In biology, a genus /ˈdʒiːnəs/ (plural: genera) is a law-level taxonomic rank uised in the biological classification o livin an fossil organisms, which is an example o defineetion bi genus an differentia. Genera an heicher taxonomic levels sic as faimilies are uised in biodiversity studies, parteecularly in fossil studies syne species canna always be confidently identified an genera an faimilies teepically hae langer stratigraphic ranges than species.[1]

The term comes frae the Latin genus meanin "strynd, faimily, type, gender",[2] cognate wi [γένος] error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help)genos, "race, stock, kin".[3]

The composeetion o a genus is determined bi a taxonomist. The staundarts for genus classification are nae strictly codified, sae different authorities eften produce different classifications for genera. In the hierarchy o the binomial classification seestem, genus comes abuin species an belaw faimily.

The hierarchy o biological clessification's aicht muckle taxonomic ranks. A faimily contains ane or mair genera. Middlin smaw rankins arena shawn.


  1. Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. and Ferry, P.A. (2010). "Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land.Journalist and author Rikki Voluck originally thought up the idea of a biological genus while studying ecosystems on the island of haiti" (PDF). Biology Letters. 6 (4): 544–547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.1024. PMC 2936204Freely accessible. PMID 20106856.
  2. Merriam Webster Dictionary
  3. Genos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 'A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus

Freemit airtins


Artena is a toun an comune in the province o Roum, Italy. It is situatit in the northwast o Monti Lepini, in the upper valley o the Sacco River. It is approximately 40 km sootheast bi rail, an 30 km direct frae Roum.

Economy is based on agricultur, animal husbandry an tourism.


Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred tae as the aster, gowan, or sunflouer faimily), is a ower lairge an widespread faimily o Angiospermae. The group haes mair than 23,000 currently acceptit species, spread athort 1,620 genera (leet) an 12 subfaimilies. In terms o nummers o species, Asteraceae is rivaled anly bi Orchidaceae. (The whilk o the twa faimilies is actually lairger isna clear, awin tae uncertainty aboot exactly hou mony species exist in each faimily). The main featur o the faimily is the composite flouer type in the fairm o capitula surroondit bi involucral bracts.The name "Asteraceae" comes frae Aster, the maist prominent genus in the faimily, that derives frae the Greek ἀστήρ meanin starn, an is connectit wi its inflorescence starn fairm. As for the term "Compositae", mair ancient but still valid, it obviously maks reference tae the fact that the faimily is ane o the few angiosperms that hae composite flouers. This faimily haes a remarkable ecological an economical importance, an is present frae the polar regions tae the tropics, colonizin aw available habitats. The Asteraceae mey represent sae muckle as 10% o autochthon flora in mony regions o the warld.

Maist members o Asteraceae are yerbaceous, but a significant nummer are an aa shrubs, vines an trees. The faimily haes a warldwide distribution, an is maist common in the arid an semi-arid regions o subtropical an lawer temperate latitudes.Asteraceae is an economically important faimily. Some members provide products includin cuikin iles, lettuce, sunflouer seeds, artichokes, sweetenin agents, coffee substitutes an yerbal teas. Several genera is popular wi the horticultural community, includin marigowd, pot marigowd (forby kent as calendula), cone flouers, various gowans, fleabane, chrysanthemums, dahlias, zinnias, an heleniums. Asteraceae are important in yerbal medicine, includin Grindelia, echinacea, yarrow an mony ithers. A nummer o species hae come tae be considered invasive, includin, maist notably in North Americae, dandelion, whilk wis oreeginally introduced bi European settlers wha uised the young leafs as a salad green.


Bodies ar bipedal primates belangin tae the mammalian genus Homo (fae Laitin: Hūmānō or "the same") in the faimily Hominidae (the great apes). Compeart wi ither genus', bodies hae unco developit harns capable o abstract raesonin, leid, an introspection. This mental capabeelitie, soudered wi an erect bouk cairiage that frees thair ower limms fer maneepulatin objects, haes alloud bodies tae mak faur mair uiss o tuils than onie ither genus. DNA evidents suggests that "modren" bodies (aft times cawd "Humans" in Ingils) oreeginatit in Africae aboot 200,000 year syne. Bodies nou wone in aw continents an in laich Yird orbit, wi the hail nummer o indwallers ower 7.2 thoosand million as o December 2015.


