Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form o irregular warfare in which a smaa group o combatants such as airmed ceevilians or irregulars uise militar tactics includin ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-an-run tactics, an extraordinary mobility tae ficht a lairger an less-mobile tradeetional airmy.

Abd el-Krim

Abd el-Krim (1882–83, Ajdir – Februar 6, 1963, Cairo) wis a Riffian poleetical an militar leader. He an his brither Mhemmed led a large-scale revolt bi a coaleetion o Berber-speakin Rif tribes against French an Spaingie colonisation o the Rif, an aurie o northren Morocco. The rebels established the short-lived Republic o the Rif. Abd el-Krim's guerrilla tactics influenced Ho Chi Minh, Mao Zedong, an Che Guevara.

Ahmad Shah Massoud

Ahmad Shah Massoud (Dari Persie: احمد شاه مسعود; unkent – September 9, 2001) wis an Afghan poleetical an militar leader. He wis a pouerful militar commander during the reseestance against the Soviet occupation atween 1979 an 1989 an in the follaein years o ceevil war, during which time he acame kent as the Lion o Panjshir ([Shire Panjshir ; شیر پنجشیر] ). Massoud wis assassinatit on September 9, 2001.


Asmara (Arabic: أسمرة‎, Tigrinya: ኣስመራ, Asmera), lang syne kent as Asmera, meanin "They (feminine plural) makkit them unite" in Tigrinya) is the caipital an lairgest ceety in Eritrea, hame tae a population o aroond 579,000 fowk. At an elevation o 2,325 metres (7,628 ft), Asmara is on the edge o an escarpment that is baith the northwastren edge o the Great Rift Valley an o the Eritrean hielands. Textiles an clothin, processed meat, beer, shoes, an ceramics are the major industrial products.

Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara (14 Juin 1928 – 9 October 1967), for common kent as Che Guevara, or e'en juist Che, wis an Argentine Marxist revolutionar, politeecian, author, mediciner, an guerrilla.

Clan Douglas

Clan Douglas, an aa referred tae as The Hoose o Douglas, is an auncient Scots clan frae the Scots Lawlands takin its name frae Douglas, Sooth Lanrikshire, an thence spreadin throu the Scots Borderland, Angus, Lothian an ayont. The clan daes no currently hae a chief, therefore it is considered an airmigerous clan.

The Douglases wur ance the maist pouerful faimily in Scotland. The pouerful Douglas chiefs held the titles o the Earl o Douglas (Black Douglas), Earl o Angus (Red Douglas) an at ane pynt the Earl o Morton.

Mony Douglases mairit intae Scots an ither European royal an noble hooses, therebi ensurin Douglas pouer athin Scotland, as a result o thair accumulatit wealth.

The faimily's oreeginal seat wis Douglas Castle in Lanrikshire, but thay spread tae mony properties throughoot Scotland.

Thare ar mony members o the Douglas Clan buried throughoot the warld, sic as the Abbey o Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris, an at Melrose Abbey. Perhaps maist notable o aw is at St Bride's Kirk in Douglas. Dedicatit tae St Bride, the patron saunt o the Douglas, it haulds the mausolea o mony distinguished Douglases, includin that o the Good Sir James Douglas.

Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, pronounced [jǒsip brôːz tîto]; born Josip Broz 7 Mey 1892 – 4 Mey 1980) wis a Yugoslav revolutionary an statesman, servin in various roles frae 1943 till his daith in 1980.

Juan Perón

Juan Domingo Perón (Spaingie pronunciation: [ˈxwan doˈmiŋɡo peˈɾon];), 8 October 1895 – 1 Julie 1974, wis an Argentine general an poleetician, electit three times as Preses o Argentinae, efter serving in several government positions, including the Secretar o Labor an the Vice Presidency. He wis owerthrown in a militar coup in 1955. He returned tae pouer in 1973 an servit for nine months, till his daith in 1974 when he wis succeedit bi his third wife, Isabel Martínez.

Perón an his seicont wife, Eva Duarte, war immensely popular among mony Argentinians, an to this day they ar still considered icons bi the Peronist Party. The Peróns' follaeers praised their efforts tae eliminate poverty an tae dignify labor, while their detractors considered thaim demagogues an dictators. The Peróns gave their name tae the poleetical muivement kent as peronismo, which in present-day Argentinae is represented mainly bi the Justicialist Pairty.

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong, an aa transliterated as Mao Tse-tung listen (26 December 1893-9 September 1976), wis a Han Cheenese revolutionary, poleetical theorist an communist leader. He led the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (PRC) frae its establishment in 1949 till his daith in 1976. His theoretical contribution tae Marxism-Leninism, military strategies, an his brand o Communist policies are nou collectively kent as Maoism.

