Monarchy

A monarchy is a form o govrenment whaur sovereignty is acqually or nominally embodied in a single individual (the monarch).[1]

Richard Löwenhez, Salbung zum König

References

  1. Stuart Berg Flexner and Leonore Crary Hauck, editors, Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd Ed., Random House, New York (1993)
Austrick-Hungary

Austrick-Hungary or Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, an aa kent as the Dual Monarchy or the k.u.k. Monarchy, wis a monarchic union atween the crouns o the Austrian Empire an the Kinrick o Hungary in Central Europe. The union wis a result o the Ausgleich or Compromise o 1867, unner which the Austrian Hoose o Habsburg agreed tae share pouer wi the separate Hungarian government, dividin the territory o the umwhile Austrian Empire atween them. The Dual Monarchy haed existit for 51 years when it dissolved on October 31, 1918 follaein military defeat in the First Warld War.

Canadae

Canadae is a kintra in North Americae, ane of the northrenmaist in the warld, an the mucklest kintra gaun bi area efter Roushie. It mairches the Unitit States an its watters eiks northart intil the Arctic Ocean tae the Nor' Powl.

Canadae is a federation o ten provinces an three territories. It wis first shapit bi the Breetish North America Act o 1867 an cried the "Dominion o Canadae". It is a pairlamentary representative democracy an is a constitutional monarchy wi Queen Elizabeth II as heid o state.

Canadae's offeicial leids is Inglis an French. The French is spak feckly in Quebec (or Québec in French). Its offeicial estimate o indwallers for 2013 is 35,158,300.

Constitutional monarchy

A kintra wi a pairlament or leemitit monarchy is a form o govrenment staiblished unner a constitutional seestem that haes an electit or hereditar monarch as heid o state, as contrair tae an absolute monarchy, whaur the monarch isna thirlt by a consteetution an is the ae soorde o poleetical pouer. (The Unitit Kinrick is a kintra wi pairlament e'en tho it daesna hae an actual written constitution.) The process o govrenment an law athin a kinrick wi a pairlament is for ordinar gey different frae that in an absolute monarchy.

In maist kinricks wi a pairlament the monarch can be regairdit as the heid o state but the prime meenister, whase pouer comes directly or indirectly frae elections, is the heid o govrenment.

Coronation

A coronation is a ceremony markin the formal investiture o a monarch an/or thair consort wi regal pouer, uisually involvin the reetual placement o a croun upon his or her heid an the presentation o ither items o regalia.

Denmark

Denmark is a Scandinavie kintra in Northren Europe. The kintras o Denmark an Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kinrick o Denmark. It is the soothmaist o the Nordic kintras, soothwast o Swaden an sooth o Norawa, an bordered tae the sooth bi Germany. Denmark borders baith the Baltic an the North Sea. The kintra consists o a lairge peninsulae, Jutland (Jylland) an mony islands, maist notably Zealand (Sjælland), Funen (Fyn), Vendsyssel-Thy (commonly considered a pairt o Jutland), Lolland, Falster an Bornholm, as well as hunders o minor islands aften referred tae as the Dens Airchipelago. Denmark haes lang controlled the approach tae the Baltic Sea (dominium maris baltici); afore the diggin o the Kiel Canal, watter passage tae the Baltic Sea wis possible anerlie throu the three channels kent as the "Dens straits".

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy wi a parliamentary seestem o govrenment. It haes a state-level govrenment an local govrenments in 98 municipalities. Denmark haes been a member o the European Union syne 1973, awtho it haes no joined the Eurozone. A foondin member o NATO an the OECD, it is an aw a member o the Organisation for Security an Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

Dynasty

A dynasty is a sequence o rulers frae the same faimily, uisually in the context o a feudal or monarchical seestem but sometimes an aa appearin in elective republics.

