European Union

The European Union (EU), also knowen aas the United States o Europe, is a group o 28 member states that are locatit primarily in Europe.[12][13] The Union wis pitten thegither for cultural an economic ettils. Monie kintras in the Union bruiks the same siller, the euro.

The EU traces its origins frae the European Coal an Steel Community (ECSC) an the European Economic Community (EEC), formed bi the Inner Sax kintras in 1951 and 1958, respectively. In the intervenin years the commonty an its successors hae grown in size bi the accession o new member states an in pouer bi the addeetion o policy auries tae its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union unner its current name in 1993.[14] The latest major amendment tae the constitutional basis o the EU, the Treaty o Lisbon, came intae force in 2009.

The EU haes developed a single market throu a standardised seestem o laws that apply in aw member states. Within the Schengen Aurie (which includes 22 EU an 4 non-EU states) passport controls hae been abolished.[15] EU policies aim tae ensur the free movement o fowk, guids, services, an caipital,[16] enact legislation in juistice an home affairs, an maintain common policies on trade,[17] agricultur,[18] fisheries, an regional development.[19]

The monetary union wis established in 1999 and came intae full force in 2002. It is currently componed o 18 member states that uise the euro as thair legal tender. Throu the Common Foreign an Security Policy the EU haes developed a role in freemit relations an defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the warld an represents itself at the Unitit Naitions, the WTO, the G8, an the G-20.

The EU is considered bi mony tae be a potential superpouer. Wi a combined population o ower 500 million indwallers,[7] or 7.3% o the warld population,[20] the EU in 2012 generatit a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) o 16.584 trillion US dollars, constitutin approximately 23% o global nominal GDP an 20% when measured in terms o purchasin pouer parity, which is the lairgest nominal GDP an GDP PPP in the warld.[21] The EU wis the recipient o the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize.[22]

Banner o the European Union
Motto: "In Varietate Concordia" (Laitin)
"United in Diversity"
Anthem: "Ode tae Joy" (orchestral)
Globe projection wi the European Union in green
Caipital Brussels (de facto)[1]
Lairgest ceety Lunnon
Offeecial leids
Offeecial scripts[3]
Demonym European[5]
Teep Poleetical an economic union
Member states
Govrenment Supranaitional an intergovrenmental
• Preses o the Cooncil
Donald Tusk
• Preses o the Pairlament
Antonio Tajani
• Preses o the Commission
Jean-Claude Juncker
1 Januar 1958
1 November 1993
1 December 2009
• Last polity admittit
1 Julie 2013
• Total
4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) (7t)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
Increase 512,596,403[7] (3rd)
• Density
117.3/km2 (303.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate
• Total
$23.0 trillion[8] (2nt)
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
• Tot
$19.1 trillion[8] (2nt)
• Per capita
Gini (2016) positive decrease 30.8[10]
HDI (2017) Increase 0.899[lower-alpha 3]
verra heich
Currency Euro (EUR; €; in eurozone) an
Time zone UTC to UTC+2 (WET, CET, EET)
• Summer (DST)
(see an aw Simmer Time in Europe)
Note: wi the exception o the Canary Islands an Madeira, the ootermaist regions observe different time zones nae shawn.[lower-alpha 4]
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD/CE)
See an aw: Date an time notation in Europe
Internet TLD .eu[lower-alpha 5]

Memmer states

UE-EU-ISO 3166-1

Memmers o the EU:[23]

Yeir o ingang: 1)1958 (founders), 2)1973, 3)1981, 4)1986, 5)1995, 6)2004, 7)2007, 8)2013.

* Eftir the cumin thegither o Germany in 1990, the umwhyl territorie o the GDR jyn'd the European Union.

Croatie wul lyk jyn the EU in 2009, Macedonie wis makkit a candidate kintra in 2006, an Turkey haes been a canidate kintra in 1999 altho thay didna corrieneuch till 2005.

