The 19t century (1 Januar 1801 – 31 December 1900) wis the century merked bi the collapse o the Spaingie, First an Seicont French, Cheenese, Haly Roman an Mughal empires.Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great (Julie 20 or 26, 356 BC - Juin 10 323 BC) wis a Macedonian king. He wis learnt maist o his skeels in Athens durin his bairnheid. He is kent for his meelitary skeels. He invadit a muckle empire cried Persie, an gaed on tae invade pairts o Central Asie an Indie. He is aft said tae be ane o the greatest military commanders in heestory, alang wi Hannibal, Julius Caesar, Genghis Khan, Subutai, Napoleon I o Fraunce, an ithers. Bi the time o his daith he had owerhailt maist o the Middle Eastern yird kent tae Europeans, alang wi a muckle pairt o Central Asie that includit Persia, Egypt, an Asie Minor. He dee'd in Babylon in 323 BC.Armenie
Armenie, offeecially the Republic o Armenie (Armenie: Հայաստան Hayastan, Հայք Haykh) is a muntainous kintra in Eurasie atween the Black Sea an the Caspian Sea. It haes laund mairches wi Turkey tae the wast, Georgie tae the north, Azerbaijan tae the east an Iran tae the sooth. It uised tae be ane o the auld republics o the the umwhile Soviet Union.
Diyarbakır Province (Turkis: Diyarbakır ili) is a province in eastren Turkey. The province covers an aurie o 15,355 km² an the population is 1,528,958. The provincial caipital is Diyarbakir
It haes been hame tae mony ceevilisations an the surroondin aurie includin itsel is hame tae mony Mesolithic era stane carvins an airtifacts. The province haes been ruled bi Hittites, Assirie, Armenians, Persie, Macedonie an Seleucid Greeks, Roum, Parthie, Byzantium, Sassanid Persie, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongol Empire, Safavid dynasty, Ottoman Empire an feenally the Republic o Turkey.
Diyarbakir wis an early stranghauld o Syriac Christianity, an an aw o Armenian Christians. Afore Warld War I, Christian ethnic groups made up 30% o the population. Syne Warld War I, due tae the massacres o the Christian population an mass imigration, anerlie a few thoosan Christians still live in the province, some in the ceety o Diyarbakir, an ithers in Assirie an Armenie veelages.
The Kurds are the predominant population. Ither groups include Turks, Assiries, Armenians, Arabs an Yazidis.Han dynasty
The Han dynasty (simplifeed Cheenese: 汉朝; traditeeonal Cheenese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Han Ch'ao; IPA: [xân tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) wis the seicont imperial dynasty o Cheenae, precedit bi the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) an succeedit bi the Three Kinricks period (220–280 AD). Spannin ower fower centuries, the Han period is conseedert a gowden age in Cheenese history. Tae this day, Cheenae's majority ethnic group refers tae themsels as the "Han Cheenese" an the Cheenese script is referred tae as "Han chairacters". It wis foondit bi the rebel leader Liu Bang, kent posthumously as Emperor Gaozu o Han, an briefly interruptit bi the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) o the umwhile regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty intae twa periods: the Wastren Han or Umwhile Han (206 BC – 9 AD) an the Eastren Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).
The emperor wis at the pinnacle o Han society. He presidit ower the Han govrenment but shared pouer wi baith the nobility an appyntit meenisters that cam lairgely frae the scholarly gentry cless. The Han Empire wis dividit intae auries directly controlled bi the central govrenment uisin an innovation inheritit frae the Qin kent as commanderies, an a nummer o semi-autonomous kinricks. Thir kinricks gradually lost aw vestiges o thair unthirldom, pairteecularly follaein the Rebellion o the Seiven States. Frae the ring o Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onwart, the Cheenese coort offeecially sponsored Confucianism in eddication an coort politics, synthesised wi the cosmology o later scholarts sic as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured till the faw o the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD.
