Feudalism wis a combination o legal an militar customs in medieval Europe that flourished atween the 9t an 15t centuries. Braidly defined, it wis a wey o structurin society aroond relationships derived frae the hauldin o laund in exchynge for service or labour. Awtho derived frae the Latin wird feodum or feudum (fief),[1] then in uise, the term feudalism an the seestem it descrives war nae conceived o as a formal poleetical seestem bi the fowk leevin in the Middle Ages.[2] In its clessic defineetion, bi François-Louis Ganshof (1944),[3] feudalism descrives a set o reciprocal legal an militar obligations amang the warrior nobility revolvin aroond the three key concepts o lairds, vassals an fiefs.[3]

A braider definddtion o feudalism, as descrived bi Marc Bloch (1939), includes nae anerly the obligations o the warrior nobility but an aw thae o aw three estates o the realm: the nobility, the clergy, an the peisantry boond bi manorialism; this is sometimes referred tae as a "feudal society". Syne the publication o Elizabeth A. R. Brown's "The Tyranny of a Construct" (1974) an Susan Reynolds's Fiefs and Vassals (1994), thare has been ongaein inconclusive discussion amang medieval historians as tae whither feudalism is a uisefu construct for unnerstaundin medieval society.[4][5][6][7][8][9]


  1. feodum – see The Cyclopedic Dictionary of Law, bi Walter A. Shumaker, George Foster Longsdorf, pg. 365, 1901.
  2. Noble, Thomas (2002). (36). The foundations of Western civilization. Chantilly, VA: Teaching Co. ISBN 978-1565856370.
  3. 3.0 3.1 François Louis Ganshof (1944). Qu'est-ce que la féodalité. Translatit intae Inglis bi Philip Grierson as Feudalism, wi a forewird bi F. M. Stenton, 1st ed.: New York an Lunnon, 1952; 2nt ed: 1961; 3rd ed: 1976.
  4. "Feudalism", bi Elizabeth A. R. Brown. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  5. Brown, Elizabeth A. R. (October 1974). "The Tyranny of a Construct: Feudalism and Historians of Medieval Europe". The American Historical Review. 79 (4): 1063–88. doi:10.2307/1869563. JSTOR 1869563.
  6. Reynolds, Susan, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994 ISBN 0-19-820648-8
  7. "Feudalism?", by Paul Halsall. Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
  8. "The Problem of Feudalism: An Historiographical Essay", bi Robert Harbison, 1996, Western Kentucky University.
  9. Charles West, Reframing the Feudal Revolution: Political and Social Transformation Between Marne and Moselle, c. 800–c. 1100 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
Calvin's Case

Calvin's Case (1608) 7 Co Rep 1a, also known as the Case of the Postnati, wis a 1608 Inglis legal deceesion establishin that a bairn born in Scotland, efter the Union o the Crouns unner James VI an I in 1603, wis conseedert unner the common law tae be an Inglis subject an enteetled tae the benefits o Inglis law.


The Crusades war a series o releegious wars sanctioned bi the Laitin Kirk in the medieval period, especially the campaigns in the Eastren Mediterranean wi the aim o recoverin the Haly Laund frae Islamic rule. The term "Crusades" is an aa applied tae ither kirk-sanctioned campaigns focht tae combat paganism an heresy or tae resolve conflict amang rival Roman Catholic groups, or tae gain poleetical or territorial advantage. The term Crusades itsel is early modren, modelled on Middle Laitin cruciatae, an haes in mair recent times been extendit tae include releegiously motivatit Christian militar campaigns in the Late Middle Ages.

The First Crusade arose efter a cry tae airms in a 1095 sermon bi Pape Urban II. Urban urged militar support for the Byzantine Empire an its Emperor, Alexios I, wha needit reinforcements for his conflict wi wastward migratin Turks wha war colonisin Anatolie. Ane o Urban's statit aims wis tae guarantee pilgrims access tae the haly steids in the Eastren Mediterranean that war unner Muslim control, but scholars disagree whether this wis the primar motivation for Urban or maist o thae wha heedit his cry. Urban's wider strategy mey hae been tae unite the Eastren an Wastren branches o Christendom, which haed been dividit syne thair split in the East–West Schism o 1054, an establish himsel as heid o the unified Kirk. The response tae Urban's preachin bi fowk o mony different clesses athort Wastren Europe established the precedent for later Crusades. Volunteers acame Crusaders bi takin a public vow an receivin plenary indulgences from the kirk. Some war hopin for apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness frae God for aw thair sins. Ithers pairteecipatit tae satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory an honour, or find opportunities for economic an poleetical gain.

