Tred, an aa cried guids exchynge economy, is tae transfer the awnership o guids frae ane person or entity tae anither bi gettin something in exchynge frae the buyer.

Wojciech Gerson - Gdańsk in the XVII century
Accarias de Sérionne - Intérêts des nations de l'Europe, dévélopés relativement au commerce, 1766 - 5790093
Intérêts des nations de l'Europe, dévélopés relativement au commerce, 1766
Amur Oblast

Amur Oblast (Roushie: Аму́рская о́бласть, Amurskaya oblast) is a federal subject o Roushie (an oblast), situatit on the banks o the Amur an Zeya Rivers. It shares its mairch wi the Sakha Republic in the north, Khabarovsk Krai an the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the east, Cheenae in the sooth, an Zabaykalsky Krai in the wast. Population: 830,103 (2010 Census).Amur Krai (Аму́рский край) or Priamurye (Приаму́рье) wur unoffeecial names for the Roushie territories bi the Amur River uised in the late Roushie Empire that approximately correspond tae modren Amur Oblast.

The admeenistrative center o the oblast, the ceety o Blagoveshchensk, is ane o the auldest settlements in the Roushie Far East, foondit in 1856. It is a traditional centre o tred an gowd minin. The territory is accessed bi twa railroads, the Trans-Siberian railway an the Baikal Amur Mainline.


Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan), offeecially the Republic o Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası) is the lairgest kintra in the Sooth Caucasus region o Eurasie. Locatit at the crossroads o Eastren Europe an Wastren Asie, it is boondit bi the Caspian Sea tae the east, Roushie tae the north, Georgie tae the northwast, Armenie tae the wast, an Iran tae the sooth.

The exclave o Nakhchivan is boondit bi Armenie tae the north an east, Iran tae the sooth an wast, while haein a short borderline wi Turkey tae the northwast. The enclaves o Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı an Sofulu are surroondit bi Armenie an hae been controlled bi it syne the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The majority-Armenian populatit Nagorno-Karabakh region in the southwest o Azerbaijan declared itself independent frae Azerbaijan in 1991, but it is no diplomatically recognised bi ony naition an is still considered a de jure pairt o Azerbaijan, bein occupied bi Armenian forces.Azerbaijan Democratic Republic wis the first successfu attempt tae establish a democratic an secular republic in the Muslim warld. Nouadays Azerbaijan, a naition wi a majority Turkic an Shi‘ite Muslim population, is a secular an a unitary republic wi an auncient an historic cultural heritage. Azerbaijan haes diplomatic relations wi 158 kinrtas sae far an haulds membership in 38 internaitional organisations. Azerbaijan is ane o the foondin members o GUAM an the Organisation for the Prohibition o Chemical Weapons, an jynt the Commonwealth o Independent States in September 1993. On 9 Mey 2006 Azerbaijan wis electit tae membership in the newly established Human Richts Council bi the Unitit Naitions General Assembly. The term o office began on 19 Juin 2006. A Special Envoy o the European Commission is present in the kintra, which is an' a' a member o the Unitit Naitions, the OSCE, the Council o Europe, an the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. The kintra an aa haulds observer status in the Non-Aligned Movement an Warld Tred Organisation an is a correspondent at the Internaitional Telecommunication Union.

Breetish Empire

The Breetish Empire compreesed the domeenions, colonies, pertectorates, mandates an ither territories ruled or admeenistert bi the Unitit Kinrick an its predecessor states. It oreeginatit wi the owerseas possessions an treddin posts established bi Ingland atween the late 16t an early 18t centuries. At its hicht, it wis the lairgest empire in history an, for ower a century, wis the foremaist global pouer. Bi 1913, the Breetish Empire held swee ower 412 million fowk, 23% o the warld population at the time, an bi 1920, it kivert 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% o the Yird's tot laund aurie. As a result, its poleetical, legal, lingueestic an cultural legacy is widespreid. At the peak o its pouer, the phrase "the empire on that the sun niver sets" wis eften uised tae descrive the Breetish Empire, acause its expanse aroond the globe meant that the sun wis ayeweys shinin on at least ane o its territories.

In the Age o Diskivery in the 15t an 16t centuries, Portugal an Spain pioneered European exploration o the globe, an in the process established lairge owerseas empires. Envyfu o the great walth thir empires generatit, Ingland, Fraunce, an the Netherlands begoud tae establish colonies an tred networks o thair awn in the Americas an Asie. A series o wars in the 17t an 18t centuries wi the Netherlands an Fraunce left Ingland an then, follaein union atween Ingland an Scotland in 1707, Great Breetain, the dominant colonial pouer in North Americae. It then becam the dominant pouer in the Indie subcontinent efter the East Indie Company's conquest o Mughal Bengal at the Battle o Plassey in 1757.