Leids o the European Union

Offeicial leids o the European Union

The syn in the ingang o the European Pairliament biggin in Brussels is written in the 20 offeecial leids bruikit in the European Union as o Julie 2006. The offeicial leids o the European Union, as stipulatit in the amendit EEC Council: Regulation Nummer 1 determinin the leids ti be bruikit bi the European Economic Communitie o 1958-04-15,[24] ar: [1]

No aw naitional offeicial leids haes bin grantit the status o offeicial leids o the EU. Luxembourgish, an offeecial leid o Luxembourg syn 1984, haesna. Nor haes Turkish, an offeecial leid o Cyprus.

Regional an minoritie leids

Thar's monie mair leids that 's recognised bi the EU (in fak its the Cooncil o Europe, a different organization) as "Regional an Minority Leids". Thir includes the Scots leid an the Scots Gaelic leid as regional leids.


The creation o a European single siller acame an offeecial objective o the European Economic Community in 1969. Houiver, it wis anly wi the advent o the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 that member states wur legally boond tae stairt the monetary union no later nor 1 Januar 1999. On this date the euro wis duly launched bi eleven o the then 15 member states o the EU. It remained an accoontin currency till 1 Januar 2002, when euro notes an coins wur issued an naitional currencies began tae phase oot in the eurozone, which bi then consisted o 12 member states. The eurozone (constituted bi the EU member states which hae adoptit the euro) haes syne grown tae 18 kintras, the maist recent bein Latvie which jyned on 1 Januar 2014.

Aw ither EU member states, except Denmark an the Unitit Kinrick, are legally boond tae jyn the euro[25] when the convergence criteria are met, houiver anly a few kintras hae set target dates for accession. Swaden haes circumventit the requirement tae jyn the euro bi nae meetin the membership criteria.[lower-alpha 6]

See an aa


  1. The 24 leids are equally offeecial an acceptit as wirkin leids. Houiver, anerly three o them – Inglish, French an German – hae the heicher status o procedural leids an are uised in the day-tae-day wirkins o the European institutions.[2]
  2. Currently unnergaein exit procedurs kent as Brexit.
  3. Calculatit uisin UNDP data for the member states wi wechtit population.[11]
  4. Martinique, Guadeloupe (UTC−4); French Guiana (UTC−3); Azores (UTC−1 / UTC); Mayotte (UTC+3); an La Réunion (UTC+4); that, ither than the Azores, dae nae observe DST.
  5. .eu is representative o the hale o the EU; member states an aw hae thair awn TLDs.
  6. In order tae meet the euro convergence criteria it is necessary first tae jyn the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, somethin Swaden haes declined tae dae: "ERM II". Danish Finance Ministry. 20 March 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009.