Fraunce

Fraunce (France French: [fʁɑ̃s]), offeecially the French Republic (République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a kintra wi territory in wastren Europe an several owerseas regions an territories. The European, or metropolitan, aurie o Fraunce extends frae the Mediterranean Sea tae the Inglis Channel an the North Sea, an frae the Rhine tae the Atlantic Ocean. Owerseas Fraunce include French Guiana on the Sooth American continent an several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific an Indie oceans. Fraunce spans 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) an haed a tot population o awmaist 67 million fowk as o Januar 2017. It is a unitary semi-presidential republic wi the caipital in Paris, the kintra's lairgest ceety an main cultural an commercial centre. Ither major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse an Bordeaux.

In the Airn Age, whit is nou metropolitan Fraunce wis inhaibitit bi the Gauls, a Celtic fowk. The aurie wis annexed in 51 BC bi Roum, which held Gaul till 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region an formed the Kinrick o Fraunce. Fraunce emerged as a major European pouer in the Late Middle Ages, wi its veectory in the Hunder Years' War (1337 tae 1453) strenthenin state-biggin an poleetical centralisation. During the Renaissance, French cultur flourished and a global colonial empire wis established, which bi the 20t century wad be the seicont lairgest in the warld. The 16t century wis dominatit bi releegious ceevil wars atween Catholics an Protestants (Huguenots). Fraunce acame Europe's dominant cultural, poleetical, an militar power unner Louis XIV. In the late 18t century, the French Revolution owerthrew the absolute monarchy, established ane o modren history's earliest republics, an saw the draftin o the Declaration o the Richts o Man an o the Ceetizen, which expresses the naition's ideals tae this day.

In the 19t century Napoleon teuk pouer an established the First French Empire, whase subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the coorse o continental Europe. Follaein the collapse o the Empire, Fraunce endured a tumultuous succession o govrenments culminatin wi the establishment o the French Third Republic in 1870. Fraunce wis a major pairteecipant in the First Warld War, frae which it emerged victorious, an wis ane o the Allied Pouers in the Seicont Warld War, but came unner occupation bi the Axis Pouers in 1940. Follaein leeberation in 1944, a Fowert Republic wis established an later dissolved in the coorse o the Algerian War. The Fift Republic, led bi Charles de Gaulle, wis formed in 1958 an remeens tae this day. Algerie an nearly aw the ither colonies acame independent in the 1960s wi minimal controversy an teepically reteened close economic an militar connections wi Fraunce.

Fraunce haes lang been a global centre o airt, science, an filosofie. It hosts Europe's fowerth-lairgest nummer o cultural UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids an receives aroond 83 million foreign tourists annually, the maist o ony kintra in the warld. Fraunce is a developit kintra wi the warld's saxt-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an nint-lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. In terms o aggregate hoosehauld wealth, it ranks fowert in the warld. Fraunce performs well in internaitional rankins o eddication, heal care, life expectancy, an human development. Fraunce remeens a great pouer in the warld, bein ane o the five permanent members o the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil wi the pouer tae veto an an offeecial nuclear-wappen state. It's a leadin member state o the European Union an the Eurozone. It is an aa a member o the Group o 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO), an La Francophonie.

French Revolution

The French Revolution (French: Révolution française) wis an influential period o social an poleetical upheaval in Fraunce that lasted frae 1789 till 1799, an wis partially carried forward bi Napoleon during the later expansion o the French Empire. The Revolution owerthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods o poleetical turmoil, an finally culminatit in a dictatorship bi Napoleon that forcibly brocht mony o its ideals tae Wastren Europe. Inspired bi liberal an radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the coorse o modren history, triggerin the decline o theocracies an absolute monarchies while replacin them wi republics an democracies. Throu the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave o global conflicts that extendit frae the Caribbean tae the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as ane o the maist important events in human history.

Hoose o Habsburg

The Hoose o Habsburg (/ˈhæps.bɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːps.bʊʁk]), an aa cried Hoose o Hapsburg, or Hoose o Austrick, wis ane o the maist important ryal hooses o Europe.