Mony modren Historians hae polarised opinions o the Crusaders' behaviour unner Papal sanction. Tae some it was incongruous wi the statit aims an implied moral authority o the papacy an the Crusades, tae the extent that on occasions that the Pape excommunicatit Crusaders. Crusaders eften pillaged as they travelled, while thair leaders reteened control o much capturt territory rather nor returnin it tae the Byzantines. During the Fowk's Crusade thoosands o Jews war murthert in whit is nou cried the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople wis sacked during the Fowert Crusade renderin the reunification o Christendom impossible.

The Crusades haed a profoond impact on Wastren ceevilisation: thay reopened the Mediterranean tae commerce an travel (enablin Genoa an Venice tae flourish); consolidatit the collective identity o the Laitin Kirk unner papal leadership; an war a wellspring for accoonts o heroism, chivalry an piety. Thir tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, filosofie an leeteratur. But the Crusades an aa reinforced the connection atween Wastren Christendom, feudalism, an militarism.

David I, Keeng o Scots

David I o Scotland (1084 - 24 Mey 1153) wis keeng o Scots atween the years 1124-1153.

He wis the youngest laddie o keeng Malcolm III o Scots an sainct Margaret. Altho he spent maist o his bairnhead in Scotland, he wis sent tae Ingland in exile in 1093 throu a pouer strauchle atween his aulder brithers for the throne o Scotland. He growed up at the coort o Henry I o Ingland whaur he wis raised as an Anglo-Norman prince. Efter the daith o his brither Alexander I o Scotland, David ascendit tae the throne o Scotland. He is best kent as the keeng that introduced the govrenmental seestem o feudalism tae Scotland, for foundin the Burghs an for bringin Scotland mair in line wi tradeetional Inglis an European cultur. He brocht mony spaekers o early northren Middle Inglis tae Scotland an aw an this is eften seen as whit helped in the creation o the Scots leid.


A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch rulin ower a duchy or a member o the nobility, historically o heichest rank ablo the monarch.


An emirate is a poleetical territory that is ruled bi a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir. It an aa means principality.


A fief (Laitin: feudum) wis the central element o feudalism an consistit o heritable property or richts grantit bi an owerlaird tae a vassal wha held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form o feudal allegiance an service, uisually gien bi the personal ceremonies o homage an fealty.


A govrenment is a group o fowk that haes the pouer tae rule in a territory, gaun bi the law. This territory micht be a kintra, a state or stewartry athin a kintra, or a region.

Goverenments maks laws, rules, an regulations, collects taxes an prents siller.

Govrenments haes seestems o juistice that lists the acts or acteevities that's again the law an descrieves the punishments for brakkin the law.

Goverenments haes a polis force for tae mak siccar fowk follaes the laws.

Govrenments haee deeplomats that communicates wi the govrenments o ither kintras bi haein meetins. Deeplomats ettles tae redd problems or tuilyies atween twa kintras, that can help kintras evite war, mak commercial greements , an exchynge cultural or social experiences an knawledge.

Govrenments haes a military force sic as an airmy that fends the kintra gin ither kintras attacks, or it can be uised for tae attack an invade ither kintras.

The leader o a govrenment an thier redes is cried the admeenistration.


Graf (male) or Gräfin (female) is a heestorical teetle o the German nobility, uisually translatit as coont.

Khan (teetle)

Khan, Kahn (Mongolian: хан/khan‎; [kağan or hakan] ; Azerbaijani: xan; Ottoman: han; Auld Turkic: 𐰴𐰍𐰣, kaɣan; Chinese: 可汗, kèhán; Goguryeo : 皆, key; Silla: 干, kan; Baekje: 瑕, ke; Manchu: ᡥᠠᠨ, Pashto: خان Urdu: خان‬‎, Balochi: خان Hindi: ख़ान; Nepali: खाँ Bengali: খ়ান; Bulgarie: хан, Chuvash: хун, hun) is oreeginally a teetle for a sovereign or a militar ruler, widely uised bi medieval nomadic Mongolic an Turkic tribes livin tae the north o Cheenae.


Laird is a teetle wi monie meanins. It can denote a prince or a feudal superior (specially a feudal tenant that hauds direct fae the keeng, i.e., a baron). The teetle the day is for ordinar uised thegither wi the peerage o the Unitit Kinrick or its fore-gaun kintras, altho some uisers o the teetle disna thaimsels haud peerages, an uise it 'bi courtesy'. The teetle micht be uised an aw thegither wi ithers for tae denote a superior beirer o an itherwice generic teetle, in sic combinations as "Laird Mayor" or "Laird Chief Juistice". The teetle is by men an weemen—the Laird o Mann an female Laird Mayors is ensaumples o weemen that's styled 'laird'.