The Han dynasty saw an age o economic prosperity an witnessed a signrrficant growthe o the money economy first established in the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued bi the central govrenment mint in 119 BC remeened the staundart coinage o Cheenae till the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a nummer o leemitit institutional innovations. Tae finance its militar campaigns an the dounset o newly conquered frontier territories, the Han govrenment naitionalised the preevat saut an airn industries in 117 BC, but thir govrenment monopolies war repealed in the Eastren Han dynasty. Science an technology in the Han period saw signeeficant advances, includin the process o papermakin, the nautical steerin ship rither, the uise o negative nummers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-pouered armillary sphere for astronomy, an a seismometer employin an invertit pendulum that coud be uised tae discern the cardinal direction o distant yirdquauks.
The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeatit the Han in 200 BC an forced the Han tae submit as a de facto inferior an vassal pairtner, but conteena'd thair militar raids on the Han mairches. Emperor Wu launched several militar campaigns against them. The ultimate Han veectory in thir wars eventually forced the Xiongnu tae accept vassal status as Han tributaries. Thir campaigns expandit Han sovereignty intae the Tarim Basin o Central Asie, dividit the Xiongnu intae twa separate confederations, an helped establish the vast tred netwark kent as the Silk Road, that reached as faur as the Mediterranean warld. The territories north o Han's mairches war quickly owerrun bi the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu an aw launched successfu militar expedeetions in the sooth, annexin Nanyue in 111 BC an Dian in 109 BC, an in the Korean Peninsula whaur the Xuantu an Lelang Commanderies war established in 108 BC. Efter 92 AD, the pailace eunuchs increasinly involved themsels in coort politics, engagin in veeolent pouer struggles atween the various consort clans o the empresses an empresses dowager, causin the Han's ultimate dounfaw. Imperial authority wis an aw seriously challenged bi lairge Daoist releegious societies that instigatit the Yellae Turban Rebellion an the Five Pecks o Rice Rebellion. Follaein the daith o Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the pailace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre bi militar officers, allouin members o the aristocracy an militar govrenors tae acome warlairds an divide the empire. Whan Cao Pi, Keeng o Wei, usurped the throne frae Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased tae exeest.Hoose o Bourbon
The Hoose o Bourbon (Inglis /ˈbʊərbən/; French: [buʁˈbɔ̃]) is a European ryal hoose o French origin, a branch o the Capetian dynasty (/kəˈpiːʃⁱən/).Hoose o Orléans
The 'Hoose o Orléans wis a French noble an ryal fimilie. It descends frae Keeng Louis XIV o Fraunce and his only brother Philippe o Fraunce, Duke o Orléans. After the daith o Philippe in 1701, the Dukes o Orléans would have the rank o Prince du Sang (Prince o the bluid) The faimilies main traditional home wis the Palais Royal in Paris, despite haein several ither residences aroond the caipital. The faimily later became very powerful during the reign o Louis Philippe I. He ruled Fraunce unner the title "Keeg o the French". The keeng successfully mairit his childer intae ither royal families o Europe.
Ower the years the Orléans branch o the Hoose o Bourbon wad an aa ain various titles, collected bi various means but the main title uised wis the o Duke o Orléans, hence the name o the branch.Hoose o Stuart
The Hoose of Stuart is a European ryal hoose. Foondit bi Robert II, the Hoose o Stuart—an aa spelled Stewart in Scots contexts—first acame monarchs o the Kinrick o Scotland during the late 14t century afore inheritin the kinricks o Ingland (includin Wales) an Ireland in the 17t century.Hoose o Valois
The Hoose o Valois (French pronunciation: [valwa]) wis a cadet branch o the Capetian dynasty.Hubei
Hubei (Cheenese: 湖北; pinyin: Húběi; Wade–Giles: Hu-pei; Postal map spelling:
Hupeh) is a province o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, locatit in the central pairt o the kintra. The name o the province means "north o the lake", referrin tae its position north o Lake Dongting. The provincial caipital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare an the poleetical, cultural, an economic hub o Central Cheenae.
