Economics

Economics is "a social science concerned chiefly wi description an analysis o the production, distribution, an consumption o guids an services".[1][2]

Economics focuses on the behaviour an interactions o economic augents an hou economies wirk. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, includin individual augents an mercats, thair interactions, an the ootcomes o interactions. Individual augents mey include, for ensaumple, hoosehauds, firms, buyers, an sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meanin aggregatit production, consumption, savins, an investment) an issues affectin it, includin unemployment o resoorces (labour, caipital, an laund), inflation, economic growthe, an the public policies that address thir issues (monetary, fiscal, an ither policies).

Ither braid distinctions athin economics include thae atween positive economics, descrivin "what is", an normative economics, advocatin "whit shoud be"; atween economic theory an applee'd economics; atween raitional an behavioural economics; an atween mainstream economics an heterodox economics.[3]

References

  1. "Economics". Merriam-Webster.
  2. "economics". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. Caplin, Andrew; Schotter, Andrew, eds. (2008). The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics: A Handbook. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-532831-0.
Asie

Asie is Yird's lairgest an maist populous continent, locatit primarily in the Eastren an Northren Hemispheres. It shares the continental laundmass o Eurasie wi the continent o Europe an the continental laundmass o Afro-Eurasie wi baith Europe an Africae. Asie covers an aurie o 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), aboot 30% o Yird's tot laund aurie an 8.7% o the Yird's tot surface aurie. The continent, that haes lang been hame tae the majority o the human population, wis the steid o mony o the first ceevilisations. Asie is notable for nae anly its oweraw lairge size an population, but an aa dense an lairge settlements, as weel as vast barely populatit regions. Its 4.5 billion fowk constitute aboot 60% o the warld's population.

In general terms, Asie is boondit on the east bi the Paceefic Ocean, on the sooth bi the Indie Ocean an on the north bi the Arctic Ocean. The wastren boondar wi Europe is a historical an cultural construct, as thare is na clear pheesical an geografical separation atween them. The maist commonly acceptit boondaries place Asie tae the east o the Suez Canal, the Ural River, an the Ural Moontains, an sooth o the Caucasus Moontains an the Caspian an Black Seas.Cheenae an Indie alternatit in bein the lairgest economies in the warld frae 1 tae 1800 CE. Cheenae wis a major economic pouer an attractit mony tae the east, and for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attractin European commerce, exploration an colonialism. The accidental diskivery o Americae bi Columbus in sairch for Indie demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road becam the main East-Wast treddin route in the Asie hinterlands while the Straits o Malacca stuid as a major sea route. Asie haes exhibited economic dynamism (pairteecularly East Asie) as weel as robust population growthe in the 20t century, but oweraw population growthe haes syne fawen. Asie wis the birthplace o maist o the warld's mainstream releegions includin Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism (or Daoism), Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastranism, as weel as mony ither releegions.

Gien its size an diversity, the concept o Asie—a name datin back tae clessical antiquity—mey actually hae mair tae dae wi human geografie nor pheesical geografie. Asie varies greatly athort an within its regions wi regaird tae ethnic groups, culturs, environments, economics, historical ties an govrenment seestems. It an aa haes a mix o mony different climates rangin frae the equatorial sooth via the het desert in the Middle East, temperate auries in the east an the continental centre tae vast subarctic an polar auries in Siberie.

Conservative Pairty (UK)

The Conservative Pairty, offeecially the Conservative an Unionist Pairty, is a centre-richt poleetical pairty in the Unitit Kinrick. The govrening pairty syne 2010, it is the lairgest in the Hoose o Commons, wi 288 Members o Pairlament. It an aw haes 234 members o the Hoose o Lairds, 4 members o the European Pairlament, 31 Members o the Scots Pairlament, 11 members o the Welsh Assemmly, 8 members o the Lunnon Assembly an 7,445 local cooncillors.The Conservative Pairty wis foondit in 1834 frae the Tory Pairty—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—an wis ane o twa dominant poleetical pairties in the nineteent century, alang wi the Leeberal Pairty. Unner Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the hicht o the Breetish Empire. In 1912, the Leeberal Unionist Pairty merged wi the pairty tae form the Conservative an Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Pairty surpassed the Leeberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Meenisters — notably Winston Churchill an Margaret Thatcher — led govrenments for 57 years o the twentiet century.