In releegious contexts Laird can refer tae sindry unalike gods or deities an aw. The earliest uisses o Laird in the Scots leid in a releegious context wis bi Bible translators. This reflectit the Jewish practice o substitutin the spaken Ebreu word 'Adonai' (that means 'My Laird') for YHWH whan read oot lood.


Nicotera (Greek: Nikoptera, Medma) is a comune (municipality) in the province o Vibo Valentia, Calabrie, soothren Italy.


Nobility is a social cless that possesses mair acknowledged privileges or eminence than maist ither clesses in a society, membership thareo teepically bein hereditary.


A prince is a male ruler, monarch, or member o a monarch's or umwhile monarch's faimily. Prince is an aa a hereditary teetle in the nobility o some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess.

Roushie Empire

The Roushie Empire (Pre-reform Roushie orthografie: Россійская Имперія, Modren Roushie: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) wis a state that existit frae 1721 till owerthrown bi the short-lived leeberal Februar Revolution in 1917.

Scots castles

Scots castles are biggins that combine fortifications an residence, biggit athin the borders o modren Scotland. Castles arrivit in Scotland wi the introduction o feudalism in the twalt century. Initially thir wur firthen motte-an-bailey constructions, but mony wur replacit bi stane castles wi a heich curtain waw. Durin the Wars o Unthirldom, Robert the Bruce pursued a policy o castle slichtin. In the late Middle Ages new castles wur biggit, some on a grander scale as "livery an maintenance" castles that coud support a lairge garrison. Gunpouder weaponry led tae the uise o gun ports, platforms tae munt guns an waws adaptit tae resist bombardment.

Mony o the late Medieval castles biggit in the borders wur in the fuirm o touer hooses, smawer pele touers or simpler bastle hooses. Frae the fifteent century thare wis a phase o Renaissance palace biggin, which restructured thaim as castle-teep pailaces, beginnin at Lithgae. Elements o Medieval castles, ryal pailaces an touer hooses wur uised in the construction o Scots baronial estate hooses, which wur biggit lairgely for comfort, but wi a castle-lik appearance. In the seiventeent an aichteent centuries the militar significance o castles declined, but thay increasinly became tourist attractions. Elements o the Scots Baronial style wad be revivit frae the late aichteent century an the trend wad be confirmit in popularity bi the rebiggin o Balmoral Castle in the nineteent century an its adoption as a retreat bi Queen Victoria. In the twintiet century thare wur anerly isolatit ensaumples o new castle-influencit hooses. Mony touer hooses wur renovatit, an mony castles wur taken ower bi the National Trust for Scotland or Historic Scotland an are open tae the public.

Scots fowk

The Scots fowk (Scots Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, is a naition an ethnic group native tae Scotland. Historically thay came frae a mellin o the Pechts an Gaels, incorporatin neebourin Breetons tae the sooth as weel as invadin Germanic fowks sic as the Anglo-Saxons an the Norse.

In modren uise, "Scots fowk" or "Scots" is uised for tae refer tae onybody that's linguístic, cultural, faimily ancestral or genetic oreegins is frae 'ithin Scotland. The Laitin wird Scotti oreeginally applee'd tae a parteecular, 5t century, Goidelic tribe that inhabitit Ireland. Tho for ordinar conseedert airchaic or pejorative, the term Scotch haes been uised for the Scots fowk an aw , but this uise is nou, tae the maist pairt, bi fowk ootwi Scotland.


Serfdom is the status o mony paisants unner feudalism, specifically relatin tae manorialism. It wis a condeetion o bondage, that developed primarily in the Heich Middle Ages in Europe an lastit in some kintras till the mid-19t century.

Serfs that occupied a plot o laund war required tae wirk for the laird o the manor that awned that laund. In return thay war enteetled tae pertection, juistice, an the richt tae cultivate certaint fields within the manor tae mainteen thair awn subsistence. Serfs war eften required nae anerly tae wirk on the laird's fields, but an aw in his mines an forests an tae labour tae mainteen roads.

Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War wis a series o wars in Central Europe atween 1618 an 1648. It wis ane o the langest an maist destructive conflicts in European history. It wis the deadliest European releegious war, resultin in aicht million casualties.

In ither leids

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