Phonetics (pronoonced /fəˈnɛtɪks/, from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch o lingueestics that comprises the study o the soonds o human speech, or—in the case of sign leids—the equivalent aspects o sign.[1]


  1. O'Grady (2005) p.15

In phonetics, an allophone is ane amang mony seemilar phones that's ocht the same phoneme. A phone is a soond that's soond swaw haes a definite shape, altho a phoneme is a basic group o soonds that disteenguishes wirds (i.e. chynging ae phoneme in ae wird brings forrit anither wird); speakers o a parteecular leid perceives a phoneme as a single kenspeckle soond in that leid. Fae this, an allophone is a phone thocht on as a member o the ae phoneme.

Ilka allophone is uised in a speceefic phonetic context. No aw phonemes haes signeeficantly differin allophones, but thare's aye a wee differ in soondin fae the ae bit speak tae the neist. An examplar is in Japanese that haes nae disteenction atween /l/ an /r/, an sae thir twa soonds gets guddelt by Japanese speakers acause thir soonds isna thocht on as sindry phonemes. Hooivver, in Scots thir twa soonds is thocht on as twa sindry anes, sae thay're baith thocht on as sindry phonemes. In some byleids o Inglis, "daurk" or velarised l is conseedert juist a kin o /l/, but in some ither leids, thir twa soonds differs.

Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant airteeculated wi baith lips.


In airticulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech soond that is airticulatit wi complete or pairtial closur o the vocal tract.


In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek δίφθογγος,

"diphthongos", meanin wi twa soonds) is a the gaun-thegither o twa vouels, for ordinar wi a swith but sliddery muivement fae the tae

vouel tae the tither, aft interpret bi listeners as a single vouel soond or phoneme.

Altho "pure" vouels, or monophthongs, is hauden tae hae the ae tairget tongue poseetion, diphthongs haes a muivin tongue.

Pure vouels is pitten ower in the Internaitional Phonetic ABC wi the ae seembol.

For example the in whit [ʍɪt] or [ʍʌt]

Diphthongs is pitten ower wi twa seembols, for example the in wynd [wəind].

Here the twa vouel seembols is mynt tae shaw the ewest beginnin

an endin tongue poseetions.

See forby

IPA chairt for Scots

Ewe leid

Ewe (Èʋe or Èʋegbe [èβeɡ͡be]) is a Niger–Congo leid spoken in sootheastren Ghana an soothren Togo bi ower three million fowk. Ewe is pairt o a cluster o relatit leids commonly cried Gbe; the ither major Gbe leid is Fon o Benin. Lik maist African leids, Ewe is tonal.

The German Africanist Diedrich Hermann Westermann published mony dictionaries an grammars o Ewe an several ither Gbe leids. Ither linguists who hae wirked on Ewe an closely relatit leids include Gilbert Ansre (tone, syntax), Herbert Stahlke (morphology, tone), Nick Clements (tone, syntax), Roberto Pazzi (anthropology, lexicography), Felix K. Ameka (semantics, cognitive linguistics), Alan Stewart Duthie (semantics, phonetics), Hounkpati B. Capo (phonology, phonetics), Enoch Aboh (syntax), an Chris Collins (syntax).

Human vyce

The vyce consists o soond made bi a human bein uisin the vocal folds for talkin, readin, sangin, laughin, cryin, screamin, shoutin, yellin etc.


Isochrony is the idea that a leid rhythmically divides time intae equal portions. Three types o diveesions are postulatit:

the temporal duration atween twa stressed seellables is equal (stress-timed);

The duration o ivery seellable is equal (seellable-timed);

the duration o ivery mora is equal (mora-timed).The idea wis first expressed bi Ken Pike in 1945. While mony linguists find the idea o different rhythm types appealin, empirical studies hae no been able tae fynd acoustic correlates o the postulatit types, cawin intae question the validity o these types.


Keelung Ceety (an aa Jilong or Chilung) is a major port ceety situatit in the northeastren pairt o Taiwan. It borders New Taipei an forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan aurie, alang wi the Taipei an New Taipei. Nicknamed the Rainy Port for its frequent rain an maritime role, the ceety is Taiwan's second lairgest seaport (efter Kaohsiung). Keelung is currently admeenistered as a provincial municipality athin the Republic o Cheenae (Taiwan).