Poseetioned on the centre-richt tae richt o Breetish politics, the Conservative Pairty is ideologically conservative. Different factions hae dominatit the pairty at different times, includin ane naition conservatives, Thatcherites, an leeberal conservatives, while its views an policies hae chynged ootthrou its history. The pairty has generally adoptit leeberal economic policies—favourin free mercat economics, leemitin state regulation, an pursuin preevatisation—awtho in the past haes an aw supportit pertectionism. The pairty is Breetish unionist, opponin baith Erse reunification an Welsh an Scots unthirldom, an historically supportit the maintenance o the Breetish Empire. The pairty includes thae wi differin views on the European Union, wi Eurosceptic an pro-European weengs. On social policy, it haes historically taken a mair socially conservative approach, tho this haes recedit ower recent decades. In furrin policy, it favours a strang militar capability, bein supportive o Breetish pairteecipation in NATO.

The Conservatives are a member o the Internaitional Democrat Union an the Alliance o Conservatives an Reformists in Europe, an sit wi the European Conservatives an Reformists (ECR) pairlamentar group. The Scots, Welsh, Northren Erse an Gibraltarian brainches o the pairty are semi-autonomous. Its support base consists primarily o middle-cless voters, especially in rural auries o Ingland, an its domination o Breetish politics ootthrou the twentiet century haes led tae it bein referred tae as ane o the maist successfu poleetical pairties in the Wastren warld.

Copyricht

Copyricht is a legal concept, enactit bi maist govrenments, that grants the creator o an oreeginal wirk exclusive richts tae its uise an distribution, uisually for a leemitit time, wi the intention o enablin the creator o intellectual wealth (e.g. the photographer o a photograph or the author o a beuk) tae receive compensation for thair wirk an be able tae financially support themselves.

Economist

An economist is a professional in the social science discipline o economics.

Finland

Finland (Finnish: Suomi), offeecially the Republic o Finland, (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta), is a Nordic kintra situatit in the Fennoscandie region o Northren Europe. Wastlins, it haes a mairch wi Swaden, norlins wi Norawa an eastlins wi Roushie, while Estonie lees soothlins athort the Gulf o Finland.

Aroond 5.4 million fowk reside in Finland, wi the majority concentratit in the soothren region. It is the aicht lairgest kintra in Europe in terms o aurie an the maist sparsely populatit kintra in the European Union. Finland is a pairliamentary republic wi a central govrenment based in Helsinki an local govrenments in 342 municipalities. A tot o aboot ane hunner residents live in the Greater Helsinki aurie; (whilk includes Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen an Vantaa), an a third o the kintra's GDP is produced thare. Ither lairger ceeties include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti, Kuopio an Kouvola.

Finland wis heestorically a pairt o Swaden an frae 1809 on, an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Roushie Empire. Finnish Declaration o Unthirldom frae Roushie in 1917 wis follaed bi a ceevil war, wars agin the Soviet Union an Nazi Germany, an a period o offeecial neutrality in the Cauld War. Finland jyned the Unitit Naitions in 1955, the OECD in 1969, the European Union in 1995, an the eurozone syne its inception.

Finland wis a relative latecomer tae industrialisation, remainin a lairgely agrarian kintra til the 1950s. Syne, economic development wis rapid, Finland biggit an extensive welfare state an balanced atween the East an the Wast in global economics an politics. The kintra taps continuously the internaitional comparisons o naitional performance. Finland ranks the best kintra in the warld in the 2010 Newsweek survey based on heal, economic dynamism, eddication, poleetical environment an quality o life. Finland haes been ranked the seicont maist stable kintra in the warld an the first in the 2009 Legatum Prosperity ratin.

Gini coefficient

The Gini coefficient (an aa kent as the Gini index or Gini ratio) (/dʒini/) is a measure o stateestical dispersion intendit tae represent the income distribution o a naition's residents.

ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a staundart published bi the Internaitional Staundarts Organization, which delineates siller designators, kintra codes (alpha an numeric), an references tae minor units in three tables:

Table A.1 – Current siller & funds code leet

Table A.2 – Current funds codes

Table A.3 – Leet o codes for historic denominations o sillers & funds The tables, history an ongangin discussion is maintained bi SIX Interbank Clearing.The ISO 4217 code leet is uised in bankin an business globally. In mony kintras the ISO codes for the mair common sillers are sae well kent publicly that exchynge rates published in newspapers or postit in banks uise anly thir tae delineate the different sillers, insteid o translatit siller names or ambiguous siller seembols. ISO 4217 codes are uised on airline tickets an internaitional train tickets tae remove ony ambiguity aboot the price.

Industrie

Industrie (or industry) includes aw kynds o economic activitie. It can be sindert intil fower sectors lippenin on the naitur o the activitie.

Primar industrie extracts naitural materials an fends raw materials for seicondar industrie. Secondar industrie processes raw materials or semi-feenished guids inti products o mair wirth. Tertiar industrie is the proveesion o services. Quaternar industrie is the activitie adae wi the application, manipulation and transmeesion o information.

In a nairae sense, industrie is confined ti manufacturin activities.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a legal concept whilk refers tae creations o the mind for whilk exclusive richts is recognized.

Internaitional Monetar Fund

The Internaitional Monetar Fund (IMF) is an internaitional organisation heidquartert in Washington, D.C., o "189 kintras wirkin tae foster global monetar cooperation, secur financial stability, facilitate internaitional tred, promote heich employment an sustainable economic growth, an reduce poverty aroond the warld."

London School of Economics

The London School of Economics and Political Science (Scots: The Lunnon Schuil o Economics an Poleetical Science; commonly kent as the London School of Economics Scots: Lunnon Schuil o Economics, or LSE) is a public research varsity locatit in Lunnon, Ingland and a constituent college o the federal Varsity o Lunnon.

Mathematics

Mathematics is the studie o feck, structur, room, an chynge. Historically, Mathematics developed frae coontin, calculation, meisurement, an the studie o the shapes an muivins o pheesical objects, throu the uise o abstraction an deductive raesonin.

Mathematics is uised forbye tae remit tae the insicht gained bi fowk bi daein mathematics, forbye kent as the bodie o mathematical ken. This hinder meanin o mathematics includes the mathematics uised tae dae warkin oots or models an is an indispensable tuil in the naitural sciences, ingineerin, an economics.

The wird "mathematics" comes frae the Greek μάθημα (máthema) meanin "science, ken, or lairnin" an μαθηματικός (mathematikós) meanin "fond o lairnin".

Mathematics help fowks tae understand in various domeins. See the airticle o'er reality tae understand a practical example o the uise o mathematics.

Mexico

Mexico (Spaingie: México [ˈmexiko] ( listen); Nahuatl: Mēxihco), offeecially the Unitit Mexican States (Spaingie: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, listen ), is a federal republic in the soothrenmist portion o North Americae. It is mairchit tae the north bi the Unitit States; tae the sooth an wast bi the Paceefic Ocean; tae the sootheast bi Guatemala, Belize, an the Caribbean Sea; an tae the east bi the Gulf o Mexico. Kiverin awmaist 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the naition is the fift lairgest kintra in Americae bi tot aurie an the 13t lairgest independent state in the warld.

Wi an estimatit population o ower 120 million fowk, the kintra is the elevent maist populous state an the maist populous Spaingie-speakin state in the warld, while bein the seicont maist populous naition in Laitin Americae efter Brazil. Mexico is a federation compreesin 31 states an Mexico Ceety, a special federal entity that is an aw the caipital ceety an its maist populous ceety. Ither metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, an Tijuana.

