Ebreu (עִבְרִית) is a Semitic leid o the Afro-Asiatic leid faimlie. Modren Ebreu is spoken bi mair nor 7 million fowk in Israel an Classical Ebreu uised for prayer in Jewish commontis aroond the warld. It is ane o the offeecial leids o Israel alang wi Arabic. Ebreu wis extinct as a spoken leid in the 2t century,[7] but survived as a liturgical leid, an wis cowered in the 1880s. Som leids integrate Ebeu wirds, as Yiddish an Spaingie assimilatit-Jews leids.

עברית, Ivrit
Temple Scroll
Portion o the Temple Scrowe, ane o the langest o the Deid Sea Scrowes discovered at Qumran
Pronunciation [(ʔ)ivˈʁit] - [(ʔ)ivˈɾit][note 1]
Native tae Israel
Region Laund o Israel
Ethnicity Israelites; Jews & Samaritans
Extinct Auncient Ebreu extinct bi 586 CE, survivin as a leeturgical leid for Judaism[1][2][3]
Revival 9.0 million speakers o Modren Ebreu o which 5 million in Israel. (2016)[4]
  • Semitic
    • Central Semitic
      • Northwast Semitic
        • Canaanite
          • Ebreu
Early forms
Biblical Ebreu
  • Mishnaic Ebreu
    • Medieval Ebreu
Staundart forms
Modren Ebreu
Ebreu alphabet
Paleo-Ebreu alphabet (Archaic Biblical Ebreu)
Imperial Aramaic script (Late Biblical Ebreu)
Signed forms
Signed Ebreu (oral Ebreu accompanied bi sign)[5]
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
 Israel (as Modren Ebreu)
Regulatit bi Academy o the Ebreu Leid
האקדמיה ללשון העברית (HaAkademia LaLashon HaʿIvrit)
Leid codes
ISO 639-1 he
ISO 639-2 heb
ISO 639-3 Variously:
heb – Modren Ebreu
hbo – Clessical Ebreu (leeturgical)
smp – Samaritan Ebreu (leeturgical)
obm – Moabite (extinct)
xdm – Edomite (extinct)
Glottolog hebr1246[6]
Linguasphere 12-AAB-a
Idioma hebreo
The Ebreu-speakin warld:
  regions whaur Ebreu is the leid o the majority (Israel)
  regions whaur Ebreu is the leid o a signeeficant minority (Wast Bank an Golan Hichts)
Alphabet Hebrew
Ebreu alphabet


  1. Sephardi [ʕivˈɾit]; Iraqi [ʕibˈriːθ]; Yemenite [ʕivˈriːθ]; Ashkenazi realisation [iv'ʀis] or [iv'ris] strict pronunciation [ʔiv'ris] or [ʔiv'ʀis]


  1. "A History of the Hebrew Language". google.co.uk.
  2. H. S. Nyberg 1952. Hebreisk Grammatik. s. 2. Reprinted in Sweden by Universitetstryckeriet, Uppsala 2006.
  3. Modren Ebreu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Clessical Ebreu (leeturgical) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Samaritan Ebreu (leeturgical) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Moabite (extinct) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Edomite (extinct) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  4. Thompson, Irene (June 15, 2016). "Hebrew". About World Languages.
  5. Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy (2013). A Language in Space: The Story of Israeli Sign Language.
  6. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Hebrewic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  7. Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003), Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Palgrave Macmillan (ISBN 9781403917232 / ISBN 978140338695)

The Bible, sometimes ca'd The Guid Beuk is the name gien tae the gaitherin o scrievins hauden as haly bi Christians. The first pairt o it, cried the Auld Testament is hauden tae be haly bi the Jews an aw. The Bible wis written bi mony scrievers (aiblins aboot fowery) ower a lang period o time (no kenned for certain, but atween the 6t century BC tae the end o the first century AD is the ordinar time-frame).

Central Destrict (Israel)

The Central Destrict (Ebreu: מחוז המרכז‎‎, Meḥoz haMerkaz) o Israel is ane o sax admeenistrative destricts, includin maist o the Sharon region. The destrict caipital is Ramla. It is further dividit intae 4 sub-destricts: Petah Tikva, Ramla, Sharon an Rehovot. The destrict's lairgest ceety is Rishon LeZion. Its population as o 2008 wis 1,730,500. Accordin tae the Israeli Central Beurau o statistics 88% o the population is Jewish, 8.2% is Arab, an 4% are no classifee'd, an are maistly umwhile Soviet Union immigrants o pairtially Jewish heritage or faimily relationship.


Christianity is a monotheistic releegion foondit on the life an teachins o Jesus o Nazareth as pitten ower in the New Testament writins o his airlie follaers. It is the warld's lairgest releegion, jaloused tae hae 2.1 billion follaers, or aboot ae thrid o the warld's indwallers. It shares wi Judaism the beuks o the Ebreu Bible (the first five is incorporate in the Auld Testament), an for this raeson is whiles cried an Abrahamic releegion.