The unthirldom o the Thirteen Colonies in North Americae in 1783 efter the American War o Unthirldom caused Breetain tae lose some o its auldest an maist populous colonies. Breetish attention suin turned taewart Asie, Africae, an the Pacefic. Efter the defeat o Fraunce in the Revolutionary an Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815), Breetain emerged as the principal naval an imperial pouer o the 19t century. Unchallenged at sea, Brrrtish dominance wis later descrived as Pax Britannica ("Breetish Peace"), a period o relative peace in Europe an the warld (1815–1914) in that the Breetish Empire becam the global hegemon an adoptit the role o global polisman. In the early 19t century, the Industrial Revolution begoud tae transform Breetain; sae that bi the time o the Great Exhibeetion in 1851, the kintra wis descrived as the "wirkshop o the warld". The Breetish Empire expandit tae include maist o Indie, lairge pairts o Africae an mony ither territories ootthrou the warld. Alangside the formal control that Breetain exertit ower its awn colonies, its dominance o muckle o warld tred meant that it effectively controlled the economies o mony regions, sic as Asie an Laitin Americae.In Breetain, poleetical attitudes favoured free tred an laissez-faire policies an a gradual widenin o the votin franchise. In the 19t century, Breetain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied bi fest urbanisation, that caused signeeficant social an economic stresses. Tae seek new mercats an soorces o raw materials, the Conservative Pairty unner Benjamin Disraeli launched a period o imperialist expansion in Egyp, Sooth Africae, an ensewhaur. Canadae, Australiae, an New Zealand becam sel-govrenin domeenions.Bi the stairt o the 20t century, Germany an the Unitit States haed begun tae challenge Breetain's economic lead. Subsequent militar an economic tensions atween Breetain an Germany war major causes o the First Warld War, in that Breetain relied hivily upon its empire. The conflict placed enormous stress on the militar, financial an manpouer resoorces o Breetain. Awtho the Breetish Empire achieved its lairgest territorial extent immediately efter Warld War I, Breetain wis na langer the warld's pre-eminent industrial or militar pouer. In the Seicont Warld War, Breetain's colonies in Sootheast Asie war occupied bi Japan. Despite the feenal veectory o Breetain an its allies, the damage tae Breetish prestige helped tae accelerate the decline o the empire. Indie, Breetain's maist vailuable an populous possession, achieved unthirldom as pairt o a lairger decolonisation muivement in that Breetain grantit unthirldom tae maist territories o the empire. The transfer o Hong Kong tae Cheenae in 1997 merked for mony the end o the Breetish Empire. Fowerteen owerseas territories remeen unner Breetish sovereignty.

Efter unthirldom, mony umwhile Breetish colonies jyned the Commonweel o Naitions, a free association o independent states. The Unitit Kinrick is nou ane o 16 Commonweel naitions, a groupin kent informally as the Commonweel realms, that share a monarch, Queen Elizabeth II.


Croatia (Croatie: Hrvatska [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), offeecially the Republic o Croatie (Croatie: Republika Hrvatska, listen ), is a kintra at the mairch o Central an Sootheast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. Its caipital Zagreb forms ane o the kintra's primar subdiveesions, alang wi twenty coonties. Croatie haes an aurie o 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) an a population o 4.28 million, maist o whom are Roman Catholics.

The Croats arrived in the aurie in the 6t century. Thay organised the state intae twa duchies bi the 9t century. Tomislav becam the first keeng bi 925, elevatin Croatie tae the status o a kinrick. The Kinrick o Croatie retained its sovereignty for nearly twa centuries, reachin its peak in the rule o Keengs Petar Krešimir IV an Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatie entered a personal union wi Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced wi Ottoman conquest, the Croatie Pairlament electit Ferdinand I o the Hoose o Habsburg tae the Croatie throne. In the early 19th century, pairts o the kintra war split intae the French Illyrian Provinces while Austrick-Hungary occupied its Bosnie an Herzegovinae side–a dispute settled bi the 1878 Treaty o Berlin. In 1918, efter Warld War I, Croatie wis included in the unrecognised State o Slovenes, Croats an Serbs that secedit frae Austrick-Hungary an merged intae the Kinrick o Yugoslavie. Follaeing the Axis invasion o Yugoslavie, maist o the Croatie territory wis incorporatit intae the Nazi-backed client-state that led tae the development o a resistance muivement an creaution o the Federal State o Croatie that efter the war acome a foondin member an a federal constituent o the Socialist Federal Republic o Yugoslavie. On 25 Juin 1991, Croatie declared unthirldom, that cam halely intae effect on 8 October o the same year. The Croatie War o Unthirldom wis focht successfully for fower years follaein the declaration.

Croatie is a republic govrened unner a pairlamentar seestem an a developit kintra wi a verra heich staundart o leevin. Croatie is a member o the European Union (EU), Unitit Naitions (UN), the Cooncil o Europe, NATO, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO), an a foondin member o the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active pairteecipant in the UN peacekeepin forces, Croatie haes contreibutit truips tae the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan an teuk a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Cooncil for the 2008–2009 term. Syne 2000, the Croatie govrenment haes constantly investit in infrastructur, especially transport routes an facilities alang the Pan-European corridors.

Croatie's economy is dominatit bi service an industrial sectors an agricultur. Tourism is a signeeficant soorce o revenue, wi Croatie rankit amang tap 20 maist popular tourist destinations in the warld. The state controls a pairt o the economy, wi substantial govrenment expenditur. The European Union is Croatie's maist important treddin pairtner. Croatie provides a social siccarity, universal heal care seestem, an a tuition-free primar an seicontar eddication, while supportin cultur throu numerous public institutions an corporate investments in media an publishin.


Düsseldorf (German pronunciation: [ˈdʏsəldɔɐf]) is the caipital ceety o the German state o North Rhine-Westphalie an centre o the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.

Modren Düsseldorf is an important internaitional business an financial centre an an' a' renouned for its fashion an tred fairs. Culturally, as a ceety bi the River Rhine, Düsseldorf is a stranghauld for Rhenish carnival celebrations. Ivery year in Julie mair than 4.5 million fowk veesit the ceety's Größte Kirmes am Rhein funfair.

Even tho it ae ranks the nint amang the ten maist populous ceeties in Germany bi population athin ceety leemits, Düsseldorf is ane o the kintra's five global ceeties.


