmaist rivers for the Germanic fowk, e'en makin the mairch atween the Roman Empire an Germania. Mony castles lie alang its banks.


For mair airticles adae wi fowk, steids an things in Scotland tak a keek at category:Scotland.Scotland (gd: Alba, sco: Scotland) is a kintra in nor-wast Europe, an is ane o the fower kintras that maks the Unitit Kinrick. It taks up the northren thrid o the Breetish island. Scotland haes til its sooth the laund o Ingland, an is bund bi the German Ocean til the eist an the Atlantic Ocean til the north an wast.

It aforetyms wis a free kinrik, but than Scotland gaed intil a union wi Ingland in 1603, whan Jeams VI o Scotland becam Jeams I o Ingland eftir the daith o Elspeth I. This union wis makkit formal on 1 Mey 1707 bi the Treatie o Union. The Scots Pairlament wis gotten rid o on 26 Mairch. The union southert baith kinriks, makkin the Kinrick o Great Breetain, wi a new singil Pairlament haudden in Wastmeinster, Lunnon, but sum pairts o Scotland's institutions, merkit the laund's naitional kirk an skuilin an legal seistems, wis hauden apairt. In 1801, Scotland becam ane o the thrie launds o the Unitit Kinrick, alang wi Ingland an Ireland (nou juist Northren Ireland). Wales is nou seen for uisal as anither laund, awtho it wis juist a principalitie o the kinrik o Ingland in 1707.

In 1997, the Scots fowk voted ti hae a new pairlament, estaiblisht bi the UK govrenment in the Scotland Act 1998. The nou devolv'd Scots Pairlament haes been gien the pouer ti govren the laund on maist Scots maiters, but haesna ower mukkil pouer wi taxes, awtho it dis hae the pouer ti chynge the UK incum tax rate bi 3p in the poond.

Scotland's size is maistlie that estaiblisht bi the 1237 Treatie o York atwein Scotland an Ingland an the 1266 Treatie o Perth atwein Scotland an Norawa. Exceptions is the Isle o Mann, that is nou a croun dependencie ootwi the Unitit Kinrick, Orkney an Shetland, that is nou Scots raither nor Dens, an Barwick, that wis defined as subjek til the laws o Ingland bi the 1746 Wales an Barwick Act.

The patron saunt o Scotland is Saunt Andra, an St. Andra's Day is on 30 November but it haesna been mukkil celebratit syn the Reformation.

The wird Scot wis taen frae the Laitin an its uiss micht weil date fae aboot the first hauf o the 10t yeirhunder, whan it first kyth'd in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle an harkent til the Laund o the Gaels, analogous til the Laitin Scotia. The ither name is "Caledonia", whilk is gien ti sum pairts o the New Warld an colonies, lyk New Caledonia. Scots keengs adoptit the teetil Basileus/Rex Scottorum (= Heich Keeng/Keeng o the Gaels, basileus meinin sovrein in the Greek, an rex meinin keeng in the Laitin) an Rex Scotiae (Keeng o Gael-Land) sum tym in the 11t yeirhunder, lyklie swee'd bi the styl Imperator Scottorum kent ti hae been uis'd bi Brian Bóruma in Ireland in 1005. In modren tyms the wird "Scot" is uis'd equalie for aw indwallers nae maiter wha thair forebeirs wis. This is acause the kintra his haed a ceivic raither nor a singil kin orientation for maist o the last thoosan yeir.


Serbie (Serbie: Србија or Srbija) or is it is kent offeecially (Serbie: Република Србија or Republika Srbija) is ae laundlockit kintra in central an Sooth-Wastren Europe. It is pairt o the Balkans region an its caipital ceety is Belgrade (Serbie: Београд or Beograd). It haes laund mairches wi Hungary in the North, Romanie an Bulgarie in the East, Albanie, Kosovo an Republic o Macedonie in the Sooth an Montenegro, Croatie an Bosnie an Herzegovinae in the Wast.


Spain (Spaingie: España [esˈpaɲa] ( listen)), offeecially the Kinrick o Spain (Spaingie: Reino de España), is a kintra maistly locatit on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The kintra's mainland is mairchit tae the sooth an east bi the Mediterranean Sea except for a smaw laund boondary wi Gibraltar; tae the north an northeast bi Fraunce, Andorrae, an the Bay o Biscay; an tae the wast an northwest bi Portugal an the Atlantic Ocean. Spaingie territory includes twa large airchipelagaes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea an the Canary Islands aff the African Atlantic coast, twa ceeties, Ceuta an Melilla, on the African mainland an several smaw islands in the Alboran Sea near the African coast. Spain is the anerly European kintra tae hae a mairch wi an African kintra (Morocco)Wi an aurie o 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the lairgest kintra in Soothren Europe, the seicont lairgest kintra in Wastren Europe an the European Union, an the fowert lairgest kintra in the European continent. Bi population, Spain is the saxt lairgest in Europe an the fift in the European Union. Spain's caipital an lairgest ceety is Madrid; ither major urban auries include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao an Málaga.

Modren humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula aroond 35,000 years ago. Iberian culturs alang wi auncient Phoenicie, Greek an Carthaginian settlements developit on the peninsula till it cam unner Roman rule aroond 200 BCE, efter that the region wis named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end o the Wastren Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migratit frae Central Europe, invadit the Iberian peninsula an established relatively independent realms in its wastren provinces, includin the Sueves, Alans an Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths wad forcibly integrate aw remeenin independent territories in the peninsula, includin Byzantine provinces, intae the Kinrick o Toledo, that mair or less unifee'd poleetically, ecclesiastically an legally aw the umwhile Roman provinces or successor kinricks o that wis then documentit as Hispanie.

In the late aicht century the Visigothic kinrick fell tae the Moors, that ruled maist o the peninsula for the next seiven centuries, leavin anerly a haundful o smaw Christian realms in the north. Follaein the Moorish conquest, Europeans begoud a gradual process o retakkin the region kent as the Reconquista, that bi the late 15t century culminatit in the emergence o Spain as a unifee'd kintra unner the Catholic Monarchs. In the early modren period, Spain becam ane o history's first global empires, leavin a vast cultural an lingueestic legacy that includes ower 500 million Hispanophones, makkin Spaingie the warld's seicont maist spoken native leid, efter Mandarin Cheenese.

Spain is a secular pairlamentar democracy an constitutional monarchy, wi Keeng Felipe VI as heid o state. It is a major developit kintra wi the warld's fowerteent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an saxteent lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Cooncil o Europe (CoE), the Organisation o Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), OSCE, the Schengen Aurie, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO) an mony ither internaitional organisations. Spain hars a "permanent invitation" tae the G20 summits that occur generally ance a year.

Wastren Asie

Wastren Asie, Wast Asie, Soothwast Asie or Soothwastren Asie are terms that describe the wastmaist portion o Asie. The terms are pairtly coterminous wi the Middle East, which describes a geographical poseetion in relation tae Wastren Europe rather than its location athin Asie. Due tae this perceivit Eurocentrism, internaitional organisations sic as the Unitit Naitions, hae replacit Middle East an Near East wi Wastren Asie. This region an Europe are collectively referred tae as Wastren Eurasie.

In ither leids

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