  1. Cybriwsky, Roman Adrian (2013). Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-248-9. Brussels, the capital of Belgium, is considered to be the de facto capital of the EU
  2. "European Commission – Frequently asked questions on languages in Europe".
  3. Leonard Orban (24 May 2007). "Cyrillic, the third official alphabet of the EU, was created by a truly multilingual European" (PDF). Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  4. "DISCRIMINATION IN THE EU IN 2015", Special Eurobarometer, 437, European Union: European Commission, 2015, retrieved 15 October 2017 – via GESIS
  5. The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edn., Erin McKean (editor), 2051 pages, 2005, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517077-6.
  6. Current Article 1 of the Treaty on European Union reads: "The Union sall be foondit on the present Treaty an on the Treaty on the Functionin o the European Union. Thae twa Treaties sall hae the same legal vailyie. The Union sall replace an succeed the European Community".
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Eurostat – Population on 1 January 2018". European Commission. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "IMF World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  9. "IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  10. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  11. "Human Development Report 2018 Summary". The United Nations. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  12. "Basic information on the European Union". European Union. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  13. "European". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 5 b. spec. Designating a developing series of economic and political unions between certain countries of Europe from 1952 onwards, as European Economic Community, European Community, European Union
  14. Craig, Paul (2007). EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-19-927389-8. Unkent parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); "Treaty of Maastricht on European Union". Activities of the European Union. Europa web portal. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
  15. "Schengen area". Europa web portal. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
  16. European Commission. "The EU Single Market: Fewer barriers, more opportunities". Europa web portal. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
    "Activities of the European Union: Internal Market". Europa web portal. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  17. "Common commercial policy". Europa Glossary. Europa web portal. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
  18. "Agriculture and Fisheries Council". The Council of the European Union. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  19. "Regional Policy Inforegio". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  20. "European Union reaches 500 Million through Combination of Accessions, Migration and Natural Growth". Vienna Institute of Demography.
  21. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2013 Edition". International Monetary Fund. October 2013.
  22. "EU collects Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo". British Broadcasting Corporation. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  23. "European Countries". Europa web portal. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  24. Council Regulation (EC) No 1791/2006 of 20 November 2006, Official Journal L 363 of December 12, 2006. Retrieved on 2t Februar, 2007.
  25. Kuchler, Teresa (25 October 2006). "Almunia says 'undesirable' to act on Sweden's euro refusal". Retrieved 26 December 2006.

Fremmit airtins


.eu is the kintra code tap-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).


The Kinrick o Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België; French: Royaume de Belgique; German: Königreich Belgien) is a kintra in nor'wastren Europe that haes laund mairches wi the Netherlands, Fraunce, Luxembourg an Germany, Belgium proclaimed its unthirldom, an biway, its foondaition, in Juin 1831. It wis ane o the foondin members o the European Union. Belgium haes three main pairts; Flanders, whar folk speak Dutch, Wallonia whar French is the mither tung, an Brussels, which is bilingual. Dere be Jairman speakin community in Wallonia an aw.

Cantons o Fraunce

The cantons o Fraunce are territorial subdiveesions o the French Republic's 342 arrondissements an 101 depairtments.

Central European Time

The Central European Time (CET), uised in maist pairts o the European Union, is a staundart time that is 1 oor aheid o Coordinatit Universal Time (UTC). The time affset frae UTC can be written as +01:00. The same staundart time, UTC+01:00, is kent forbye as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) an unner ither names lik Romance Staundart Time.The 15t meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the warld seestem o time zones.

Fae 2011 on, aw member states o the European Union observe simmer time; thaim that uise CET in the winter uise Central European Simmer Time (CEST), UTC+02:00, daylicht savin time in simmer.

Coonties o Estonie

A coonty (Estonie: maakond) is an admeenistrative subdiveesion o Estonie.

Estonie is dividit intae 15 coonties. The govrenment (Estonie: maavalitsus) o ilka coonty is led bi a coonty govrenor (Estonie: maavanem), wha represents the naitional govrenment at the regional level. Govrenors is appointit bi the govrenment for a term o five year.

Ilka coonty is further dividit intae municipalities that is o twa teeps: urban municipality, or toun (linn), an landwart municipality, or pairish (vald).


Croatia (Croatie: Hrvatska [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), offeecially the Republic o Croatie (Croatie: Republika Hrvatska, listen ), is a kintra at the mairch o Central an Sootheast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. Its caipital Zagreb forms ane o the kintra's primar subdiveesions, alang wi twenty coonties. Croatie haes an aurie o 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) an a population o 4.28 million, maist o whom are Roman Catholics.