Iran

Iran, kent offeecially as the Islamic Republic o Iran, is a kintra in Wastren Asie. Wi ower 81 million indwallers, Iran is the warld's 18t maist populous kintra. Comprisin a laund aurie o 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the seicont lairgest kintra in the Middle East an the 17t lairgest in the warld. Iran is mairchit tae the northwast bi Armenie an the Republic o Azerbaijan, tae the north bi the Caspian Sea, tae the northeast bi Turkmenistan, tae the east bi Afghanistan an Pakistan, tae the sooth bi the Persie Gulf an the Gulf o Oman, an tae the wast bi Turkey an Iraq. The kintra's central location in Eurasie an Wastren Asia, an its proximity tae the Strait o Hormuz, gie it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the kintra's caipital an lairgest ceety, as weel as its leadin economic an cultural centre.

Iran is hame tae ane o the warld's auldest ceevilisations, beginnin wi the formation o the Elamite kinricks in the fowert millennium BCE. It wis first unifee'd bi the Iranian Medes in the seivent century BCE, reachin its greatest territorial size in the saxt century BCE, whan Cyrus the Great foondit the Achaemenid Empire, that stretched frae Eastern Europe tae the Indus Valley, acomin ane o the lairgest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell tae Alexander the Great in the fowert century BCE an wis dividit intae several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminatit in the establishment o the Parthian Empire, that wis succeedit in the third century CE bi the Sasanian Empire, a leadin warld pouer for the next fower centuries.Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seivent century CE. The Islamisation o Iran led tae the decline o Zoroastrianism, that wis bi then the kintra's dominant releegion, an Iran's major contreibutions tae airt an science spreid within the Muslim rule in the Islamic Gowden Age. Efter twa centuries, a period o various native Muslim dynasties begoud, that were later conquered bi the Seljuq Turks an the Ilkhanate Mongols. The rise o the Safavids in the 15t century led tae the reestablishment o a unifee'd Iranian state an naitional identity, wi the kintra's conversion tae Shia Islam merkin a turnin point in Iranian an Muslim history. Unner Nader Shah, Iran wis ane o the maist pouerfu states in the 18t century, tho bi the 19t century, a series o conflicts wi the Russian Empire led tae signeeficant territorial losses. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20t century led tae the establishment of a constitutional monarchy an the kintra's first legislatur. A 1953 coup instigatit bi the Unitit Kinrick an the Unitit States resultit in greater autocracy an growin Wastren poleetical influence. Subsequent widespreid dissatisfaction an unrest against the monarchy led tae the 1979 Revolution an the establishment o an Islamic republic, a poleetical seestem that includes elements o a pairlamentar democracy vettit an supervised bi a theocracy govrened bi an autocratic "Supreme Leader". In the 1980s, the kintra wis engaged in a war wi Iraq, that lastit for awmaist nine years an resultit in a heich nummer o casualties an economic losses for baith sides.

The sovereign state o Iran is a foondin member o the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, an OPEC. It is a major regional an middle pouer, an its lairge reserves o fossil fuels – that include the warld's lairgest naitural gas supply an the fowert lairgest pruiven ile reserves – exert conseederable influence in internaitional energy security an the warld economy.

The kintra's rich cultural legacy is reflectit in pairt bi its 22 UNESCO Warld Heritage steids, the third lairgest nummer in Asie an 11t lairgest in the warld. Iran is a multicultural kintra comprisin numerous ethnic an lingueestic groups, the lairgest bein Persies (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), an Lurs (6%).

Japan

Japan (Japanese: 日本 Nippon [nip̚põ̞ɴ] or Nihon [nihõ̞ɴ]; formally 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, meanin "State o Japan") is a sovereign island naition in Eastren Asie. Locatit in the Paceefic Ocean, it lies off the eastren coast o the Asie Mainland (east o Cheenae, Korea, Roushie) an stretches frae the Sea o Okhotsk in the north tae the East Cheenae Sea an Taiwan in the soothwast.

