Lingueestics is the studie o leids n langage.

It is ae gey braid subject, encompassin:

  • phoneteecs — the studie o the soonds o peoples langage
    • phonologie — the studie o whit soonds is in indiveedual leids, hou thir soonds is pitten thegather tae form permitable wairds in thae leids
  • morphologie — the studie o hou the "biggin-blocks" o wairds (prefixes, suffixes, verb endins...) is pitten thegather tae mak wairds or compoond-wairds
  • seentax — the studie o hou wairds is pitten thegather tae mak sentances
  • sociolingueesteecs — the studie o the function n effect o langage wiin wider societie, n the effect o societal facters oan langage n aw
  • psycholingueesteecs — the studie o hou leids is perceeved wiin the harn
  • histeriecal lingueesteecs — the studie o the evolution o leids, n the ettle tae reconstruct leids o the bygane

N thaur's ither, smaaer fields o studie wiin the subject aes weel.

Lingueesteecs is maist aften taucht aes ae tertiarie level subject, that is at the varsitie, tho some o it micht be taucht in langage claisses at the hie schuil.

Auld Inglis leid

The Auld Inglis leid is a wast Germanic leid that wis spak in Breetain atween aboot 425 an 1125. Hit is an early furm o Inglis an Scots, an is sib wi Auld Frisian an Auld Saxon. Wast Saxon wis the heidmaist mak o Auld Inglis in the auncient corpus, includin the epic poem Beowulf, as the Wast Saxons wis the strangest kinrick o thon time, whiles the Northumbrian dialect o Auld Inglis eventually becam the Scots leid.

Auld Inglis hud a grammatic system nae affa faur awa fae Laitin. In maist wuys, hit wis mair alike ti modren German ur Icelandic than tae modren Inglis. Hit wis guy inflectit, wi fyve grammatic cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, an eenstrumental), three grammatic nummers (single, plural, an dual) an three grammatic genders (masculine, feminine, an neuter) an aw. The dual wis used fir the first and seicont persons only, an referrit ti groups o twa.

O aw the descendants o Auld Inglis, Scots and Northumbrian Inglis are the maist true tae the oreeginal furm.

Auld Inglis didna staun still, bit raitherly its usage streeched oor a period o 700 year, fi the Wast Germanic migration ti Great Britain in the 5th century, richt up ti the hyne o the 11th century. The name o 'Auld Inglis' wis cairried on ti the time o the Norman invasion, whan the eenfluence o the French leid chynged its grammar sae it wis mair like ti modren Inglis. Meanwhiles the Northernmaist toons whaur Auld Inglis wis spak wis ower the modren border o England intae Soothren Scotland aroond Midlothian. It wis fae this steid that, ower tyme, the leid split apairt frae its Soothren neebour an stairtit forming feetures o the ilk o Scots.


Cognates in lingueestics is wirds that haes a common oreegin. Thay micht can occur athin a leid, sicas shirt an skirt as twa Inglis wirds comin frae the Proto-Indo-European wird *sker-, meanin "tae cut". Thay micht can occur athort langages an aw, e.g. nicht an German Nacht as descendants o Proto-Indo-European *nokt-, "nicht".

Constructit leid

A planned or constructit leid is a leid whose phonology, grammar, an vocabulary hae been consciously devised for human or human-lik communication, insteid o havin developed naiturally.


An epithet (frae Greek: ἐπίθετον epitheton, neut. o ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributit, addit") is a biname, or a descriptive term (wird or phrase), accompanyin or occurrin in place o a name an havin entered common uisage.


Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Scots: Ethnologue: Leids o the Warld) is a wab-based publication that contains stateestics for 7,472 leids an dialects in the 18t edeetion, released in 2015.


Glottolog is a bibliografic database o the warld's lesser-kent leids, developit an mainteened first at the umwhile Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, an syne 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science o Human History in Jena, Germany.

Grammatical nummer

In lingueestics, grammatical nummer is a grammatical category o nouns, pronouns, an adjective an verb agreement that expresses coont distinctions (such as "ane", "twa", or "three or mair").


Formally, in lingueestics, a lexicon is a leid's inventory o lexemes.

Meanin (lingueestics)

In linguistics, meanin is whit the soorce or sender expresses, communicates, or conveys in thair message tae the observer or receiver, an whit the receiver infers frae the current context.


Phonetics (pronoonced /fəˈnɛtɪks/, from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch o lingueestics that comprises the study o the soonds o human speech, or—in the case of sign leids—the equivalent aspects o sign.

Readin (process)

Readin is a complex "cognitive process" o decodin seembols in order tae construct or derive meanin (readin comprehension).


Rhetoric is the airt o discoorse, an airt that aims tae improve the capability o writers or speakers that attempt tae inform, persuade, or motivate pairticular audiences in specific situations.

Sentence (lingueestics)

A sentence is a grammatical unit consistin o ane or mair wirds that are grammatically airtit.


In sociology, anthropology an lingueestics, structuralism is the theory that elements o human cultur must be unnerstuid in terms o thair relationship tae a lairger, owerairchin seestem or structur.

Swadish leid

Swadish (svenska) is a North Germanic leid, spak bi mair nor nine million fowk, maistly in Swaden an pairts o Finland, especially alang the coast an on the Åland islands. It is tae a lairge extent mutually intelligible wi Norwegian an a bittie less wi Dens. Swaden is ca'd "Sverige" in Swadish, it is pronouncit "Sver-ye".


Translation is the communication o the meanin o a soorce-leid text bi means o an equivalent target-leid text.

Vouel harmony

Vouel harmony is a teep o lang-distance assimilatory phonological process involvin vouels that occurs in some leids. In leids wi vouel harmony, thare are constraints on which vowels mey be foond near each ither.


In lingueestics, a wird is the smawest element that mey be uttered in isolation wi semantic or pragmatic content (wi leeteral or practical meanin).

Wird stem

In lingueestics, a stem is a part o a wird. The term is uised wi slichtly different meanins.

In ither leids

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