The Croats arrived in the aurie in the 6t century. Thay organised the state intae twa duchies bi the 9t century. Tomislav becam the first keeng bi 925, elevatin Croatie tae the status o a kinrick. The Kinrick o Croatie retained its sovereignty for nearly twa centuries, reachin its peak in the rule o Keengs Petar Krešimir IV an Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatie entered a personal union wi Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced wi Ottoman conquest, the Croatie Pairlament electit Ferdinand I o the Hoose o Habsburg tae the Croatie throne. In the early 19th century, pairts o the kintra war split intae the French Illyrian Provinces while Austrick-Hungary occupied its Bosnie an Herzegovinae side–a dispute settled bi the 1878 Treaty o Berlin. In 1918, efter Warld War I, Croatie wis included in the unrecognised State o Slovenes, Croats an Serbs that secedit frae Austrick-Hungary an merged intae the Kinrick o Yugoslavie. Follaeing the Axis invasion o Yugoslavie, maist o the Croatie territory wis incorporatit intae the Nazi-backed client-state that led tae the development o a resistance muivement an creaution o the Federal State o Croatie that efter the war acome a foondin member an a federal constituent o the Socialist Federal Republic o Yugoslavie. On 25 Juin 1991, Croatie declared unthirldom, that cam halely intae effect on 8 October o the same year. The Croatie War o Unthirldom wis focht successfully for fower years follaein the declaration.

Croatie is a republic govrened unner a pairlamentar seestem an a developit kintra wi a verra heich staundart o leevin. Croatie is a member o the European Union (EU), Unitit Naitions (UN), the Cooncil o Europe, NATO, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO), an a foondin member o the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active pairteecipant in the UN peacekeepin forces, Croatie haes contreibutit truips tae the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan an teuk a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Cooncil for the 2008–2009 term. Syne 2000, the Croatie govrenment haes constantly investit in infrastructur, especially transport routes an facilities alang the Pan-European corridors.

Croatie's economy is dominatit bi service an industrial sectors an agricultur. Tourism is a signeeficant soorce o revenue, wi Croatie rankit amang tap 20 maist popular tourist destinations in the warld. The state controls a pairt o the economy, wi substantial govrenment expenditur. The European Union is Croatie's maist important treddin pairtner. Croatie provides a social siccarity, universal heal care seestem, an a tuition-free primar an seicontar eddication, while supportin cultur throu numerous public institutions an corporate investments in media an publishin.


Estonie, whiles Eastland, is a smaa kintra in the north o Europe. It is conseidert tae be ane o the three 'Baltic States', alang wi Latvie an Lithuanie, acause o its poseetion on the Baltic Sea. It haes mairches wi baith Latvie an Roushie.


Finland (Finnish: Suomi), offeecially the Republic o Finland, (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta), is a Nordic kintra situatit in the Fennoscandie region o Northren Europe. Wastlins, it haes a mairch wi Swaden, norlins wi Norawa an eastlins wi Roushie, while Estonie lees soothlins athort the Gulf o Finland.

Aroond 5.4 million fowk reside in Finland, wi the majority concentratit in the soothren region. It is the aicht lairgest kintra in Europe in terms o aurie an the maist sparsely populatit kintra in the European Union. Finland is a pairliamentary republic wi a central govrenment based in Helsinki an local govrenments in 342 municipalities. A tot o aboot ane hunner residents live in the Greater Helsinki aurie; (whilk includes Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen an Vantaa), an a third o the kintra's GDP is produced thare. Ither lairger ceeties include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti, Kuopio an Kouvola.

Finland wis heestorically a pairt o Swaden an frae 1809 on, an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Roushie Empire. Finnish Declaration o Unthirldom frae Roushie in 1917 wis follaed bi a ceevil war, wars agin the Soviet Union an Nazi Germany, an a period o offeecial neutrality in the Cauld War. Finland jyned the Unitit Naitions in 1955, the OECD in 1969, the European Union in 1995, an the eurozone syne its inception.

Finland wis a relative latecomer tae industrialisation, remainin a lairgely agrarian kintra til the 1950s. Syne, economic development wis rapid, Finland biggit an extensive welfare state an balanced atween the East an the Wast in global economics an politics. The kintra taps continuously the internaitional comparisons o naitional performance. Finland ranks the best kintra in the warld in the 2010 Newsweek survey based on heal, economic dynamism, eddication, poleetical environment an quality o life. Finland haes been ranked the seicont maist stable kintra in the warld an the first in the 2009 Legatum Prosperity ratin.