The kanji that mak up Japan's name mean "sun origin". 日 can be read as ni an means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon an means origin. Japan is eften referred tae bi the famous epithet "Laund o the Risin Sun" in reference tae its Japanese name.

Japan is a stratovolcanic airchipelago conseestin o aboot 6,852 islands. The fower lairgest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu an Shikoku, which mak up aboot ninety-seiven percent o Japan's laund aurie an eften are referred tae as hame islands. The kintra is dividit intae 47 prefecturs in aicht regions. Hokkaido bein the northrenmost prefectur an Okinawa bein the soothernmaist ane. The population o 127 million is the warld's tent lairgest. Japanese fowk mak up 98.5% o Japan's tot population. Approximately 9.1 million fowk live in the core ceety o Tokyo, the caipital o Japan.

Airchaeological resairch indicates that Japan wis inhaibitit as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention o Japan is in Cheenese history texts frae the 1st century AD. Influence frae ither regions, mainly Cheenae, follaed bi periods o isolation, pairteecularly frae Wastren Europe, haes chairacterised Japan's history. Frae the 12t century till 1868, Japan wis ruled bi successive feudal militar shoguns wha ruled in the name o the Emperor.

Japan entered intae a lang period o isolation in the early 17t century, which wis endit in 1853 when a Unitit States fleet pressured Japan tae open tae the Wast. Efter nearly twa decades o internal conflict an insurrection, the Imperial Coort regained its poleetical pouer in 1868 throu the help o several clans frae Chōshū an Satsuma, an the Empire o Japan wis established. In the late 19t an early 20t centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War an Warld War I allaed Japan tae expand its empire during a period o increasin militarism.

The Seicont Sino-Japanese War o 1937 expandit intae pairt o World War II in 1941, which came tae an end in 1945 follaein the atomic bombins o Hiroshima an Nagasaki an the Japanese surrender. Syne adoptin its revised constitution on Mey 3, 1947 during the occupation bi the SCAP, Japan haes maintained a unitar pairlamentary constitutional monarchy wi an Emperor an an electit legislatur cried the Naitional Diet.

Japan is a member o the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, an the G20 an is conseedert a great pouer. The kintra haes the warld's third-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an the warld's foerrth-lairgest economy bi purchasin pouer parity. It is an aa the waarld's fowert-lairgest exporter an fowert-lairgest importer. The kintra benefits frae a heichly skilled wirkforce an is amang the maist heichly eddicatit kintras in the warld, wi ane o the heichest percentages o its ceetizens hauldin a tertiary eddication degree.Awtho Japan haes offeecially renoonced its richt tae declare war, it mainteens a modren militar wi the warld's aicht-lairgest militar budget, uised for sel-defence an peacekeepin roles. Japan is a developit kintra wi a very heich staundart o livin an Human Development Index. Its population enjoys the heichest life expectancy an the third lawest infant mortality rate in the warld.

Malaysie

Malaysie is a federal constitutional monarchy in Soothaest Asie. It consists o thirteen states an three federal territories an haes a tot landmass o 329,845 km (127,354 mi). The kintra is separated bi the Sooth Cheenae Sea intae twa regions, Peninsular Malaysie an Malaysien Borneo (an aa kent as Wast an Aest Malaysie respectively) an haes maritime boundaries wi Singapore, Vietnam, an the Philippines. The caipital ceety is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat o the federal govrenment. The population staunds at ower 28 million.

Malaysia haes its oreegins in the Malay Kinricks present in the aurie which, frae the 18t century, became subject tae the Breetish Empire. The first Breetish territories wur kent as the Straits Settlements. Peninsular Malaysie, then kent as Malaya, wis first unified unner the commonweel in 1946, afore becomin the Federation o Malaya in 1948. In 1963, Malaya unified wi Sabah, Sarawak, an Singapore. In 1965, Singapore co-optit oot o the federation an became an independent ceety state. Syne its unthirldom, Malaysie haes haed ane o the best economic records in Asie, wi GDP growin an average 6.5% for the first 50 years o unthirldom.

