For ither uisses, see Leid (disambiguation)

The concept o leid (cried langage forby) can be exponed in monie weys, fur example:

  • a wey o communicatin anent things, acts an ideas
  • a set o meanins common tae sindry fowk
  • a form o thocht
  • seembols impleein actions or inactions

But the chief meanin o leid is human langage.

Some fowk says that ainimals haes leids or can be teached leids; ithers dinna gree wi this, an says that "ainimal leids" isna complicate or meaninfu eneuch tae be cried "leids", or that thay dinna hae the grammar needit tae be thocht o as leids; this o coorse lippens on the defeneition o leid a bodie is wirkin wi.

Mathaematics an computer science uises leids cried formal leids (like computer programmin leids). Mathematics itsel is conseidert a leid bi monie theorists.

See an aw


The Arabic leid (العربية al-ʻarabīyah [alʕaraˈbijja] ( listen) or عربي/عربى ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen)) is the leid that is mainly uised throu oot the Arabic warld, the Arab States, North Africae an the Mids East, an it is the 5t maist spoken leid in the warld. It haes influenced ither leids an aw, mainly ither leids in the Islamic warld, but leids in airts whaur thare wis Arab rule, sic as the Spaingie leid, the Portuguese leid an the Sicilian leid. It is the offeecial leid o 25 kintras, the thrid maist efter Inglis an French.

Armenie leid

Armenie (հայերեն լեզու, hayeren lezu or hayeren) is a Indo-European leid. It is the naitional leid o the Republic o Armenie an is spak in pairts o Georgie an aw. It haes aboot sieven million speakers athort the warld.


The Kinrick o Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België; French: Royaume de Belgique; German: Königreich Belgien) is a kintra in nor'wastren Europe that haes laund mairches wi the Netherlands, Fraunce, Luxembourg an Germany, Belgium proclaimed its unthirldom, an biway, its foondaition, in Juin 1831. It wis ane o the foondin members o the European Union. Belgium haes three main pairts; Flanders, whar folk speak Dutch, Wallonia whar French is the mither tung, an Brussels, which is bilingual. Dere be Jairman speakin community in Wallonia an aw.


Brazil (pronounced /brəˈzɪl/ (deprecatit template); Portuguese: Brasil, IPA: [bɾaˈziw]), offeecially the Federative Republic o Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, listen ), is the lairgest kintra in Sooth Americae. It is the warld's fift lairgest kintra, baith bi geographical aurie an bi population wi ower 190 million fowk. It is the anerlie Portuguese-speakin kintra in the Americas an the lairgest lusophone kintra in the warld.

Bundit bi the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil haes a coastline o ower 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It is bordered on the north bi Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname an the French owerseas depairtment o French Guiana; on the northwast bi Colombie; on the wast bi Bolivie an Peru; on the soothwast bi Argentinae an Paraguay an on the sooth bi Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form pairt o Brazilian territory, sic as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saunt Peter an Paul Rocks, an Trindade an Martim Vaz. It haes borders wi aw ither Sooth American kintras apairt frae Ecuador an Chile.

Fair uise

Fair uise (Inglis: fair use) is a doctrine unique tae the law o the Unitit States that permits leemitit uise o copyrichted material withoot haein tae first acquire permission frae the copyricht hualder.

German leid

German (Deutsch) is a Wast Germanic leid, thus relatit tae an clessifee'd alangside Inglis an Dutch. It is ane o the warld's major leids an the maist widely spoken first leid in the European Union. Globally, German is spoken bi approximately 120 million native speakers an aa bi aboot 80 million non-native speakers. Standard German is widely taught in schools, varsities an Goethe Institutes warldwide. It is a naitional leid o Germany, Austrick, Liechtenstein, Swizzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium an the European Union.