Ghana (/[unsupported input]ˈɡɑːnə/), offeecially the Republic o Ghana, is a kintra locatit in Wast Africae. It is bordered bi Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) tae the wast, Burkina Faso tae the north, Togo tae the east, an the Gulf o Guinea tae the sooth. The wird Ghana means "Warrior Keeng" an is derived frae the auncient Ghana Empire.

Ghana wis inhabitit in pre-colonial times bi a nummer o auncient predominantly Akan kinricks, includin the Akwamu on the eastren coast, the inland Ashanti Empire an various Fante an non-Akan states, lik the Ga an Ewe, alang the coast an inland. The Mande-Gur speakin groups in the north o the kintra established several Islamized states, in parteecular those o Dagbon an Gonja, an wur the middle-men in tred atween ither lairger sahelian Muslim states (sic as Mali an Songhai) an the early Akan kinricks, especially in the gowd, sclave an salt tred. Tred wi European states flourished efter contact wi the Portuguese in the 15t century, an the Breetish established the Gold Coast Crown colony in 1874.The Gold Coast achieved unthirldom frae the Unitit Kinrick in 1957, becomin the first Sub-Saharan African naition tae dae sae, an the name Ghana wis chosen for the new naition tae reflect the auncient Empire o Ghana, which ance extendit throughoot muckle o wast Africae. Ghana is a member o the Sooth Atlantic Peace an Cooperation Zone, the Commonweel o Naitions, the Economic Community o Wast African States, the African Union, an an associate member o La Francophonie. Ghana is the seicont lairgest producer o cocoa in the warld an is hame tae Lake Volta, the lairgest artificial lake in the warld bi surface aurie.


Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα or Ελλάς), kent offeecially as the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is a kintra in sooth-eastren Europe, wi a population o approximately 11 million as o 2016. Athens is the naition's caipital an largest ceety, follaed bi Thessaloniki.

Greece is locatit at the crossroads o Europe, Asie, an Africae. Situatit on the soothren tip o the Balkan Peninsula, it shares laund mairches wi Albanie tae the northwast, the Republic o Macedonie an Bulgarie tae the north, an Turkey tae the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies tae the east o the mainland, the Ionian Sea tae the wast, the Cretan Sea an the Mediterranean Sea tae the sooth. Greece haes the langest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin an the 11t langest coastline in the warld at 13,676 km (8,498 mi) in lenth, featurin a lairge nummer o islands, o that 227 are inhabitit. Aichty percent o Greece is muntainous, wi Munt Olympus bein the heichest peak at 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The kintra consists o nine geografic regions: Macedonie, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands (includin the Dodecanese an Cyclades), Thrace, Crete, an the Ionian Islands.

Greece is conseedert the cradle o Wastren ceevilisation, bein the birthplace o democracy, Wastren filosofie, Wastren leeteratur, historiografie, poleetical science, major scienteefic an mathematical principles, an Wastren drama, as weel as the Olympic Gemmes. Frae the aicht century BC, the Greeks war organised intae various independent ceety-states, kent as poleis (seengular polis), that spanned the entire Mediterranean region an the Black Sea. Philip o Macedon unitit maist o the Greek mainland in the fowert century BC, wi his son Alexander the Great rapidly conquerin muckle o the auncient warld, spreidin Greek cultur an science frae the eastren Mediterranean tae Indie. Greece wis annexed bi Roum in the seicont century BC, acomin an integral pairt o the Roman Empire an its successor, the Byzantine Empire, whaurin the Greek leid an cultur war dominant. The Greek Orthodox Kirk an aw shapit modren Greek identity an transmittit Greek tradeetions tae the wider Orthodox Warld. Fawin unner Ottoman domeenion in the mid-15t century, the modren naition state o Greece emerged in 1830 follaein a war o unthirldom. Greece's rich historical legacy is reflectit bi its 18 UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids, amang the maist in Europe an the warld.Greece is a democratic an developit kintra wi an advanced heich-income economy, a heich quality o life, an a verra heich staundart o leevin. A foondin member o the Unitit Naitions, Greece wis the tent member tae jyne the European Commonties (precursor tae the European Union) an haes been pairt o the Eurozone syne 2001. It is an aw a member o numerous ither international institutions, includin the Cooncil o Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO), the Organisation for Siccarity an Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), an the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF). Greece's unique cultural heritage, lairge tourism industry, prominent shippin sector an geostrategic importance clessifee it as a middle pouer. It is the lairgest economy in the Balkans, whaur it is an important regional investor.

ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a staundart published bi the Internaitional Staundarts Organization, which delineates siller designators, kintra codes (alpha an numeric), an references tae minor units in three tables:

Table A.1 – Current siller & funds code leet

Table A.2 – Current funds codes

Table A.3 – Leet o codes for historic denominations o sillers & funds The tables, history an ongangin discussion is maintained bi SIX Interbank Clearing.The ISO 4217 code leet is uised in bankin an business globally. In mony kintras the ISO codes for the mair common sillers are sae well kent publicly that exchynge rates published in newspapers or postit in banks uise anly thir tae delineate the different sillers, insteid o translatit siller names or ambiguous siller seembols. ISO 4217 codes are uised on airline tickets an internaitional train tickets tae remove ony ambiguity aboot the price.