German leid

German (Deutsch) is a Wast Germanic leid, thus relatit tae an clessifee'd alangside Inglis an Dutch. It is ane o the warld's major leids an the maist widely spoken first leid in the European Union. Globally, German is spoken bi approximately 120 million native speakers an aa bi aboot 80 million non-native speakers. Standard German is widely taught in schools, varsities an Goethe Institutes warldwide. It is a naitional leid o Germany, Austrick, Liechtenstein, Swizzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium an the European Union.


Germany (/ˈdʒɜːrməni/; German: Deutschland, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), offeecially the Federal Republic o Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, listen ), is a federal pairlamentary republic in central-wastren Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an aurie o 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), an haes a lairgely temperate saisonal climate. Wi aboot 82 million indwallers, Germany is the maist populous member state o the European Union. Efter the Unitit States, it is the seicont maist popular immigration destination in the warld. Germany's caipital an lairgest metropolis is Berlin, while its lairgest conurbation is the Ruhr (main centres: Dortmund an Essen). Ither major ceeties include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf an Leipzig.

Various Germanic tribes hae inhabitit the northren pairts o modren Germany syne clessical antiquity. A region named Germanie wis documentit afore 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expandit soothwart. Beginnin in the 10t century, German territories formed a central pairt o the Haly Roman Empire. During the 16t century, northren German regions acame the centre o the Protestant Reformation.

In 1871, Germany acame a naition state when maist o the German states unified intae the Proushie-dominatit German Empire. Efter Warld War I an the German Revolution o 1918–1919, the Empire wis replaced bi the pairlamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment o the naitional socialist dictatorship in 1933 led tae Warld War II an the Holocaust. Efter a period o Allied occupation, twa German states war foondit: the Federal Republic o Germany (commonly kent as Wast Germany) an the German Democratic Republic (commonly kent as East Germany). In 1990, the kintra wis reunifee'd.In the 21st century, Germany is a great pouer an haes the warld's fowerth-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP, as well as the fift-lairgest bi PPP. As a global leader in several industrial an technological sectors, it is baith the warld's third-lairgest exporter an importer o guids. Germany is a developit kintra wi a very heich staundart o livin susteened bi a skilled an productive society. It uphaulds a social security an universal heal care seestem, environmental pertection an a tuition-free varsity eddication.Germany wis a foondin member o the European Union in 1993. It is pairt o the Schengen Aurie, an acame a co-foonder o the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member o the Unitit Naitions, NATO, the G8, the G20, an the OECD. The naitional militar expenditur is the 9t heichest in the warld. Kent for its rich cultural history, Germany haes been continuously the hame o influential airtists, filosofers, muisickers, sportsfowk, entrepreneurs, scientists, ingineers, an inventors.


Italy ['i:təlɪ] or offeecially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a kintra in the sooth o Europe. It comprises a buit-shapit, peninsula an twa lairge islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily an Sardinia, an shares it's northren alpine mairch wi Monaco, Fraunce, Swisserland, Austrick an Slovenie. The independent kintras o San Marino an the Vatican Ceety is enclaves inouth the Italian Region.

Italy uised ti be tribelaunds, suin bein ringed bi the Latin tribe an foondin the Roman Empire. Efter the faw o Roum, the Italian peninsula brak apairt intae mony fechtin independent kintras. In modren times, Italy comprises o maist o the Italian peninsula, Sicily, an Sardinie.

The Italian Republic is made o 20 regions, five bein autonomous.


Martinique (French pronunciation: ​[maʁtinik]) is an island in the Lesser Antilles in the eastren Caribbean Sea, wi a land aurie o 1,128 km2 (436 sq mi). Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region o Fraunce, consistin o a single owerseas depairtment. Tae the northwast lees Dominica, tae the sooth St Lucia, an tae the sootheast Barbados.