Greek leid

Greek (Greek: ελληνική γλώσσα or semply ελληνικά — "Hellenic") haes a documentit history o 3,400 year, the langest o ony single naitural leid in the Indo-European leid faimily. It is ane o the earliest attestit Indo-European leids an aw, wi fragmentary records in Mycenaean datin back tae the 15t or 14t century BC, makkin it the warld's auldest recordit leevin leid. The day, it is spoken bi aboot 17–25 million fowk in Greece (offeecial), Cyprus (offeecial), Albanie, Bulgarie, the Republic o Macedonie, Italy, Turkey, Armenie, Georgie, Ukraine, Moldovae, Romanie, Roushie, Egyp, Jordan an emigrant communities athort the warld, includin Australie, Unitit States, Canadae, Germany an ithergates.

Greek haes been written in the Greek alphabet (the auldest conteenasly uised alphabet, an the first tae introduce vouels) syne the 9t century BC in Greece (afore that in Linear B), an the 4t century BC in Cyprus (afore that in Cypriot seelabary). Greek literature haes a conteenas history o near-haund three thoosand year.

Inglis leid

Inglis (English) is a Wast Germanic leid that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kinricks o England an spread intae whit wis tae acome sooth-east Scotland unner the influence o the Anglian medieval kinrick o Northumbrie. Follaein the economic, poleetical, military, scienteefic, cultural, an colonial influence o Great Breetain an the Unitit Kinrick frae the 18t century, via the Breetish Empire, an o the Unitit States syne the mid-20t century, it haes been widely dispersed aroond the warld, acome the leadin leid o internaitional discourse, an haes acquired uise as lingua franca in mony regions. It is widely learnit as a seicont leid an uised as an offeecial leid o the European Union an mony Commonwealth kintras, as well as in mony warld organisations. It is the third maist natively spoken leid in the warld, efter Mandarin Cheenese an Spaingie.Historically, Inglish originatit frae the fusion o leids an dialects, noo collectively kent as Auld Inglis, whilk wur brocht tae the eastren coast o Great Breetain bi Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) settlers beginnin in the 5t century – wi the wird "Inglis" bein derived frae the name o the Angles. A significant nummer o Inglis wirds are constructit based on roots frae Latin, acause Latin in some form wis the lingua franca o the Christian Kirk an o European intellectual life. The leid wis faur influenced bi the Auld Norse leid wi Viking invasions in the 8t an 9t centuries.

The Norman conquest o Ingland in the 11t century gae rise tae hivy borrowins frae Norman-French, an vocabulary an spelling conventions began tae gie the superficial appearance o a close relationship wi Romance leids tae whit haed noo acome Middle Inglis. The Great Vowel Shift that began in the sooth o Ingland in the 15t century is ane o the historical events markin the separation o Middle an Modern Inglis.

Awin tae the significant assimilation o various European leids throughoot historie, modren Inglis is aften seen as haein a gey lairge vocabulary. The Oxford Inglis Dictionary leets ower 250,000 distinct wirds, an daes nae include mony technical or slang terms, or wirds that belang tae multiple wird classes.


LIBRIS (Librar Information Seestem) is a Swadish naitional union catalogue maintained bi the Naitional Leebrar o Swaden in Stockholm. It is possible tae freely rake aboot 6.5 million teetles naitionwide.


Laitin is an auld leid that wis spak bi the Romans. Fowk dinna speak or write this leid awfu muckle ony mair, but mony students athort the warld studies it in the schuil.

The Roman Catholic Kirk still uises Laitin as its offeecial leid.

Mony wirds uised in science an medicine wis creatit frae Laitin wirds, or is Laitin wirds.

Mony leids spoken the day comes frae the Laitin leid. Thir leids is cried Romance leids. The five lairgest Romance leids is French, Romanian, Italian, Portuguese, an Spaingie. Ither Indo-European leids is sib tae Laitin.


The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is pairt o the Kinrick o the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) alang wi the Aruba, Curaçao, an Sint Martin. It is locate in North-Wastren Europe an is laund mairched wi Germany an Belgium. It haes a coast line alang the German Ocean.