Indie (/ˈɪndiə/), offeecially the Republic o Indie (Bharat Ganrajya), is a kintra in Sooth Asie. It is the seivent-lairgest kintra bi geographical aurie, the seicont-maist populous kintra wi ower 1.2 billion fowk, an the maist populous democracy in the warld. Mainland Indie is boondit bi the Indian Ocean on the sooth, the Arabie Sea on the wast, an the Bay o Bengal on the east; an it is bordered bi Pakistan tae the wast; Bhutan, the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae an Nepal tae the north; an Bangladesh an Burma tae the east. In the Indian Ocean, mainland Indie an the Lakshadweep Islands are in the vicinity o Sri Lanka an the Maldives, while Indie's Andaman an Nicobar Islands share maritime mairch wi Thailand an the Indonesian island o Sumatra in the Andaman Sea. Indie haes a coastline o 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi).Hame tae the auncient Indus Valley Ceevilisation an a region o historic tred routes an vast empires, the Indian subcontinent wis identified wi its commercial an cultural wealth for muckle o its lang history. Fower o the warld's major releegions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism an Sikhism—oreeginatit here, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity an Islam arrived in the first millennium CE an shapit the region's diverse cultur. Gradually annexed bi the Breetish East India Company frae the early 18t century an colonised bi the Unitit Kinrick frae the mid-19t century, Indie became an independent naition in 1947 efter a struggle for unthirldom which wis merked bi a non-violent resistance led bi Mahatma Gandhi.

Indie is a federal constitutional republic wi a parliamentary democracy consistin o 28 states an seiven union territories. A pluralistic, multilingual an multiethnic society whaur mair nor 300 leids are spoken, Indie is an aa hame tae a diversity o wildlife in a variety o pertected habitats. The Indian economy is the warld's eleivent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an the fowert lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. Syne the introduction of mercatt-based economic reforms in 1991, Indie haes acome ane o the fastest growin major economies in the warld; housomeivver, the kintra continues tae face several poverty, illiteracy, corruption an public heal relatit challenges. Indie is clessifee'd as a newly industrialised kintra an is ane o the fower BRIC naitions. It is the warld's saxt de facto recognised nuclear weapons state an haes the third-lairgest staundin airmed force in the warld, while its military expenditure ranks tent in the warld. Indie is a regional pouer in Sooth Asie.It is a foondin member o the Unitit Naitions, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Warld Tred Organisation, the Sooth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the East Asie Summit, the G20 an the G8+5; a member o the Commonweel o Naitions; an an observer state in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.


Indonesie (pronounced /ˌɪndoʊˈniːziə/ (deprecatit template) or /ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/), offeecially the Republic o Indonesie (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a kintra in Sootheast Asie an Oceanie. Indonesie comprises 17,508 islands. Wi a population o aroond 238 million fowk, it is the warld's fowert maist populous kintra, an haes the warld's lairgest population o Muslims. Indonesie is a republic, wi an electit legislature an preses. The naition's caipital ceety is Jakarta. The kintra shares land borders wi Papua New Guinea, East Timor, an Malaysie. Ither neighborin kintras include Singapore, Philippines, Australie, an the Indian territory o the Andaman an Nicobar Islands. Indonesie is a foondin member o ASEAN an a member o the G-20 major economies.

The Indonesian archipelago haes been an important tred region syne at least the seivent century, when Srivijaya an then later Majapahit tradit wi Cheenae an Indie. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, releegious an poleetical models frae the early centuries CE, an Hindu an Buddhist kinricks flourisht. Indonesian history haes been influenced bi foreign pouers drawn tae its naitural resoorces. Muslim traders brought Islam, an European pouers focht ane anither tae monopolize tred in the Spice Islands o Maluku durin the Age o Diskivery. Follaein three an a hauf centuries o Dutch colonialism, Indonesie secured its unthirldom efter Warld War II. Indonesie's history haes syne been turbulent, wi challenges posed bi naitural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, an periods o rapid economic chynge. The current naition o Indonesie is a unitary presidential republic consistin o thirtie three provinces.

Athort its mony islands, Indonesia consists o distinct ethnic, linguistic, an releegious groups. The Javanese are the lairgest—an the politically dominant—ethnic group. Indonesia haes developed a shared identity defined bi a naitional leid, ethnic diversity, releegious pluralism athin a majority Muslim population, an a history o colonialism includin rebellion against it. Indonesie's naitional motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "mony, yet ane"), articulates the diversity that shapes the kintra. Despite its lairge population an densely populatit regions, Indonesia haes vast auries o wilderness that support the warld's seicont hichtest level o biodiversity. The kintra is richly endowed wi naitural resoorces, yet poverty remains widespread in contemporary Indonesie.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles (pronounced /lɔːs ˈændʒələs/ (deprecatit template) lawss-AN-jə-ləs; Spaingie: [los ˈaŋxeles], Spaingie for "The Angels") is the maist populous ceety in Californie an the seicont maist populous in the Unitit States, wi a population o 3.83 million on a land aurie o 498.3 square miles (1,290.6 km2). It is the focal pynt o the lairger Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside combined statistical aurie, which contains nearly 17.8 million fowk. Los Angeles is an aa the seat o Los Angeles Coonty, the maist populatit an ane o the maist multicultural coonties in the Unitit States. The ceety's indwallers are referred tae as "Angelenos" (/ændʒɨˈliːnoʊz/).Los Angeles wis foondit on September 4, 1781 bi Spainyie govrenor Felipe de Neve. It became a pairt o Mexico in 1821 follaein the Mexican War o Unthirldom. In 1848, at the end o the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles an the rest o Californie wure purchased as pairt o the Treaty o Guadalupe Hidalgo, therebi becomin pairt o the Unitit States. Los Angeles wis incorporatit as a municipality on Aprile 4, 1850, five month afore Californie achieved statehuid.