Malaysia's heid o state is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, conventionally referred tae as "the Head" or "the Agong". The Agong is an electit monarch chosen frae ane o the sultans frae the Malaysien states. The heid o govrenment is the Prime Meenister. The govrenment is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary seestem.

Malaysie, which, in Tanjung Piai, can claim the soothmaist pynt o continental Eurasie, is locatit near the equator an haes a tropical climate. It haes a biodiverse range o flora an fauna, an is considered ane o the 17 megadiverse countries. It is a foondin member o the Association o Southeast Asian Nations an the Organisation o the Islamic Conference, an a member o Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation an the Non-Aligned Movement.

Monarchy o the Unitit Kinrick

The monarchy o the Unitit Kinrick, commonly referred tae as the Breetish monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy o the Unitit Kinrick, its dependencies an its owerseas territories. The monarch's teetle is "Keeng" (male) or "Queen" (female). The current monarch an heid o state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascendit the throne on the daith o her faither, Keeng George VI, on 6 Februar 1952.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire, kent offeecially as Sublime Ottoman State (Ottoman Turkis: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye, Modren Turkis: Yüce Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) wis an empire that lastit frae 1299 tae 1923.

At the hicht o its pouer, in the saxteent an seiventeent centuries, the empire spanned three continents, controlling the feck o Sootheastren Europe, Wastren Asie an North Africae The Ottoman Empire conteened 29 provinces an numerous vassal states, some o which wur later absorbed intae the empire, while ithers wur grantit various teeps o autonomy in the course o centuries. The empire temporarily gained authority ower distant owerseas lands forby, throu declarations o allegiance tae the Ottoman Sultan an Caliph, lik the declaration bi the Sultan o Aceh in 1565; or throu the temporar acquisitions o islands in the Atlantic Ocean, lik Lanzarote in 1585.

The empire wis at the centre o interactions atween the Eastern an Wastren warlds for sax centuries. Wi Constantinople as its caipital ceety, an vast control o lands aroond the eastren Mediterranean throu the reign o Suleiman the Magneeficent (ruled 1520 tae 1566), the Ottoman Empire wis, in mony respeckkts, an Islamic successor tae the Eastren Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

The Ottoman Empire came tae an end, as a regime unner an imperial monarchy, on November 1, Mehmed VI deportit frae Constantinople on November 17. It formally endit, as a de jure state, on Julie 24, 1923, unner the Treaty o Lausanne. Wi the Treaty of Lausanne (signed on Julie 24, 1923) the new Turkis State (still nae a Republic, whilk wis proclaimed later on October 29, 1923) heidquartered in Ankara wis internaitionally recognised as the successor tae the Sublime Ottoman State. It wis succeedit bi the Republic o Turkey whilk wis offeecially proclaimed on October 29, 1923.

The empire wis forby kent in Inglis as the Osmanic Empire, the Osmanian Empire or the Ottoman State. Mony contemporaries referred tae it as the Turkis Empire or simply Turkey (see the ither names o the Ottoman State).

Qatar

Qatar (Arabic: قطر‎ [ˈqɑtˁɑr]; Inglis pronunciation: /kəˈtɑr/ kə-TAR; local pronunciation: [ɡitˁar]), kent offeecially as the State o Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is an Arab kintra, kent offeecially as an emirate, in the Middle East, occupyin the sma Qatar Peninsulae on the northeasterly coast o the muckle lairger Arabian Peninsulae. It is bordered bi Saudi Arabie tae the sooth; itherwise, the Persian Gulf surroonds the state. A strait o the Persian Gulf separates Qatar frae the nearby island naition o Bahrain.