Mao remains a controversial figure tae this day, wi a contentious an iver-evolvin legacy. He is offeecially held in hie regard in Cheenae as a great revolutionary, poleetical strategist, military mastermind, an savior o the naition. Mony Cheenese an aa believe that through his policies, he laid the economic, technological an cultural foondations o modren Cheenae, transformin the kintra frae an agrarian society intae a major warld pouer. Additionally, Mao is viewed as a poet, philosopher, an visionary, owing the latter primarily tae the cult o personality fostered durin his time in pouer. Mao's portrait continues tae be featured prominently on Tiananmen an on aw Renminbi bills.

Conversely, Mao's social-poleetical programs, such as the Great Leap Forward an the Cultural Revolution, are blamed for costin millions o lives, causin severe faimin an damage tae the cultur, society an economy o Cheenae. Mao's policies an poleetical purges frae 1949 tae 1976 are widely believed tae hae caused the daiths o atween 40 tae 70 million fowk. Syne Deng Xiaoping assumed pouer in 1978, mony Maoist policies hae been abandoned in favour o economic reforms.

Mao is regardit as ane o the maist influential figures in modren warld history, an named bi Time Magazine as ane o the 100 maist important fowk o the 20t century.

Michael Collins

Michael John ("Mick") Collins (Erse: Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 - 22 August 1922) wis an Erse revolutionar leader, Meenister for Finance o the First Dail in 1919 an Director o Intelligence for the IRA durin the Erse Weir o Unthirldom. He wis shotten an killt durin the Erse Ceevil War in 1922.

Nestor Makhno

Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Faither") Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, Roushie: Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S.November 7) – Julie 6, 1934) wis a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary an the commander o an independent anarchist airmy in Ukraine during the Roushie Ceevil War o 1917–1922.

Omar al-Bashir

Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (born 1 Januar 1944) wis Preses o Sudan (1989-2019) an the heid o the Naitional Congress Pairty. He came tae pouer in 1989 when he, as a brigadier in the Sudanese airmy, led a group o officers in a bloodless military coup that oostit the govrenment o Prime Meenister Sadiq al-Mahdi.In October 2004, al-Bashir's govrenment negotiatit an end tae the Seicont Sudanese Civil War, ane o the langest-runnin an deadliest wars o the 20t century, bi grantin leemitit autonomy tae Soothren Sudan dominatit bi the Sudan People's Liberation Airmy (SPLA). Syne then, housomeivver, thare haes been a violent conflict in Darfur that haes resultit in daith tolls atween 200,000 an 400,000. Durin his presidency, thare hae been several violent struggles atween the Janjaweed militia an rebel groups sic as the Sudanese Liberation Airmy (SLA) an the Justice an Equality Movement (JEM) in the form o guerrilla warfare in the Darfur region. The civil war haes resultit in ower 2.5 million fowk bein displaced, an the diplomatic relations atween Sudan an Chad bein at a crisis level.Al-Bashir is a controversial figure baith in Sudan an Warldwide. In Julie 2008, the prosecutor o the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, accuised al-Bashir o genocide, crimes against humanity an war crimes in Darfur. The court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir on 4 Mairch 2009 on coonts o war crimes an crimes against humanity, but ruled that thare wis insufficient evidence tae prosecute him for genocide. Houiver on 12 Julie 2010, efter a lengthy appeal bi the prosecution, the Court held that thare wis indeed sufficient evidence for chairges o genocide tae be brought an issued a seicont warrant containin three separate coonts. The new warrant, as wi the first, will be delivered tae the Sudanese govrenment, which is unlikely tae execute it. Al-Bashir is the first sittin heid o state ever indictit bi the ICC as well as the first tae be chairged wi genocide. The court's decision is opposed bi the African Union, League o Arab States, Non-Aligned Movement, an the governments o Roushie an the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae. Ane expert haes cawed on the court tae suspend the reest warrant.It haes been estimatit that Al-Bashir is responsible for the daiths o ower a million Sudanese.


Pyinmana (Burmese: ပျဉ်းမနားမြို့; MLCTS: pyanymna: mrui., pronounced: [pjìɴmná mjo̰]; population: 100,000 (2006 estimate)) is a loggin toun an succar cane refinery centre in Mandalay Region o Myanmar. The admeenistrative caipital o Myanmar wis offeecially moved tae a militarised greenfield steid (which the leader, Than Shwe, dubbed Naypyidaw, or Ryal Ceety) twa miles (3.2 km) wast o Pyinmana on November 6, 2005. Pyinmana is approximately 200 miles (320 km) north o Yangon. The veelage o Yezin, a few miles north an east o Pyinmana, haes been the steid o naitional scienteefic research institutions syne the late 1970s.

Durin Warld War II, Pyinmana wis the base o the Burma Unthirldom Airmy (later renamed an reorganized intae the Burma Defence Airmy bi the Japanese). It wis in Pyinmana that the airmy an its officers wur trained. Later the Burma Naitional Airmy chynged sides, aidin the Allies wi guerrilla warfare, an the operations wur seen as a victory bi the Burmese. Pyinmana became an icon in the Burmese Airmy whaur it wis seen as the place whaur 'superior invaders' wur defeatit bi the Burmese.