Aften kent bi its initials, LA, an nicknamed the Ceety o Angels, Los Angeles is a warld center o business, internaitional tred, entertainment, cultur, media, fashion, science, technology, an eddication. It is hame tae renouned institutions coverin a broad range o professional an cultural fields, an is ane o the maist substantial economic ingines athin the Unitit States. Los Angeles haes been ranked the fift maist pouerful an influential ceety in the warld, ahint anerlie New York City in the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical aurie (CSA) haes a gross metropolitan product (GMP) o $831 billion (as o 2008), makin it the third lairgest economic centre in the warld, efter the Greater Tokyo Aurie an the New York metropolitan aurie. As the hame base o Hollywood, it is kent as the "Entertainment Caipital o the Warld", leadin the warld in the creation o motion pictures, televeesion production, video gemmes, an recordit muisic. The importance o the entertainment business tae the ceety haes led mony celebrities tae cry Los Angeles an its surroondin suburbs hame. Los Angeles hostit the 1932 an 1984 Simmer Olympics. Los Angeles is an aa hame tae renoont varsities sic as the University of Southern California an the University of California, Los Angeles.

Los Angeles enjoys a Mediterranean climate, wi an average o 35 days wi measurable precipitation a year.


Massachusetts is the maist populous state in the New Ingland region o the northeastren Unitit States. It is mairchit bi the Atlantic Ocean tae the east, the states o Connecticut an Rhode Island tae the sooth, New Hampshire an Vermont tae the north, an New York tae the wast. The state is named efter the Massachusett tribe, that ance inhabitit the east side o the aurie, an is ane o the original thirteen states. The caipital o Massachusetts is Boston, that is an aw the maist populous ceety in New Ingland. Ower 80% o Massachusetts's population leeves in the Greater Boston metropolitan aurie, a region influential upon American history, academia, an industry. Oreeginally dependent on agricultur, fishin an tred, Massachusetts wis transformed intae a manufacturin centre in the Industrial Revolution. In the 20t century, Massachusetts's economy shiftit frae manufacturin tae services. Modren Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, ingineerin, heicher eddication, finance, an maritime tred.Plymouth wis the steid o the first colony in New Ingland, foondit in 1620 bi the Pilgrims, passengers o the Mayflower. In 1692, the toun o Salem an surroondin auries experienced ane o Americae's maist infamous cases o mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox foondit the Springfield Armory, that in the Industrial Revolution catalysed numerous important technological advances, includin interchyngeable pairts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led bi disaffectit American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the Unitit States Constitutional Convention. In the 18t century, the Protestant First Great Awakenin, that soopit the Atlantic World, oreeginatit frae the poupit o Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18t century, Boston becam kent as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation thare that led tae the American Revolution.

The entire Commonweel o Massachusetts haes played a pouerfu commercial an cultural role in the history o the Unitit States. Afore the American Ceevil War, Massachusetts wis a centre for the abolitionist, temperance, an transcendentalist movements. In the late 19t century, the sports o basketbaw an volleybaw war inventit in the wastren Massachusetts ceeties o Springfield an Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts becam the first U.S. state tae legally recognise same-sex mairiage as a result o the deceesion in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health bi the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Coort. Mony prominent American poleetical dynasties hae hailed frae the state, includin the Adams an Kennedy faimilies. Harvard Varsity in Cambridge is the auldest institution o heicher learnin in the Unitit States, wi the lairgest financial endoument o ony varsity, an Harvard Law School haes eddicatit a contemporaneous majority o Juistices o the Supreme Coort o the Unitit States. Kendall Square in Cambridge haes been cried "the maist innovative squerr mile on the planet", in reference to the heich concentration o entrepreneurial stairt-ups an quality o innovation that hae emerged in the vicinity o the squerr syne 2010. Baith Harvard Varsity an the Massachusetts Institute o Technology, an aw in Cambridge, hae been ranked amang the maist heichly regairdit academic institutions in the warld. Massachusetts' public schuil students place amang the tap naitions in the warld in academic performance, an the state haes been ranked as ane o the tap states in the naition for ceetizens tae leeve, as weel as ane o the maist expensive.


Mexico (Spaingie: México [ˈmexiko] ( listen); Nahuatl: Mēxihco), offeecially the Unitit Mexican States (Spaingie: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, listen ), is a federal republic in the soothrenmist portion o North Americae. It is mairchit tae the north bi the Unitit States; tae the sooth an wast bi the Paceefic Ocean; tae the sootheast bi Guatemala, Belize, an the Caribbean Sea; an tae the east bi the Gulf o Mexico. Kiverin awmaist 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the naition is the fift lairgest kintra in Americae bi tot aurie an the 13t lairgest independent state in the warld.

Wi an estimatit population o ower 120 million fowk, the kintra is the elevent maist populous state an the maist populous Spaingie-speakin state in the warld, while bein the seicont maist populous naition in Laitin Americae efter Brazil. Mexico is a federation compreesin 31 states an Mexico Ceety, a special federal entity that is an aw the caipital ceety an its maist populous ceety. Ither metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, an Tijuana.