As wi the ither overseas depairtments, Martinique is ane o the twinty-seiven regions o Fraunce (being an owerseas region) an an integral pairt o the Republic. The first European tae encoonter the island wis Christopher Columbus in 1493.

As pairt o Fraunce, Martinique is pairt o the European Union, an its currency is the Euro. Its offeecial leid is French, although mony o its inhabitants speak Antillean Creole (Créole Martiniquais) an aw.

Provinces o Italy

In Italy, a province (provincia) is an admeenistrative diveesion o intermediate level atween a municipality (comune) an a region (regione).

Republic o Ireland

Ireland or Airlann (Erse: Éire), deskrived as the Republic o Ireland (or Republick o Airlann in Ulstèr-Scotch) (Erse: Poblacht na hÉireann), is a kintra in wastren Europe, wi a population o mair nor 4 million. It maks up maist o the iland o Ireland, an haes a mairch wi Northren Ireland, pairt o the Unitit Kinrick. It is a unitar, pairlamentar republic. The legislatur, the Oireachtas, consists o a lawer house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected Preses (Uachtarán) that serves as the lairgely ceremonial heid o state, but wi some important pouers an duties. The heid o govrenment is the Taoiseach (Prime Meenister, leeterally 'Chief', a teetle nae uised in Inglis), that is electit bi the Dáil an appointit bi the President; the Taoiseach in turn appynts ither govrenment meenisters.

The state wis creautit as the Erse Free State in 1922 as a result o the Anglo-Erse Treaty. It haed the status o Domeenion till 1937 whan a new constitution wis adoptit, in that the state wis named "Ireland" and effectively becam a republic, wi an electit non-executive preses as heid o state. It wis offeecially declared a republic in 1949, follaein the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland becam a member o the Unitit Naitions in December 1955. It jynt the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor o the European Union, in 1973. The state haed na formal relations wi Northren Ireland for maist o the twentiet century, but in the 1980s an 1990s the Breetish an Erse govrenments wirkit wi the Northren Ireland pairties taewart a resolution tae "the Tribbles". Syne the signin o the Guid Fryday Greement in 1998, the Erse govrenment an Northren Ireland Executive hae co-operatit on a nummer o policy auries unner the North-Sooth Meenisterial Cooncil creautit bi the Greement.

Ireland ranks amang the tap twenty-five walthiest kintras in the warld in terms o GDP per capita, an as the tent maist prosperous kintra in the warld accordin tae The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. Efter jynin the EEC, Ireland enactit a series o leeberal economic policies that resultit in fest economic growthe. The kintra achieved conseederable prosperity atween the years o 1995 an 2007, that becam kent as the Celtic Teeger period. This wis hautit bi an unprecedentit financial creesis that begoud in 2008, in conjunction wi the concurrent global economic crash. Houiver, as the Erse economy wis the festest growin in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascendin league cairts comparin walth an prosperity internaitionally. For ensaumple, in 2015, Ireland wis rankit as the jynt saxt (wi Germany) maist developit kintra in the warld bi the Unitit Naitions Human Development Index. It an aw performs weel in several naitional performance metrics, includin freedom o the press, economic freedom an ceevil leeberties. Ireland is a member o the European Union an is a foondin member o the Cooncil o Europe an the OECD. The Erse govrenment haes follaed a policy o militar neutrality throu non-alignment syne immediately prior tae Warld War II an the kintra is consequently nae a member o NATO, awtho it is a member o Pairtnership for Peace.