Deid Sea

The Deid Sea (Ebreu: יָם הַ‏‏מֶּ‏‏לַ‏ח‬, Yām HaMélaḥ, "Sea o Saut", an aa Ebreu: יָם הַ‏‏מָּוֶת‬, Yām HaMā́weṯ, "The Sea o Daith"; Arabic: البحر الميت‎ al-Baḥr al-Mayyit ,), an aa cried the Saut Sea, is a saut lake borderin Jordan tae the east, an Palestine an Israel tae the wast.

Destricts o Israel

There are sax main admeenistrative destricts o Israel, kent in Ebreu as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) an fifteen sub-destricts kent as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). Each sub-destrict is further dividit intae natural regions, o which there are 50.

Ebreu calendar

The Ebrew or Jewish calendar (הַלּוּחַ הָעִבְרִי‬, Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar uised the day predominantly for Jewish releegious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish halidays an the appropriate public readin o Torah portions, yahrzeits (dates tae commemorate the daith o a relative), an daily Psalm readins, amang mony ceremonial uises. In Israel, it is uised for releegious purposes, provides a time frame for agricultur an is an offeecial calendar for ceevil purposes, awtho the latter uisage has been steadily declinin in faur o the Gregorian calendar.


Israel ['i:zrɛl] (Ebreu: יִשְרָאֵל, Yisra'el; Arabic: إسرائيل, Isrā'īl) is a kintra in the sooth-eastren Middle East that mairches Lebanon, Sirie, Jordan an Egyp. The caipital an muckle maist ceety is Jerusalem. Its watter mairch is the Mediterranean Sea tae the wast, the Reid Sea tae the sooth. It haes a population o ower 7,200,000 fowk.

Israel is a pairlamentary democracy. It is a daveloped kintra an haes the 52nt biggest economy in the warld.


Jerusalem (Ebreu: ירושלים, Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القـُدْس, al-Quds) is the lairgest ceety o Israel an some kintras merkit it as the caipital o Israel tho it haes nae internaitional kent heidhaund an is merkit as occupiet grund unner internaitional law. It haes a population o 719,900 indwallers. It is the destination o mony veesitors tae Israel. Jerusalem is merkit as a centre o three releegions (Judaism, Christianity an Islam). The ceety haes a lang history, datin back tae the 19t century BC.

Mony chiels claim that it shoudnae be kent as the caipital o Israel, as East Jerusalem is supposed tae be the Palestinian caipital.

The UN disnae recognise its status as the caipital o Israel as its anerly the caipital unner Israeli law an no internaitional law.

Aye branch o the Israeli govrenment is locatit in Jerusalem, includin the Knesset (Israel's pairliament), the residences o the Prime Meenister an Preses, an the Supreme Court. Jerusalem is hame tae the Ebreu University an tae the Israel Museum wi its Shrine o the Beuk. The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo haes ranked conseistently as Israel's tap tourist attraction for Israelis.


The Jews (Ebreu: יְהוּדִים‬ Yehudim [jɛhuːdiːm]), an aa kent as the Jewish fowk, are a naition an ethnoreleegious group oreeginatin in the Israelites or Ebreus o the Auncient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, naitionality, an releegion are strangly interrelatit, as Judaism is the traditional faith o the Jewish naition. Converts tae Judaism, whose status as Jews athin the Jewish ethnos is equal tae those born intae it, hae been absorbed intae the Jewish fowk throughoot the millennie.

Kfar Saba

Kfar Saba (Ebreu: כְּפַר סָבָא‬, lit. "Grandfaither's Veelage"), offeecially Kfar Sava, is a ceety in the Sharon region, o the Central Destrict o Israel. In 2015 it haed a population o 96,922.


Lod (Ebreu: לוֹד‬; Arabic: اَلْلُدّْ‎, al-Ludd; Greco-Latin Lydda) is a ceety locatit on the Sharon Plain 15 km (9.3 mi) sootheast o Tel Aviv in the Center Destrict o Israel. In 2015 it haed a population o 72,819.

Israel's main internaitional airport, Ben Gurion International Airport (previously cried Lydda Airport, RAF Lydda, an Lod Airport) is locatit in the ceety.


Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut (Ebreu: מוֹדִיעִין-מַכַּבִּים-רֵעוּת‬) is a ceety in the Center Destrict o Israel locatit approximately haufwey atween Jerusalem an Tel Aviv. It wis formed in 2003 bi the merger o Modi'in an Maccabim-Re'ut. In 2015 the population wis 88,749.


Netanya (Ebreu: נְתַנְיָה‎‎) is a ceety in the Northren Centre District o Israel an is the caipital o the surroondin Sharon plain. It is locatit 30 km north o Tel Aviv, an 56 km sooth o Haifa atween the 'Poleg' stream an Wingate Institute in the sooth an the 'Avichail' stream in the north. Its 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) o beaches hae made the ceety a vera popular tourist resort. The day the ceety hooses a notably lairge population o Inglis-speakin immigrants frae the Unitit Kinrick, USA, an Canadae. In 2015, it haed a population o 207,946, makkin it the 7t lairgest ceety in Israel. An additional 150,000 fowk live in the local an regional councils athin 10 kilometres frae Netanya which serves as a regional centre for them. The ceety mayor is Miriam Feirberg. The ceety is expectit tae reach a population o 350,000 bi 2020.