Qatar is an ile- an gas-rich naition, wi the third lairgest gas reserves, an the first or seicont hichtest GDP per capita in the warld. An absolute monarchy, Qatar haes been ruled bi the al-Thani faimily syne the mid-19t century an haes syne transformed itself frae a Breetish protectorate notit mainly for pearlin intae an independent state wi significant ile an natural gas revenues.

Ryal Highness

Ryal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used tae address or refer tae some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Ryal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific (His Ryal Highness or Her Royal Highness, both abbreviated HRH) an, in plural, Their Ryal Highnesses (TRH).

Spain

Spain (Spaingie: España [esˈpaɲa] ( listen)), offeecially the Kinrick o Spain (Spaingie: Reino de España), is a kintra maistly locatit on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The kintra's mainland is mairchit tae the sooth an east bi the Mediterranean Sea except for a smaw laund boondary wi Gibraltar; tae the north an northeast bi Fraunce, Andorrae, an the Bay o Biscay; an tae the wast an northwest bi Portugal an the Atlantic Ocean. Spaingie territory includes twa large airchipelagaes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea an the Canary Islands aff the African Atlantic coast, twa ceeties, Ceuta an Melilla, on the African mainland an several smaw islands in the Alboran Sea near the African coast. Spain is the anerly European kintra tae hae a mairch wi an African kintra (Morocco)Wi an aurie o 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the lairgest kintra in Soothren Europe, the seicont lairgest kintra in Wastren Europe an the European Union, an the fowert lairgest kintra in the European continent. Bi population, Spain is the saxt lairgest in Europe an the fift in the European Union. Spain's caipital an lairgest ceety is Madrid; ither major urban auries include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao an Málaga.

Modren humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula aroond 35,000 years ago. Iberian culturs alang wi auncient Phoenicie, Greek an Carthaginian settlements developit on the peninsula till it cam unner Roman rule aroond 200 BCE, efter that the region wis named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end o the Wastren Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migratit frae Central Europe, invadit the Iberian peninsula an established relatively independent realms in its wastren provinces, includin the Sueves, Alans an Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths wad forcibly integrate aw remeenin independent territories in the peninsula, includin Byzantine provinces, intae the Kinrick o Toledo, that mair or less unifee'd poleetically, ecclesiastically an legally aw the umwhile Roman provinces or successor kinricks o that wis then documentit as Hispanie.

In the late aicht century the Visigothic kinrick fell tae the Moors, that ruled maist o the peninsula for the next seiven centuries, leavin anerly a haundful o smaw Christian realms in the north. Follaein the Moorish conquest, Europeans begoud a gradual process o retakkin the region kent as the Reconquista, that bi the late 15t century culminatit in the emergence o Spain as a unifee'd kintra unner the Catholic Monarchs. In the early modren period, Spain becam ane o history's first global empires, leavin a vast cultural an lingueestic legacy that includes ower 500 million Hispanophones, makkin Spaingie the warld's seicont maist spoken native leid, efter Mandarin Cheenese.

Spain is a secular pairlamentar democracy an constitutional monarchy, wi Keeng Felipe VI as heid o state. It is a major developit kintra wi the warld's fowerteent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an saxteent lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Cooncil o Europe (CoE), the Organisation o Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), OSCE, the Schengen Aurie, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO) an mony ither internaitional organisations. Spain hars a "permanent invitation" tae the G20 summits that occur generally ance a year.

Swaden

The Kinrick o Swaden (Swadish: Sverige) is a Nordic kintra on the Scandinavian hauf-island. It's a constitutional monarchy, an the keeng is Carl XVI Gustaf. Aboot 10,000,000 fowk bydes in Swaden. The caipital ceety o Swaden is Stockholm, that haes aboot 2.1 million indwallers. Swaden is a member o the European Union. It haes mairches wi Norawa an Finland. It is a an aa homa tae o Swaden Cheef.