Mexico haes the 15t lairgest nominal GDP an the 11t lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. The Mexican economy is strangly airtit tae thae o its 1994 North American Free Tred Greement (NAFTA) pairtners, espeshally the Unitit States. In 1994, Mexico becam the first Laitin American member o the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD). It is clessifee'd as an upper-middle income kintra bi the Warld Bank an a newly industrialised kintra bi several analysts. The kintr is conseedert aith a regional pouer an a middle pouer, an is eften identifee'd as an emergin global pouer. Due tae its rich cultur an history, Mexico ranks first in Americae an seivent in the warld for nummer o UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse kintra, rankin fowert in the warld for its biodiversity. Mexico haes mony tourists: in 2016, it wis the aicht maist-veesitit kintra in the warld, wi 35 million internaitional arrivals. Mexico is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the Warld Trade Organisation (WTO), the G8+5, the G20, the Unitin for Consensus group o the UN, an the Paceefic Alliance tred bloc. Bi 2050, Mexico coud potentially acome the warld's fift or seivent lairgest economy.Pre-Columbian Mexico dates tae aboot 8000 BC an is identifee'd as ane o seiven cradles o ceevilisation an wis hame tae mony advanced Mesoamerican ceevilisations sic as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, an Aztec afore first contact wi Europeans. In 1521, the Spaingie Empire conquered an colonised the territory frae its poleetically pouerfu base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan (pairt o Mexico Ceety), that wis admeenistert as the viceryalty o New Spain. Three centuries later, the territory becam a naition state follaein its recogneetion in 1821 efter the colony's Mexican War o Unthirldom. The post-unthirldom period wis tumultuous, chairacterised bi economic inequality an mony intense poleetical chynges. The Mexican–American War (1846–1848) led te a territorial cession o the extant northren territories tae the Unitit States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a ceevil war, twa empires, an the Porfiriato occurred in the 19t century. The Porfiriato wis endit bi the stairt o the Mexican Revolution in 1910, that culminatit wi the promulgation o the 1917 Constitution an the emergence o the kintra's current poleetical seestem as a democratic republic.

New Zealand

New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is a sovereign island kintra in the soothwastren Paceefic Ocean. The kintra geografically comprises twa main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui), an the Sooth Island (Te Waipounamu)—an aroond 600 smawer islands. New Zealand is situatit some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east o Australie athort the Tasman Sea an reuchly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) sooth o the Paceefic island auries o New Caledon, Fiji, an Tonga. Acause o its remoteness, it wis ane o the last launds tae be settled bi humans. In its lang period o isolation, New Zealand developit a distinct biodiversity o ainimal, fungal, an plant life. The kintra's varied topografie an its shairp moontain peaks, such as the Soothren Alps, awe muckle tae the tectonic uplift o laund an volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's caipital ceety is Wellington, while its maist populous ceety is Auckland.

Sometime atween 1250 an 1300, Polynesies settled in the islands that later war named New Zealand an developit a distinctive Māori cultur. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman becam the first European tae sicht New Zealand. In 1840, representatives o the Unitit Kinrick an Māori chiefs signed the Treaty o Waitangi, that declared Breetish sovereignty ower the islands. In 1841, New Zealand becam a colony within the Breetish Empire an in 1907 it becam a Domeenion; it gained full unthirldom in 1947, but the Breetish monarch remeened the heid o state. The day, the majority o New Zealand's population o 4.7 million is o European strynd; the indigenous Māori are the lairgest minority, follaed bi Asies an Paceefic Islanders. Reflectin this, New Zealand's cultur is mainly derived frae Māori an early Breetish settlers, wi recent braidenin arisin frae increased immigration. The offeecial leids are Inglis, Māori an NZ Sign Leid, wi Inglis bein verra dominant.

New Zealand is a developit kintra an ranks heichly in internaitional comparisons o naitional performance, sic as quality o life, heal, eddication, an economic freedom. The kintra unnerwent major economic chynges in the 1980s, that transformed it frae a pertectionist tae a leeberalised free-tred economy. The service sector dominates the naitional economy, follaed bi the industrial sector, an agricultur. Internaitional tourism is a signeeficant soorce o revenue.

Naitionally, legislative authority is vestit in an elected, unicameral Pairlament, while executive poleetical pouer is exercised bi the Cabinet, led bi the Prime Meenister, that is currently Jacinda Ardern. Queen Elizabeth II is the kintra's heid o state an is representit bi a govrenor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy. In addeetion, New Zealand is organised intae 11 regional cooncils an 67 territorial authorities for local govrenment purposes. The Realm o New Zealand an aw includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands an Niue (sel-govrenin states in free association wi New Zealand); an the Ross Dependency, that is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarcticae. New Zealand is a member o the Unitit Naitions, Commonweel o Naitions, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development, ASEAN Plus mechanism, Asie-Paceefic Economic Cooperation, an the Pacific Islands Forum.


Roushie /ˈruʃi/ or /ˈruʃe/ (Roushie: Россия, tr. rossiya; ipa: [rɐˈsʲijə]), offeecially kent as the Roushie Federation (Roushie: Российская Федерация, tr. rossiyskaya federatsiya; ipa: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]) is a kintra on the Asie an Europe continent. It is bund bi twa oceans (the Airctic an Paceefic), an, frae northwast tae sootheast, bi the kintras Norawa, Finland, Estonie, Latvie, Lithuanie, Poland, (baith throu the Kaliningrad oblast) Belaroushie, Ukraine, Georgie, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Cheenae, Mongolie an North Korea. Its caipital is Moscow, an its current Preses is Vladimir Putin. It haes sea borders wi Japan bi the brine o Okhotsk, an the U.S. State o Alaska athwart the Bering Strait. at 17,075,400 square kilometre (6,592,800 sq mi), Roushie is the mucklemaist kintra in the warld, coverin mair nor ane-echth ay the earth's inhabited lain aurie. Roushie is the warld's nint maist populoos naition wi 143 million fowk as ay 2012. Stendin athwart the hale ay northren asia, Roushie spans nine time zones an incorporates a wide range ay environments an landforms. Roushie haes the warld's lairgest reserves ay mineral an' energy resoorces an' is the lairgest producer ay ile an' naitural gas globally. Roushie haes the warld's lairgest wid reserves an' its lochs conteen thareby ane-quarter o the warld's liquid caller watter.