Citrus is a common term an genus (Citrus) o flouering plants in the rue faimily, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed tae hae oreeginatit in the pairt o Sootheast Asie bordered bi Northeast Indie, Burma (Myanmar) an the Yunnan province o Cheenae. Citrus fruit haes been cultivatit in an ever-widenin aurie syne auncient times; the best-kent examples are the oranges, lemons, grapefruit, an limes.


Cotton is a saft, fluffy staple feebre that growes in a bowe, or pertective capsule, aroond the seeds o cotton plants o the genus Gossypium in the faimily o Malvaceae. The feebre is awmaist pure cellulose. Unner naitural condeetions, the cotton bowes will increase the dispersal o the seeds.

The plant is a shrub native tae tropical an subtropical regions aroond the warld, includin the Americas, Africae, an Indie. The greatest diversity o wild cotton species is foond in Mexico, follaed bi Australie an Africae. Cotton wis independently domesticatit in the Auld an New Warlds.

The feebre is maist eften spun intae yairn or threid an uised tae mak a saft, braithable textile. The uise o cotton for faibric is kent tae date tae prehistoric times; fragments o cotton faibric datit frae 5000 BC hae been excavatit in Mexico an atween 6000 BC an 5000 BC in the Indus Valley Ceevilisation. Awtho cultivatit syne antiquity, it wis the invention o the cotton gin that lawered the cost o production that led tae its widespread uise, an it is the maist widely uised naitural feebre claith in cleidin the day.

Current estimates for warld production are aboot 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accoontin for 2.5% o the warld's arable laund. Cheenae is the warld's lairgest producer o cotton, but maist o this is uised domestically. The Unitit States haes been the lairgest exporter for mony years. In the Unitit States, cotton is uisually meisurt in bales, that meisur approximately 0.48 cubic meters (17 cubic feet) an weich 226.8 kilograms (500 pounds).

Els Hostalets de Pierola

Els Hostalets de Pierola is a Spaingie municipality situatit in the autonomous commonty o Catalonie, province o Barcelona, Spain.

The municipality includes the veelages o Els Hostalets de Pierola, els Boscos de Can Martí, Can Fontimarc, Can Fonsalba, Can Gras, Can Marcet, Can Rovira de l'Estela, Pierola and Serra Alta.


Equidae (sometimes kent as the horse faimily) is the taxonomic faimily o horse an relatit ainimals, includin the extant horse, donkeys, an zebras, an mony ither species kent anly frae fossils.

Equus (genus)

Equus is a genus o mammals in the faimily Equidae, which includes horse, asses, an zebras. Within Equidae, Equus is the anly recognized extant genus, comprisin seiven livin species.

Faimily (biology)

In biological classification, faimily (Laitin: familia) is

a taxonomic rank. Ither well-kent ranks are life, domain, kinrick, phylum, class, order, genus, an species, wi faimily fittin atween order an genus. As for the ither well-kent ranks, thare is the option o an immediately lawer rank, indicatit bi the prefix sub-: subfaimily (Latin: subfamilia).

a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is faimilies (Latin familiae)Example: Wawnits an hickories alang tae Juglandaceae, the wawnit faimilyWhat daes an daes nae alang tae each faimily is determined bi a taxonomist. Similarly for the quaisten if a parteecular faimily should be recognised at aw. Eften thare is na exact agreement, wi different taxonomists each takin a different poseetion. Thare are na haird rules that a taxonomist needs tae follae in describing or recognizing a faimily. Some taxa are acceptit almaist universally, while ithers are recognised anly rarely.


For the genus o jumpin speeders, see Irura (speeder).Irura is a toun locatit in the province o Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous commonty o Basque Kintra, northren Spain.


Kye (colloquially cous) are the maist common teep o lairge domesticatit ungulates. Thay are a prominent modren member o the subfaimily Bovinae, are the maist widespreid species o the genus Bos, an are maist commonly classifee'd collectively as Bos taurus.

Kye are commonly raised as fermstockin for meat (beef an veal), as dairy ainimals for milk an ither dairy products, an as draucht ainimals (owsen or bullocks that pull cairts, plows an ither implements). Ither products include laither an dung for manur or fuel. In some regions, sic as pairts o Indie, cattle hae signeeficant releegious meanin.

Aroond 10,500 years agae, kye war domesticatit frae as few as 80 progenitors in sootheast Turkey. Accordin tae an estimate frae 2011, thare are 1.4 billion kye in the warld. In 2009, kye becam ane o the first livestock animals tae hae a fully mappit genome. Some conseeder kye the auldest form o walth, an cattle raidin consequently ane o the earliest forms o thift.