This mey be ane o the reasons why the junta chose tae locate Naypyidaw in such close proximity tae Pyinmana.

San Pedro Pochutla

San Pedro Pochutla is a ceety an municipality locatit in the sooth o Oaxaca state, Mexico next tae the Paceefic Ocean.

It is a important commercial, transportation an admeenistrative hub for the Pochutla Destrict in the east o the Costa Region. Pochutla is locatit at the junction o coastal Heich-gate 200 an Heich-gate 175 tae Oaxaca, wi 175 functionin as the toun’s main thoroufare. Its name means "place o kapok trees (Ceiba pentandra)", an maist o the ceety is biggit on a lochbed which wis drained durin the colonial period. The municipality is best kent as bein the hame o the oceanside commonties o Puerto Ángel an Zipolite.

Simón Bolívar

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios, commonly kent as Simón Bolívar (Spaingie pronunciation: [siˈmon boˈliβar]; Julie 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830), wis a Venezuelan militar an politeecal leader. Thegither wi José de San Martín, he played a key role in Hispanic Americae's successful struggle for unthirldom frae the Spaingie Empire.

Follaein the triumph ower the Spaingie Monarchy, Bolívar participatit in the foondation o the first union o independent naitions in Latin Americae, which wis namit Gran Colombie, an o which he wis preses frae 1819 tae 1830.

Bolívar is regardit in Latin Americae as a hero, visionar, revolutionar, an liberator. Durin his short life, he led Bolivie, Colombie, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, an Venezuela tae unthirldom, an helped lay the foondations for democratic ideology in muckle o Laitin Americae.

Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted ower nine years frae December 1979 tae Februar 1989.

T. E. Lawrence

Thomas Edward Lawrence CB DSO (16 August 1888 – 19 Mey 1935) wis a Breetish airchaeologist, militar officer, diplomat an writer. He wis renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign an the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the First Warld War. The breadth and variety o his activities and associations, an his ability tae describe them vividly in writing, earned him internaitional fame as Lawrence o Arabia—a title uised for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities.

He wis born oot o wedlock in Tremadog, Wales, in August 1888 tae Thomas Chapman (who became, in 1914, Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet), an Anglo-Irish nobleman frae County Westmeath, and Sarah Junner, a Scottish governess (whom Chapman haed left his wife and first family in Ireland tae cohabit wi; thay cried themselves Mr and Mrs Lawrence).The faimily next moved tae Kirkcoobrie in Gallowa' in 1888 whaur wis born his brither William George.

Craigville, St Mary's Street, Kirkcoobrie, Gallowa', the Lawrence faimily hame.

In 1896, the Lawrences moved tae Oxford, whaur thair son attended the High School an in 1907–1910 studied History at Jesus College. Between 1910 and 1914 he worked as an archaeologist, chiefly at Carchemish, in what is nou Sirie.

Suin efter the outbreak o war he volunteered for the Breetish Airmy and wis stationed in Egyp. In 1916, he wis sent tae Arabia on an intelligence mission and quickly became involved wi the Arab Revolt, providin, alang wi ither Breetish officers, liaison tae the Arab forces. Wirkin closely wi Emir Faisal, a leader o the revolt, he participated in and whiles led military activities against the Ottoman armed forces, culminatin in the capture o Damascus in October 1918.

Efter the war, Lawrence jynt the Foreign Office, wirkin wi baith the Breetish govrenment and wi Faisal. In 1922, he retreated frae public life and spent the years until 1935 serving as an enlisted man, maistly in the Royal Air Force, wi a brief stint in the Airmy. During this time, he wrote and published his best-kent work, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an autobiographical accoont o his participation in the Arab Revolt. He an aw translated beuks intae Inglis and wrote The Mint, which wis published posthumously and detailed his time in the Royal Air Force wirkin as an ordinary aircraftman. He corresponded extensively and wis friendly wi well-kent artists, writers, an politicians. For the Royal Air Force, he participated in the development o rescue motorboats.

Lawrence's public image resulted in pairt frae the sensationalised reporting o the Arab revolt bi American jurnalist Lowell Thomas, as well as frae Seven Pillars o Wisdom. In 1935, Lawrence wis fatally injured in a motorcycle accident in Dorset.

Võ Nguyên Giáp

Võ Nguyên Giáp (25 August 1911 – 4 October 2013) wis a General in the Vietnam Fowk's Airmy an a politeecian. Giap is considered ane o the greatest militar strategists o aw time. He first grew tae prominence during World War II, whaur he served as the militar leader o the Viet Minh resistance against the Japanese occupation o Vietnam. Giap wis a principal commander in twa wars: the First Indocheenae War (1946–54) an the Vietnam War (1960–75). He pairteecipatit in the follaein heestorically signeeficant battles: Lạng Sơn (1950), Hòa Bình (1951–52), Điện Biên Phủ (1954), the Tết Offensive (1968), the Easter Offensive (1972), an the final Ho Chi Minh Campaign (1975).

In ither leids

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