It haes gien alot o important penters an airtists throu-oot history, for ensaumple:

Paulus Potter

Regions o Fraunce

Fraunce is dividit intae 18 admeenistrative regions (French: régions, pronounced [ʁe.ʒjɔ̃]), 22 o whilk is in Metropolitan Fraunce, an five o which are owerseas. Corsica is a territorial collectivity (French collectivité territoriale), but is considered a region in mainstream uisage, an is even shawn in a siclike wey on the INSEE wabsteid. Ilka mainland region an Corsica is forder subdividit intae depairtments, rangin in nummer frae 2 tae 8 per region for the metropolitan anes whaur the owerseas regions technically conseest o anerlie ane depairtment.

The term region wis offeecially creatit bi the Law o Decentralization (2 Mairch 1982), whilk gied regions thair legal status an aw. The first direct elections for regional representatives teuk place on 16 Mairch 1986.

Roushie leid

Roushie (Roushie: русский язык "rooskiy yazik") is the leid spak in Roushie. It uises the Cyrillic alphabet. It is an Indo-European leid in the Balto-Slavic faimily. The Roushie leid is the maist spak Balto-Slavic leid, an is the offeecial leid o Roushie, Belaroushie, Kazakhstan, an Kyrgyzstan. It is an aa an offeecial leid o the Unitit Naitions.

Scots leid

Scots (or "Lallans", a poetic spellins for lawlands) is a Wast Germanic leid o the Anglic varietie that's spaken on the Lawlands an Northren Isles o Scotland an en tha stewartrie o Ulster en Ireland (whaur it's kent as "Ulster-Scots", "Scotch", or "Ullans"). En maist airts, it's spaken anent tha Scots Gaelic an Inglis leids.

Up til tha 15t yeirhunder Scottis (modren furm Scots) wis the name o "Gaelic", the Celtic leid o th' aunshint Scots. Thaim that bruikit Scots cried tha Gaelic Erse (meinin Irish). Tha Gaelic o Scotland is nou maistlì cried Scots Gaelic an is yit spaken bi sum en tha wastren Scots Hielands an ilands. Fer tha maist pairt, Scots cums fae tha Northumbrian kyn o Anglo-Saxon (Auld Inglis), tho wi a litil influenss fae th' Auld Norse bi waa o tha Vikings, tha Dutch an Laich Saxon throoch troke wi (an incummers fae) tha laich kintras, an tha Romance bi waa o kirk an legal Laitin, Anglo-Norman an syn Pairisian French cause o th' Auld Alliance.

Anglian spikkers wer weil staiblisht in sooth-eist Scotland bi tha 7t yeirhunder. In tha 13t yeirhunder Norman launainers an thair reteiners, speakin Northumbrian Middil Inglis, were bade tae cum an sattil bi tha Keeng. Scots kyth'd fer tha first tym en wrutten form en tha mids o tha 14t yeirhunder an didnae differ mukkil fae ither northren Inglis byleids. Th' Anglian leid o Scotland gra an its ain sinsyn. Bi tha lat 15t yeirhunder tha sicht fowk haed o tha differs wi tha leid spaken faurder sooth cam til tha fore an Scots-spikkin Scots begoud tae crie thair leid "Scots". Scots haes lend-wirds fae tha fak thit tha Scots fowk haed contak wi Gaelic spikkers. Thair lend-wirds is fer ordinair anerlì fer geographical an cultural hings, sik as clan an loch. Lyk onì leivin leid, Scots haes chynged ae bittie ower tha yeirs, tho it haes arguablì stey'd naurer til its Anglo-Saxon springheid than Inglis. Monie Scots wirds hae becum pairt o the Inglis ava: flit, greed, eerie, cuddle, clan, stob.

En Scotland's census o 2011, ae speir on Scots wis speired.

Scottis leid

Scottis leid can refer tae:

Scots leid (Lawland Scots), a Wast Germanic leid spoken in the Lawlands o Scotland an Ulster.