Hubei is offeecially abbreviatit tae "鄂" (È), an auncient name associatit wi the eastren pairt o the province syne the Qin dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei is "楚" (Chǔ), efter the pouerful state o Chu that existit here durin the Eastren Zhou dynasty. It borders Henan tae the north, Anhui tae the east, Jiangxi tae the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing tae the wast, an Shaanxi tae the northwast. The heich-profile Three Gorges Dam is locatit at Yichang, in the wast o the province.Luoyang
Luoyang (simplifeed Cheenese: 洛阳; traditeeonal Cheenese: 洛陽; pinyin: Luòyáng; Postal cairt spellin: Loyang; IPA: [lwɔ̂jɑ̌ŋ]) is a prefectur-level ceety in wastren Henan province o Central Cheenae. It borders the provincial caipital o Zhengzhou tae the east, Pingdingshan tae the sootheast, Nanyang tae the sooth, Sanmenxia tae the wast, Jiyuan tae the north, an Jiaozuo tae the northeast.
Situatit on the central plain o Cheenae, ane o the cradles o the Cheenese ceevilization, Luoyang wis ane o the Fower Great Auncient Caipitals o Cheenae.Ming Dynasty
The Ming Deenasty, kent as the Empire o the Great Ming an aw, wis the rulin dynasty o Cheenae for 276 years (1368–1644) followin the collapse o the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, describit bi some as "ane o the greatest eras o orderly govrenment an social stability in human history", wis the last dynasty in Cheenae ruled bi ethnic Han Cheenese. Awtho the primary caipital o Beijing fell in 1644 tae a rebellion led bi Li Zicheng (who established the Shun Dynasty, suin replaced bi the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty), regimes lyal tae the Ming throne – collectively cried the Soothren Ming – survived till 1662.
The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368–98) attemptit tae creaut a society o self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile seestem that wad guarantee an support a permanent cless o soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's staundin airmy exceedit ane million troops an the navy's dockyards in Nanjing wur the lairgest in the warld. He an aa teuk great care breakin the pouer o the coort eunuchs an unrelatit magnates, enfeoffing his mony sons throughoot Cheenae an attemptin tae guide thir princes throu published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly whan his teen-aged successor attemptit tae curtail his uncles' pouer, promptin the uprisin that placed the Prince o Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a seicontar caipital an renamed it Beijing, constructit the Forbidden Ceety, an restored the Grand Canal an the primacy o the imperial examinations in offeecial appointments. He rewardit his eunuch supporters an employed them as a coonterweicht against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. Ane, Zheng He, led seiven enormous voyages o exploration intae the Indian Ocean as far as Arabie an the coast o Africae.
The rise o new emperors an new factions diminished sic extravagances; the capture o the Zhengtong Emperor durin the 1449 Tumu Crisis endit them completely. The imperial navy wis allowed tae faw intae disrepair while forced labor constructit the Liaodong palisade an connectit an fortified the Great Waw o Cheenae intae its modren form. Wide-rangin censuses o the entire empire wur conductit decennially, but the desire tae avoid labor an taxes an the difficulty o storin an reviewin the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary frae 160 tae 200 million, but necessar revenues wur squeezed oot o smawer an smawer nummers o fairmers as mair disappeared frae the offeecial records or "donatit" thair launds tae tax-exempt eunuchs or temples. Haijin laws intendit tae pertect the coasts frae "Japanese" pirates instead turned mony intae smugglers an pirates themselves.
Bi the 16t century, houiver, the expansion o European tred – albeit restrictit tae islands near Guangzhou lik Macao – spreid the Columbian Exchange o crops, plants, an ainimals intae Cheenae, introducin chili peppers tae Sichuan cuisine an heichly-productive corn an tatties, which diminished faimins an spurred population growthe. The growthe o Portuguese, Spaingie, an Dutch trade creatit new demand for Cheenese products an produced a massive influx o Japanese an American siller. This abundance o specie allowed the Ming tae finally avoid uisin paper money, which haed sparked hyperinflation durin the 1450s. While tradeetional Confucians opposed sic a prominent role for commerce an the newly rich it creatit, the heterodoxy introducit bi Wang Yangming permittit a mair accommodatin attitude. Zhang Juzheng's initially successfu reforms proved devastatin whan a slowdoun in agriculture produced bi the Little Ice Age wis met wi Japanese an Spaingie policies that quickly cut aff the supply o siller nou necessar for fairmers tae be able tae pey thair taxes. Combined wit crop failure, floods, an epidemic, the dynasty wis considered tae hae lost the Mandate o Heaven an collapsed afore the rebel leader Li Zicheng an a Manchurian invasion.Mongolie
Mongolie (soondit /mənˈɡoli/; Mongolie: Монгол улс leeteral Mongol kintra/naition, ) is a laundlockit kintra in East an Central Asie. It haes mairches wi Roushie tae the north an the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae tae the sooth, east an wast. Awtho Mongolie disna share a mairch wi Kazakhstan, its wastren-maist pynt is anely a few kilometres fae Kazakhstan's eastren neb. Ulan Bator, the caipital an lairgest ceety, is hame tae aboot 38% o the indwallers. Mongolie's poleetical seestem is a pairliamentary republic.