The larynx /ˈlærɪŋks/ (plural larynges; frae the Greek λάρυγξ lárynx), commonly cried the vyce box, is an organ in the neck o amphibians, reptiles, an mammals involved in braithin, soond production, an pertectin the trachea against fuid aspiration.

My Fair Lady (film)

My Fair Lady is a 1964 muisical film adaptation o the Lerner an Loewe stage muisical o the same name, based on the 1938 film adaptation o the oreeginal stage play Pygmalion bi George Bernard Shaw. Directit bi George Cukor, the film depicts misogynistic an arrogant phonetics professor Henry Higgins as he wagers that he can tak flouer girl Eliza Doolittle (Audrey Hepburn) an turn her Cockney accent intae a proper Inglis ane, tharebi makin her presentable in heich society.

The film won aicht Academy Awairds, includin Best Picture, Best Actor, an Best Director.

Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, an aa cried a nasal occlusive, nasal stap in contrast wi a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced wi a lawered velum, allaein air tae escape freely through the neb. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human leids. Thare are an aa ither kinds o nasal consonants in some leids.


Phone is a hamelt term for telephone.In phonetics an phonology, a phone is a speech soond conseedert as a pheesical event athoot regaird tae its place in the soond seestem semantics o a langage. A soond lith that haes kenspeckle acoustic properties. A pairteecular kythin o a speech soond lith. The basic soond unit shawn fae phonetic speech analysis. Phonetic seembology is hauden athin square ([ ]) brackets. Compear wi a phoneme, a set o phones that cairies the same meanin.

The wird oreeginates fae the Greek φωνή for soond/vyce.


Pronunciation is the wey a wird or a leid is spoken, or the mainer in whilk a body moots a wird.


Ru, ru, or RU may refer to:

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 kintra code for Roushie

Rù (入), the enterin tone in Cheenese leid phonetics

Rú (儒), a Cheenese leid term for Confucianism

Ru (kana), the romanisation o the Japanese kana る an ル ; the same letters are uised tae substitute an L precedin a consonant when transliteratin Latin script wirds tae Katakana.

Ru (river) (汝), a river in Henan

Rack unit, a measurement o the heicht electronic equipment installed in 19 inch racks

Rugby union

the chemical seembol for the element Ruthenium

the IATA airline code for AirBridge Cargo

the ISO 639 alpha-2 code for the Roushie leid

.ru, the Internet kintra code tap-level domain for Roushie

The "backwards-R U" Recognized Component Mark o Underwriters Laboratories

Ru ware o Cheenese ceramics


In lingueestics, speceefically phonetics an phonology, schwa (/ʃwɑː/) (sometimes spelled shwa) refers tae the mid-central vouel soond (rounded or unrounded) in the middle o the vouel chairt, denotit bi the IPA seembol ə, or anither vouel soond close tae that poseetion.

Scots vouel lenth rule

The Scots Vouel-Lenth Rule, kent as Aitken's Law forby, efter Professor Jack Aitken, wha first pit it ower in a mensefu mainer, descrieves hou vouel lenth in Scots is condeetiont bi its environs. (Phonetics in IPA.)

The rule affects aw vouels in central dialects, tho in dialects ootwi central Scotland some vouels bides unaffectit.

[ə],[ɪ],[ʌ],[ɛ] and [a] is for ordinar short.

[e], [i], [o], [u] an [ø] is for ordinar lang:

in stresst seelables afore [v], [ð], [z], [ʒ] an [r].

afore anither vouel an

afore a morpheme boond.

[ɑ], [ɒ] an [ɔ] is for ordinar lang in maist dialects.

The diphthong [əi] for ordinar kythes in short environs an [aɪ] in the lang environs descrieved abuin.See forby

IPA chairt for Scots


In phonetics, a vowel is a soond in spoken leid, such as an Scots ah! IPA: [ɑː] or oh! IPA: [oʊ], pronoonced wi an open vocal tract so that thare is no big-up of air pressur at any pynt abuin the glottis.

In ither leids

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