Th' naition's history began wi' 'at ay th' eest slavs, fa emerged as a recognizable crew in europe atween th' 3rd an' 8t centuries ad. Foondit an' ruled bi a varangian warriur elite an' thair descendants, th' medieval state ay rus arose in th' 9t century. in 988 it adoptit orthodox christianity frae th' byzantine empire, beginnin' th' synthesis ay byzantine an' slavic culturs 'at defined Roushie cultur fur th' neist millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated intae a feck ay smaer states; maist ay th' rus' lands waur overrin bi th' mongol invasion an' becam tributaries ay th' nomadic Gowden Horde. Th' grain duchy ay moscaw gradually reunified th' surroondin' Roushie principalities, achieved unthirldom frae th' Gowden Horde, an' cam tae dominate th' cultural an' poleetical legacy ay Kievan Rus'. Bi th' 18t hunneryear, th' naition hud greatly expanded ben conquest, annexation, an' exploration tae acome th' Roushie empire, that wis th' third lairgest empire in history, stretchin' frae Polain in Europe tae Alaska in North Americae.

Follaein' th' Roushie revolution, th' Roushie Soviet federatife socialist republic becam th' lairgest an' leadin' constituent ay th' Soviet Union, th' warld's first constitutionally socialist state an' a recognised superpower, whilk played a decisife role in th' allied victory in warld war ii. th' Soviet era saw some o th' maist significant technological achievements o th' 20t century, includin' th' warld's first human spaceflecht. th' Roushie Federation becam th' successur state o th' Roushie sfsr followin' th' dissolution o th' Soviet Union in 1991, an' is recognised as th' continuin' legal personality o th' aw-union state.

Th' Roushie economy is th' warld's nint lairgest bi nominal gdp an' saxt lairgest bi purchasin' power parity, wi' th' 3rd lairgest nominal military budgit. Roushie is ane o th' warld's fastest growin' majur economies. It is ane o th' fife recognised nuclear wappens states an' possesses th' lairgest stockpile o wappens o mass destruction. Roushie is a stoatin pouer an' a permanent member o th' Unitit Nations security cooncil, a member o th' G8, G20, th' Cooncil o Europe, th' Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, th' Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, th' Eurasian Economic Community, th' Organisation fur Security an' Cooperation in Europe (osce), th' Warld Tred Organisation (wto), an' is th' leadin' member o th' commonwealth o independent states


Scandium is a chemical element wi seembol Sc an atomic nummer 21. A sillery-white metallic transeetion metal, it haes historically been whiles clessifee'd as a rare yird element, thegither wi yttrium an the lanthanoids. It wis discovered in 1879 bi spectral analysis o the minerals euxenite an gadolinite frae Scandinavie.

Scandium is present in maist o the deposits o rare yird an uranium compoonds, but it is extractit frae thir ores in anly a few mines warldwide. Acause o the law availability an the difficulties in the preparation o metallic scandium, which wis first done in 1937, it teuk till the 1970s afore applications for scandium wur developit. The positive effects o scandium on aluminium alloys wur discovered in the 1970s, an its uise in sic alloys remains its anly major application. The global tred o the pure metal is aroond a hunder poonds a year on average.The properties o scandium compoonds are intermediate atween thae o aluminium an yttrium. A diagonal relationship exists atween the behaviour o magnesium an scandium, juist as thare is atween beryllium an aluminium. In the chemical compoonds o the elements shawn as group 3, abuin, the predominant oxidation state is +3.


Spain (Spaingie: España [esˈpaɲa] ( listen)), offeecially the Kinrick o Spain (Spaingie: Reino de España), is a kintra maistly locatit on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The kintra's mainland is mairchit tae the sooth an east bi the Mediterranean Sea except for a smaw laund boondary wi Gibraltar; tae the north an northeast bi Fraunce, Andorrae, an the Bay o Biscay; an tae the wast an northwest bi Portugal an the Atlantic Ocean. Spaingie territory includes twa large airchipelagaes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea an the Canary Islands aff the African Atlantic coast, twa ceeties, Ceuta an Melilla, on the African mainland an several smaw islands in the Alboran Sea near the African coast. Spain is the anerly European kintra tae hae a mairch wi an African kintra (Morocco)Wi an aurie o 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the lairgest kintra in Soothren Europe, the seicont lairgest kintra in Wastren Europe an the European Union, an the fowert lairgest kintra in the European continent. Bi population, Spain is the saxt lairgest in Europe an the fift in the European Union. Spain's caipital an lairgest ceety is Madrid; ither major urban auries include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao an Málaga.

Modren humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula aroond 35,000 years ago. Iberian culturs alang wi auncient Phoenicie, Greek an Carthaginian settlements developit on the peninsula till it cam unner Roman rule aroond 200 BCE, efter that the region wis named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end o the Wastren Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migratit frae Central Europe, invadit the Iberian peninsula an established relatively independent realms in its wastren provinces, includin the Sueves, Alans an Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths wad forcibly integrate aw remeenin independent territories in the peninsula, includin Byzantine provinces, intae the Kinrick o Toledo, that mair or less unifee'd poleetically, ecclesiastically an legally aw the umwhile Roman provinces or successor kinricks o that wis then documentit as Hispanie.

In the late aicht century the Visigothic kinrick fell tae the Moors, that ruled maist o the peninsula for the next seiven centuries, leavin anerly a haundful o smaw Christian realms in the north. Follaein the Moorish conquest, Europeans begoud a gradual process o retakkin the region kent as the Reconquista, that bi the late 15t century culminatit in the emergence o Spain as a unifee'd kintra unner the Catholic Monarchs. In the early modren period, Spain becam ane o history's first global empires, leavin a vast cultural an lingueestic legacy that includes ower 500 million Hispanophones, makkin Spaingie the warld's seicont maist spoken native leid, efter Mandarin Cheenese.