Northren Destrict (Israel)

The Northren Destrict (Ebreu: מחוז הצפון‎‎, mehoz hatzafon) is ane o Israel's sax admeenistrative destricts. The Northren Destrict haes a land aurie o 4,478 km², which increases tae 4,638 km² when baith land an water are includit. The destrict caipital an lairgest ceety in the North Destrict is Nazareth.

Petah Tikva

Petah Tikva (Ebreu: פֶּתַח תִּקְוָה‬, "Openin o Hope") kent as Em HaMoshavot ("Mither o the Moshavot"), is a ceety in the Center District o Israel, 10.6 km, or 6.6 miles east o Tel Aviv. Petah Tikva's jurisdiction covers 35,868 dunams (~35.9 km² or 15 sq mi). The population density is approximately 5,800 inhabitants per square kilometre. In 2015 the ceety haed a population o 230,984.


Rehovot (Ebreu: רְחוֹבוֹת‬) is a ceety in the Center Destrict o Israel, aboot 20 km sooth o Tel Aviv. In 2015 it haed a population o 132,671.

Rehovot wis biggit on the steid o Doron, a Jewish community that existit in the time o the Mishna. The steid wis an aa the location o Khirbet Duran, populatit durin the Roman, Byzantine an early Arab periods. The ceety is named efter a biblical toun o the same name (Rehoboth in the KJV Bible), whilk stuid at a different location, in the Negev Desert.

Rishon LeZion

Rishon LeZion (Ebreu: רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן‬ (audio) , lit. First tae Zion), is the fowert-lairgest ceety in Israel, locatit alang the central Israeli coastal plain 12 kilometers sooth o Tel Aviv. It is pairt o the Gush Dan metropolitan aurie. In 2015 it haed a population o 243,973. Foondit in 1882 bi European Jewish immigrants, it wis the seicont Jewish farm colony established in Land o Israel in the 19t century, efter Petah Tikva.

Soothren Destrict (Israel)

The Soothren Destrict (Ebreu: מחוז הדרום‎‎, Mehoz HaDarom) is ane o Israel's sax administrative destricts, an is the lairgest in terms o land aurie as well as the maist spairsely populatit. It covers maist of the Negev desert, as well as the Arabah valley. The population o the Soothren Destrict is 1,002,400. It is 86% Jewish an 14% Arab (maistly Muslim). The destrict caipital is Beersheba, whilst the lairgest ceety is Ashdod. Beersheba's dormitory touns o Omer, Meitar, an Lehavim are aw relatively affluent, whilst the development touns (includin Sderot, Netivot, an Ofakim) an the seiven Bedouin ceeties are lawer on the socio-economic scale.

Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv-Yafo (Ebreu: תֵּל־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ, lit. "Spring Moond"-Jaffa; Arabic: تل أبيب‎, Tall ʼAbīb), uisually referred tae as Tel Aviv, is the seicont maist populous ceety in Israel, wi a population o 410,000. The ceety is situated on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline, on a land aurie o 51.4 square kilometres (19.8 sq mi). It is the lairgest an maist populous ceety in the metropolitan aurie o Gush Dan. Residents o Tel Aviv are cawed Tel Avivians.Tel Aviv wis foondit in 1909 on the ootskirts o the ancient port ceety o Jaffa (Ebreu: יָפוֹ‬, Yafo; Arabic: يافا‎, Yaffa). The growth o Tel Aviv suin ootpaced Jaffa, which wis lairgely Arab at the time. Tel Aviv an Jaffa wur merged intae a single municipality in 1950, twa years efter the establishment o the State o Israel. Tel Aviv's White Ceety, designatit a UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid in 2003, comprises the warld's lairgest concentration o Bauhaus biggins.Tel Aviv is classified as a beta+ warld ceety. It is a major economic hub, hame tae the Tel Aviv Stock Exchynge an mony corporate offices an research an development centers. Its beaches, parks, bars, cafés, restaurants, shoppin, cosmopolitan lifestyle an 24-hour cultur hae made it a popular tourist destination for domestic an owerseas tourists alike, contributin tae its reputation as "the ceety that niver sleeps. Tel Aviv is the kintra's financial caipital a a major performing airts an business centre. The economy o Tel Aviv wis ranked seicont in the Middle East, an 50t globally bi Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Ceeties Index. It is the maist expensive ceety in the region, an the 17t maist expensive ceety in the warld. New York Ceety-based writer an editor David Kaufman named it the "Mediterranean's New Caipital o Cool". In 2010, Tel Aviv haes been named the third-best ceety in the warld bi Lonely Planet, third-best in the Middle East & Africae bi Travel + Leisure magazine, an ane o the best beach ceeties in the warld bi National Geographic.

In ither leids

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