Romania (Romanie: România [romɨˈni.a]) is a sovereign state locatit in Sootheastren Europe. It mairches the Black Sea, Bulgarie, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbie, an Moldovae. It haes an aurie o 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi) an a temperate-continental climate. Wi awmaist 20 million indwallers, the kintra is the seivent maist populous member state o the European Union. Its caipital an lairgest ceety, Bucharest, is the saxt-lairgest ceety in the EU, wi 1,883,425 indwallers as o 2011.The River Danube, Europe's seicont-langest river, rises in Germany an flowes in a general sootheast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coorsin throu ten kintras afore emptyin intae Romanie's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Moontains, that cross Romanie frae the north tae the soothwast, include Moldoveanu, at 2,544 m (8,346 ft).Modren Romanie wis formed in 1859 throu a personal union o the Danubian Principalities o Moldavie an Wallachie. The new state, offeecially named Romanie syne 1866, gained unthirldom frae the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end o Warld War I, Transylvanie, Bukovina an Bessarabie unitit wi the sovereign Kinrick o Romanie. In Warld War II, Romanie wis an ally o Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fechtin side bi side wi the Wehrmacht till 1944, whan it jyned the Allied pouers an faced occupation bi the Reid Airmy forces. Romanie lost several territories, o that Northren Transylvanie wis regained efter the war. Follaein the war, Romanie becam a socialist republic an member o the Warsaw Pact. Efter the 1989 Revolution, Romanie begoud a transeetion taewart democracy an a caipitalist mercat economy.

Romanie is a developin kintra an ane o the puirest in the European Union, rankin 50t in the Human Development Index, awtho as o 2017 its economy is growin at an estimatit annual rate o 5%, tied wi Maltae for the heichest in the EU. Follaein rapid economic growthe in the early 2000s, Romanie haes an economy predominantly based on services, an is a producer an net exporter o machines an electric energy, featurin companies lik Automobile Dacia an OMV Petrom. It haes been a member o NATO syne 2004, an pairt o the European Union syne 2007. A strang majority o the population identifee themsels as Eastren Orthodox Christians an are native speakers o Romanie, a Romance leid. The cultural history o Romanie is eften referred tae whan dealin wi influential airtists, muisickers, inventors, an sportsfowk.


Slovakie (Slovak: Slovensko [ˈslɔʋɛnskɔ] ( listen)), offeecially the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika, listen ), is a laundlocked kintra in Central Europe. It is mairchit bi Poland tae the north, Ukraine tae the east, the Czech Republic tae the wast, Hungary tae the sooth, an Austrick tae the soothwast. Slovakie's territory spans aboot 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi) an is maistly mountainous. The population is ower 5.4 million an consists maistly o Slovaks. The caipital an lairgest ceety is Bratislava, seicont lairgest ceety is Košice. The offeecial leid is Slovak.

The Slavs arrived in the territory o present-day Slovakie in the 5t an 6t centuries. In the 7t century, they played a signeeficant role in the creation o Samo's Empire an in the 9t century established the Principality o Nitra. In the 10t century, the territory wis integratit intae the Kinrick o Hungary. Efter Warld War I an the dissolution o the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Slovaks an Czechs established Czechoslovakie (1918–1939). A separate (First) Slovak Republic (1939–1945) exeestit in Warld War II as a client state o Nazi Germany. In 1945, Czechoslovakie wis re-established an unner Communist rule becam a Soviet satellite. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution endit Communist rule in Czechoslovakie. Slovakie becam an independent state on 1 Januar 1993 efter the peacefu dissolution o Czechoslovakie, whiles kent as the Velvet Divorce.