Scots Gaelic leid (Gàidhlig), a Celtic leid spoken in the Hebrides an pairts o mainland Scotland

Scots Inglis, the Inglis leid as spoken in Scotland

Scottish Language, a peer reviewed journal o Scots leids an linguistics, publisht bi the Association for Scottish Literary Studies


Spain (Spaingie: España [esˈpaɲa] ( listen)), offeecially the Kinrick o Spain (Spaingie: Reino de España), is a kintra maistly locatit on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The kintra's mainland is mairchit tae the sooth an east bi the Mediterranean Sea except for a smaw laund boondary wi Gibraltar; tae the north an northeast bi Fraunce, Andorrae, an the Bay o Biscay; an tae the wast an northwest bi Portugal an the Atlantic Ocean. Spaingie territory includes twa large airchipelagaes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea an the Canary Islands aff the African Atlantic coast, twa ceeties, Ceuta an Melilla, on the African mainland an several smaw islands in the Alboran Sea near the African coast. Spain is the anerly European kintra tae hae a mairch wi an African kintra (Morocco)Wi an aurie o 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the lairgest kintra in Soothren Europe, the seicont lairgest kintra in Wastren Europe an the European Union, an the fowert lairgest kintra in the European continent. Bi population, Spain is the saxt lairgest in Europe an the fift in the European Union. Spain's caipital an lairgest ceety is Madrid; ither major urban auries include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao an Málaga.

Modren humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula aroond 35,000 years ago. Iberian culturs alang wi auncient Phoenicie, Greek an Carthaginian settlements developit on the peninsula till it cam unner Roman rule aroond 200 BCE, efter that the region wis named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end o the Wastren Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migratit frae Central Europe, invadit the Iberian peninsula an established relatively independent realms in its wastren provinces, includin the Sueves, Alans an Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths wad forcibly integrate aw remeenin independent territories in the peninsula, includin Byzantine provinces, intae the Kinrick o Toledo, that mair or less unifee'd poleetically, ecclesiastically an legally aw the umwhile Roman provinces or successor kinricks o that wis then documentit as Hispanie.

In the late aicht century the Visigothic kinrick fell tae the Moors, that ruled maist o the peninsula for the next seiven centuries, leavin anerly a haundful o smaw Christian realms in the north. Follaein the Moorish conquest, Europeans begoud a gradual process o retakkin the region kent as the Reconquista, that bi the late 15t century culminatit in the emergence o Spain as a unifee'd kintra unner the Catholic Monarchs. In the early modren period, Spain becam ane o history's first global empires, leavin a vast cultural an lingueestic legacy that includes ower 500 million Hispanophones, makkin Spaingie the warld's seicont maist spoken native leid, efter Mandarin Cheenese.

Spain is a secular pairlamentar democracy an constitutional monarchy, wi Keeng Felipe VI as heid o state. It is a major developit kintra wi the warld's fowerteent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an saxteent lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Cooncil o Europe (CoE), the Organisation o Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), OSCE, the Schengen Aurie, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO) an mony ither internaitional organisations. Spain hars a "permanent invitation" tae the G20 summits that occur generally ance a year.

Spaingie leid

Spaingie (Español) or Castillian (Castellano) is an Iberian Romance leid. It is spak by atween 364 million an 400 million fowk. It is the maist braid spak Romance leid. It is the naitional leid o Spain, Argentina, Bolivie, Chile, Colombie, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, European Union, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, New Mexico (Unitit States), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, an Venezuela, an an offeecial leid o the Unitit Nations.


The Kinrick o Swaden (Swadish: Sverige) is a Nordic kintra on the Scandinavian hauf-island. It's a constitutional monarchy, an the keeng is Carl XVI Gustaf. Aboot 10,000,000 fowk bydes in Swaden. The caipital ceety o Swaden is Stockholm, that haes aboot 2.1 million indwallers. Swaden is a member o the European Union. It haes mairches wi Norawa an Finland. It is a an aa homa tae o Swaden Cheef.

Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy (frae Auncient Greek: τάξις taxis, "arrangement," an -νομία -nomia, "method") is the science o definin groups o biological organisms on the basis o shared characteristics an givin names tae thae groups.

Teeps o inhabitit localities in Roushie

The classification seestem o the teeps o inhabitit localities in Roushie, the umwhile Soviet Union, an some ither post-Soviet states haes certain peculiarities compared tae the classification seestems in ither kintras.

In ither leids

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