Mexico haes the 15t lairgest nominal GDP an the 11t lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. The Mexican economy is strangly airtit tae thae o its 1994 North American Free Tred Greement (NAFTA) pairtners, espeshally the Unitit States. In 1994, Mexico becam the first Laitin American member o the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD). It is clessifee'd as an upper-middle income kintra bi the Warld Bank an a newly industrialised kintra bi several analysts. The kintr is conseedert aith a regional pouer an a middle pouer, an is eften identifee'd as an emergin global pouer. Due tae its rich cultur an history, Mexico ranks first in Americae an seivent in the warld for nummer o UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse kintra, rankin fowert in the warld for its biodiversity. Mexico haes mony tourists: in 2016, it wis the aicht maist-veesitit kintra in the warld, wi 35 million internaitional arrivals. Mexico is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the Warld Trade Organisation (WTO), the G8+5, the G20, the Unitin for Consensus group o the UN, an the Paceefic Alliance tred bloc. Bi 2050, Mexico coud potentially acome the warld's fift or seivent lairgest economy.Pre-Columbian Mexico dates tae aboot 8000 BC an is identifee'd as ane o seiven cradles o ceevilisation an wis hame tae mony advanced Mesoamerican ceevilisations sic as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, an Aztec afore first contact wi Europeans. In 1521, the Spaingie Empire conquered an colonised the territory frae its poleetically pouerfu base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan (pairt o Mexico Ceety), that wis admeenistert as the viceryalty o New Spain. Three centuries later, the territory becam a naition state follaein its recogneetion in 1821 efter the colony's Mexican War o Unthirldom. The post-unthirldom period wis tumultuous, chairacterised bi economic inequality an mony intense poleetical chynges. The Mexican–American War (1846–1848) led te a territorial cession o the extant northren territories tae the Unitit States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a ceevil war, twa empires, an the Porfiriato occurred in the 19t century. The Porfiriato wis endit bi the stairt o the Mexican Revolution in 1910, that culminatit wi the promulgation o the 1917 Constitution an the emergence o the kintra's current poleetical seestem as a democratic republic.

Multinaitional corporation

A multinaitional corporation (MNC) or multinaitional enterprise (MNE) is haird tae define precisely tae obtain consensus frae different professions. For example, when a corporation that is registered in mair nor ane kintra or that haes operations in mair nor ane kintra mey be attributit as MNC. Uisually, it is a lairge corporation which baith produces an sells guids or services in various kintras. It can an aa be referred tae as an internaitional corporation.

Thay play an important role in globalization. Arguably, the first multinaitional business organization wis the Knights Templar, foondit in 1120. Efter that came the Breetish East India Company in 1600 an then the Dutch East Indie Company, foondit Mairch 20, 1602, which would acome the lairgest company in the warld for nearly 200 years.

New York Stock Exchynge

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the lairgest stock excambion in the warld, althou it's tradin bouk wis owregaed bi that o NASDAQ in throu the 1990s. Tot mercat capitalisation o the NYSE is five tymes that o NASDAQ. The NYSE is nou a for-fore ploy syne mellin wi the fully electronic stock excambion Archipelago Exchange in late Aprile 2005. New York Stock Exchange, Inc haes its heid biggin situate at 18 Broad Street, at the neuk o Wall Street, on the sooth side o Wall Street, in New York Ceity, New York, U.S.

Purchasin pouer parity

Purchasin pouer parity (PPP) is a component o some economic theories an is a technique uised tae determine the relative value o different sillers.

Telecommunication

Telecommunication is communication at a distance bi technological means, particularly through electrical signals or electromagnetic waves.

Ulyanovsk Oblast

Ulyanovsk Oblast (Roushie: Улья́новская о́бласть, Ulyanovskaya oblast) is a federal subject o Roushie (an oblast). It is locatit in the Volga Federal Destrict. Its admeenistrative center is the ceety o Ulyanovsk. Population: 1,292,174 (2010 Census); 1,382,811 (2002 Census); 1,400,806 (1989 Census).

Volgograd Oblast

Volgograd Oblast (Roushie: Волгогра́дская о́бласть, Volgogradskaya oblast) is a federal subject o Roushie (an oblast). Its admeenistrative center is the ceety o Volgograd. Population: 2,610,161 (2010 Census).

In ither leids

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