Spain is a secular pairlamentar democracy an constitutional monarchy, wi Keeng Felipe VI as heid o state. It is a major developit kintra wi the warld's fowerteent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an saxteent lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Cooncil o Europe (CoE), the Organisation o Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), OSCE, the Schengen Aurie, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO) an mony ither internaitional organisations. Spain hars a "permanent invitation" tae the G20 summits that occur generally ance a year.

Tred merk

A tred merk or tred-merk is a recognisable sign, design, or expression that identifees products or services o a pairteecular soorce frae thae o ithers, awtho tred merks uised tae identifee services are uisually cried service merks.


Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, translit. Ukrajina [ukrɑˈjinɑ]), whiles cried the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastren Europe, mairchit bi Roushie tae the east an northeast; Belaroushie tae the northwast; Poland, Hungary, an Slovakie tae the wast; Romanie an Moldovae tae the soothwast; an the Black Sea an Sea o Azov tae the sooth an sootheast, respectively. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute wi Roushie ower the Crimean Peninsula, that Roushie annexed in 2014 but that Ukraine an maist o the internaitional commonty recognise as Ukrainian. Includin Crimea, Ukraine haes an aurie o 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), makkin it the lairgest kintra entirely within Europe an the 46t lairgest kintra in the warld. Excludin Crimea, Ukraine haes a population o aboot 42.5 million, makkin it the 32nt maist populous kintra in the warld.The territory o modren Ukraine haes been inhabitit syne 32,000 BC. In the Middle Ages, the aurie wis a key centre o East Slavic cultur, wi the pouerfu state o Kievan Rus' formin the basis o Ukrainian identity. Follaein its fragmentation in the 13t century, the territory wis contestit, ruled an dividit bi a variety o pouers, includin Lithuanie, Poland, the Ottoman Empire, Austrick-Hungary, an Roushie. A Cossack republic emerged an prospered in the 17t an 18t centuries, but its territory wis eventually split atween Poland an the Roushie Empire, an later merged fully intae Roushie.

In the 20t century three periods o unthirldom occurred. The first o thir periods occurred briefly in an immediately efter the German occupation near the end o Warld War I an the seicont occurred, an aa briefly, an an aa in German occupation, in Warld War II. Houiver, baith o thir first twa earlier periods wad eventually see Ukraine's territories consolidatit back intae a Soviet republic within the USSR. The third period o unthirldom begoud in 1991, whan Ukraine gained its unthirldom frae the Soviet Union in the eftermath o its dissolution at the end o the Cauld War. Ukraine haes maintained its unthirldom as a sovereign state iver syne. Afore its unthirldom, Ukraine wis teepically referred tae as "The Ukraine", but soorces syne then hae muived tae drap "the" frae the name o Ukraine in aw uises.Follaein its unthirldom, Ukraine declared itsel a neutral state. Nanetheless it formed a leemitit militar pairtnership wi the Roushie Federation an ither CIS kintras an a pairtnership wi NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, the govrenment begoud leanin taewart NATO, an a deeper cooperation wi the alliance wis set bi the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It wis later agreed that the quiasten o jynin NATO shoud be answered bi a naitional referendum at some pynt in the futur. Umwhile Preses Viktor Yanukovych conseedert the current level o co-operation atween Ukraine an NATO sufficient, an wis against Ukraine jynin NATO. In 2013, efter the govrenment o Preses Yanukovych ha decidit tae suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Greement an seek closer economic ties wi Roushie, a several-months-lang wave o demonstrations an protests kent as the Euromaidan begoud, that later escalatit intae the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led tae the owerthraw o Preses Yanukovych an his cabinet an the establishment o a new govrenment. Thir events formed the backgrund for the annexation o Crimea bi Roushie in Mairch 2014, an the War in Donbass in Apryle 2014. On 1 Januar 2016, Ukraine applee'd the economic pairt o the Deep an Comprehensive Free Tred Aurie wi the European Union.Ukraine haes lang been a global breidbasket acause o its extensive, growthie fermlands an is ane o the warld's lairgest grain exporters. The diversified economy o Ukraine includes a lairge hivy industry sector, pairteecularly in aerospace an industrial equipment.

Ukraine is a unitar republic unner a semi-presidential seestem wi separate pouers: legislative, executive an judicial brainches. Its caipital an lairgest ceety is Kiev. Takkin intae accoont reserves an paramilitar personnel, Ukraine mainteens the seicont-lairgest military in Europe efter that o Roushie. The kintra is hame tae 42.5 million fowk (excludin Crimea), 77.8 percent o that are Ukrainians "bi ethnicity", follaed bi a sizeable minority o Roushies (17.3 percent) as weel as Georgies, Romanies/Moldovans, Belaroushies, Crimean Tatars, Bulgaries an Hungarians. Ukrainian is the offeecial leid an its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant releegion in the kintra is Eastren Orthodoxy, that haes strangly influenced Ukrainian airchitectur, leeteratur an muisic. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions syne its foondin, the Cooncil o Europe, OSCE, GUAM, an ane o the foondin states o the Commonweel o Independent States (CIS).

Viking Age

The Viking Age (c. 800AD-c. 1050) is a period in European history, especially Northren European an Scandinavian history, folleain the Germanic Airn Age. It is the period o history whan Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe bi its seas an rivers for tred, raids, colonisation, an conquest.

In ither leids

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