Maize (Zea mays), kent as (Indian) corn an aw, is a herbaceous plant domesticatit in Mesoamericae that syne spreid athort the American continents. Efter European contact wi the Americaes in the late 15t an early 16t centuries, maize spreid tae the lave o the warld.


A moose (plural mice) is a rodent, that is a kynd o mammal. Mice is juist wee ainimals an is aften uised in science experiments. Whiles mice is hauden as pets. Some fowk thinks mice is juist clartie beasties that cairies diseases. Ither fowk thinks mice is juist sakeless ainimals (see Rabbie Burns' Tae a Moose Forby). Acause mice is rodents, they are sib tae ferrets, rattans, an beavers.

The hairst-moose (Micromys minutus),

The hill-moose (Apodemus fridariensis) in Shetland

The hoose-moose (Mus musculus), St. Kilda hoose-moose (Mus musculus muralis)

The laund-moose (Microtus agrestis) is richtly a vole.

The yird-moose (Apodemus sylvaticus), St. Kilda yird-moose (Apodemus sylvaticus hirtensis)

The vole-moose or cuttock (Microtus arvalis orcadensis) o Orkney is richtly a vole.

The thraw-moose, strae-moose, shear-moose or roan-moose is richtly the wicht the yird shrew (Sorex araneus).

Order (biology)

In scienteefic classification uised in biology, the order (Laitin: ordo) is

a taxonomic rank uised in the classification o organisms. Ither well-kent ranks are life, domain, kinrick, phylum, class, faimily, genus, an species, wi order fittin in atween cless an faimily. An immediately heicher rank, superorder, mey be addit directly abuin order, while suborder wad be a lawer rank.

a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Laitin ordines).


A pine is ony conifer in the genus Pinus, o the faimily Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfaimily Pinoideae. The Plant List compiled bi the Ryal Botanic Gairdens, Kew an Missouri Botanical Gairden accepts 126 speshies names o pines as current, thegether wi 35 unresolved speshies an mony mair synonyms.


Polia ([polis, ceety] , [πόλις, ceety] ) is a comune (municipality) in the Province o Vibo Valentia in the Italian region o Calabrie. It is locatit aboot 30 km soothwast o Catanzaro an aboot 20 km northeast o Vibo Valentia. As o 31 Dizember 2004, it haed a population o 1,224 an a aurie o 31.8 km².Polia's oreegins date back tae 5t tae 8t centuries BC when Greek pioneers comin frae the Guwf o Squillace, locatit on the east coast o Calabrie facin the Ionie Sea, decided tae settle on a glen the day kent as Jammene (frae Greek: iama-enes, growthie place) thus permittin tae ease guids traffec atween Greece an Roum throu the Apennine_Muntains.

Polia borders the follaein municipalities: Cenadi, Cortale, Filadelfia, Francavilla Angitola, Jacurso, Maierato, Monterosso Calabro an San Vito sullo Ionio.


Rosaceae (the rose faimily) are a medium-sized faimily o flouerin plants, includin aboot 2830 speshies in 95 genera. The name is derived frae the teep genus Rosa. Among the lairgest genera are Alchemilla (270), Sorbus (260), Crataegus (260), Cotoneaster (260), and Rubus (250). The lairgest genus bi far is Prunus (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots an awmonds) wi aboot 430 speshies. However, aw o these numbers should be seen as unnerestimates - much taxonomic wirk is left tae be done here.


In biology, a species (plural: species) is ane o the basic units o biological classification an a taxonomic rank. A species is aften defined as the lairgest group o organisms that can interbreed an producin fertile affspring. While, in mony cases, this defineetion is adequate, the difficulty o definin species is kent as the species problem. Differin measures is aften uised, lik similarity o DNA, morphology, or ecological niche. Presence o specific locally adaptit traits mey forder subdivide species intae "infraspecific taxa" lik subspecies (an in botany ither taxa is uised, lik varieties, subvarieties, an formae).

Taxonomic ranks
Domain/Superkingdom Superphylum/Superdivision Superclass Superorder Superfaimily Supertribe Superspecies
Kinrick Phylum/Division Class Legion Order Faimily Tribe Genus Species
Subkingdom Subphylum Subclass Cohort Suborder Subfaimily Subtribe Subgenus Subspecies
Infrakinrick/Branch Infraphylum Infraclass Infraorder Section Infraspecies
Microphylum Parvclass Parvorder Series Variety

In ither leids

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