Unitit Kinrick

The Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland (Inglis: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), commonly kent as the Unitit Kinrick (Inglis: United Kingdom; UK) or Breetain (Inglis: Britain), is a sovereign kintra in waster Europe. Lyin aff the north-wastren coast o the European mainland, the UK includes the iland o Great Breetain, the north-eastren pairt o the island o Ireland an mony smawer islands. Northren Ireland is the anly pairt o the Unitit Kinrick that shares a laund mairch wi anither sovereign state‍—‌the Republic o Ireland. Apairt frae this laund mairch, the UK is surroondit bi the Atlantic Ocean, wi the North Sea tae its east, the Inglis Channel tae its sooth an the Celtic Sea tae its sooth-sooth-wast, giein it the 12t-langest coastline in the warld. The Erse Sea lies atween Great Breetain an Ireland. Wi an aurie o 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the UK is the 78t-lairgest sovereign state in the warld an the 11t-lairgest in Europe. It is an aa the 21st-maist populous kintra, wi an estimatit 65.5 million indwallers. Thegither, this maks it the fowert-maist densely populatit kintra in the European Union (EU).The UK is a constitutional monarchy wi a pairliamentar democracy. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, that haes ringed syne 6 Februar 1952, makkin her the langest-servin current heid o state. The UK's caipital an lairgest ceety is Lunnon, a global ceety an financial centre wi an urban aurie population o 10.3 million, the fowert-lairgest in Europe an seicont-lairgest in the European Union. Ither major urban auries in the UK include the conurbations centred on Birmingham, Leeds, Glesga, Liverpuil an Manchester. The UK consists o fower kintras—Ingland, Scotland, Wales an Northren Ireland. Aw but Ingland hae devolved admeenistrations, ilk wi varyin pouers, based in thair caipitals Edinburgh, Cairdiff an Belfast, respectively. The nearbi Isle o Man, Bailiwick o Guernsey an Bailiwick o Jersey are nae pairt o the UK, bein Croun dependencies wit the Breetish Govrenment responsible for defence an internaitional representation.Prior tae the creaution o the UK, Wales haed been conquered an annexed bi the Kinrick o Ingland. This meant that the unitit kinrick creautit in 1707 bi the Treaty o Union atween Ingland an Scotland encompassed aw o Great Breetain. The Kinrick o Ireland merged wi this state in 1801 tae form the Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Ireland. Five-saxts o Ireland secedit frae the UK in 1922, leavin the present formulation o the Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain and Northren Ireland. Thare are fowerteen Breetish Owerseas Territories, the remnants o the Breetish Empire that, at its hicht in the 1920s, encompassed awmaist a quarter o the warld's land mass an wis the lairgest empire in history. Breetish influence can be observed in the leid, cultur an legal seestems o mony o its umwhile colonies.

The UK is a developit kintra an haes the warld's saxt-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an ninth-lairgest economy bi purchasin pouer parity. It haes a heich-income economy an haes a "verra heich" Human Development Index, rankin 16t in the warld. It wis the first industrialised kintra an the warld's foremaist pouer in the 19t an early 20t centuries. The UK remeens a great pouer wi conseederable economic, cultural, militar, scienteefic an poleetical influence internaitionally. It is a recognised nuclear wappens state an is seivent in militar expenditur in the warld. It haes been a permanent member o the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil syne its first session in 1946. It haes been a leadin member state o the EU an its predecessor, the European Economic Commonty (EEC), syne 1973; houiver, on 23 Juin 2016, a non-bindin referendum on the UK's membership o the EU resultit wi 51.9% o UK voters favourin a leave, an the kintra's prospective exit frae the EU is bein negotiatit. The UK is an aa a member o the Commonweel o Naitions, the Cooncil o Europe, the G7 finance meenisters, the G7 forum, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), an the Warld Trade Organisation (WTO).

In ither leids

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