Slovakie is a heich-income advanced economy wi a verra heich Human Development Index, a verra heich staundart o leevin an performs favourably in measurements o ceevil leeberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic govrenance an peacefuness. The kintra mainteens a combination o mercat economy wi a comprehensive social siccarity seestem. Ceetizens o Slovakie are providit wi universal heal care, free eddication an ane o the langest paid maternity leave in the OECD. The kintra jynt the European Union in 2004 an the Eurozone on 1 Januar 2009. Slovakie is an aw a member o the Schengen Aurie, NATO, the Unitit Naitions, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Cooncil o Europe an the Visegrád Group. Awtho regional income inequality is heich, 90% o ceetizens awn thair hames. In 2018, Slovak ceetizens haed visa-free or visa-on-arrival access tae 167 kintras an territories, rankingthe Slovak passport 12t in the warld. Slovakie is the warld’s lairgest per-capita car producer wi a tot o 1,040,000 caurs manufacturt in the kintra in 2016 alane an the 7t lairgest caur producer in the European Union. The caur industrie represents 43% o Slovakie's industrial ootput, an a quarter o its exports.


Spain (Spaingie: España [esˈpaɲa] ( listen)), offeecially the Kinrick o Spain (Spaingie: Reino de España), is a kintra maistly locatit on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The kintra's mainland is mairchit tae the sooth an east bi the Mediterranean Sea except for a smaw laund boondary wi Gibraltar; tae the north an northeast bi Fraunce, Andorrae, an the Bay o Biscay; an tae the wast an northwest bi Portugal an the Atlantic Ocean. Spaingie territory includes twa large airchipelagaes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea an the Canary Islands aff the African Atlantic coast, twa ceeties, Ceuta an Melilla, on the African mainland an several smaw islands in the Alboran Sea near the African coast. Spain is the anerly European kintra tae hae a mairch wi an African kintra (Morocco)Wi an aurie o 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the lairgest kintra in Soothren Europe, the seicont lairgest kintra in Wastren Europe an the European Union, an the fowert lairgest kintra in the European continent. Bi population, Spain is the saxt lairgest in Europe an the fift in the European Union. Spain's caipital an lairgest ceety is Madrid; ither major urban auries include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao an Málaga.

Modren humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula aroond 35,000 years ago. Iberian culturs alang wi auncient Phoenicie, Greek an Carthaginian settlements developit on the peninsula till it cam unner Roman rule aroond 200 BCE, efter that the region wis named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end o the Wastren Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migratit frae Central Europe, invadit the Iberian peninsula an established relatively independent realms in its wastren provinces, includin the Sueves, Alans an Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths wad forcibly integrate aw remeenin independent territories in the peninsula, includin Byzantine provinces, intae the Kinrick o Toledo, that mair or less unifee'd poleetically, ecclesiastically an legally aw the umwhile Roman provinces or successor kinricks o that wis then documentit as Hispanie.

In the late aicht century the Visigothic kinrick fell tae the Moors, that ruled maist o the peninsula for the next seiven centuries, leavin anerly a haundful o smaw Christian realms in the north. Follaein the Moorish conquest, Europeans begoud a gradual process o retakkin the region kent as the Reconquista, that bi the late 15t century culminatit in the emergence o Spain as a unifee'd kintra unner the Catholic Monarchs. In the early modren period, Spain becam ane o history's first global empires, leavin a vast cultural an lingueestic legacy that includes ower 500 million Hispanophones, makkin Spaingie the warld's seicont maist spoken native leid, efter Mandarin Cheenese.

Spain is a secular pairlamentar democracy an constitutional monarchy, wi Keeng Felipe VI as heid o state. It is a major developit kintra wi the warld's fowerteent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an saxteent lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Cooncil o Europe (CoE), the Organisation o Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), OSCE, the Schengen Aurie, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO) an mony ither internaitional organisations. Spain hars a "permanent invitation" tae the G20 summits that occur generally ance a year.


The Kinrick o Swaden (Swadish: Sverige) is a Nordic kintra on the Scandinavian hauf-island. It's a constitutional monarchy, an the keeng is Carl XVI Gustaf. Aboot 10,000,000 fowk bydes in Swaden. The caipital ceety o Swaden is Stockholm, that haes aboot 2.1 million indwallers. Swaden is a member o the European Union. It haes mairches wi Norawa an Finland. It is a an aa homa tae o Swaden Cheef.

In ither leids

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