The airts o whit is Mongolie haes been ruled bi monie nomadic empires, includin the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Gökturks, an ithers. The Mongol Empire wis foondit bi Genghis Khan in 1206. Efter the dounfaw o the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols returnt tae thair fore-gane paiterns. In the 16t an 17t centuries, Mongolie came unner the influence o Tibetan Buddhism. At the end o the 17t century, maist o Mongolie haed been incorporatit intae the airts ruled bi the Qing Deenasty. Durin the dounfaw o the Qing Deenasty in 1911, Mongolie declared unthirldom, but haed tae warstle till 1921 for tae firmly estaiblish de-facto unthirldom, an till 1945 for tae gain internaitional recogneetion. As a affcome, it cam unner strang Roushie an Soviet influence: In 1924, the Mongolie Fowkrepublic wis declarit, an Mongolian poleetics stairtit tae follae the same paiterns as Soviet poleetics o the time. Efter the dounfaw o communist regimes in Eastren Europe at the hint-end o 1989, Mongolie haed its ain Democratic Revolution in early 1990, that led tae a mony-pairty seestem, a new constitution in 1992, an the - raither roch - transeetion tae a mercat economy.Morocco
Morocco (Arabic: المغرب, al-Maġrib; Berber leids: Amerruk / Murakuc; French: Maroc), offeecially the Kinrick o Morocco (المملكة المغربية, al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya), is a kintra locatit in North Africae. It haes a population o nearly 32 million an an aurie o 710,850 km², includin the disputit Wastren Sahara which is mainly unner Moroccan admeenistration. Morocco haes a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait o Gibraltar intae the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered bi Spain tae the north (a watter mairch throu the Strait an land borders wi three smaw Spaingie-controlled exclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, an Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algerie tae the east, ane Mauritanie tae the sooth.Morocco is a de jure constitutional monarchy wi an electit parliament. The Keeng o Morocco holds vast executive pouers, includin dissolvin parliament at will. Executive pouer is exercised bi the govrenment an bi the keeng as well. Legislative pouer is vestit in baith the govrenment an the twa chambers o parliament, the Assembly o Representatives an the Assembly o Councillors. The keeng can an aa issue decrees cawed dahirs which hae the force o law. Parliamentary elections wur held in Morocco on 7 September 2007, an wur considered bi some neutral observers tae be maistly free an fair; awtho voter turnout wis estimatit tae be 37%, the lawest in decades. The politeecal caipital is Rabat, an the lairgest ceety is Casablanca; ither lairge ceeties include Zagora, Marrakech, Fes, Salé, Agadir, Tangier, Meknes, Oujda an Tetouan.
Morocco haes a rich cultur an civilization, which remained mainly indigenous throughoot times an the Moroccan cuisine haes lang been considered as ane o the maist diversified cuisines in the warld. The population is almaist entirely Arab-Berber. Awtho Arabic is the majority leid, modern studies show that the Arabization process in Morocco wis maistly linguistic. The Moroccans or Moroccan Arabs, ar a lairgely homogenous group speakin Moroccan Arabic, awtho regional variation daes occur. The Berber fowk in Morocco can be dividit in three main groups wi different dialects: the Riffians, the Chleuh an the Central Atlas indwallers.Ottoman dynasty
The Ottoman dynasty, made up o the members of the Hoose o Osman (Turkis: Osmanlı Hanedanı), ruled the Ottoman Empire frae 1299 tae 1922, beginnin wi Osman I (nae coonting his faither, Ertuğrul), thou the dynasty wisna proclaimed till Orhan Bey declared himsel sultan.Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty, an aa Empire o the Great Qing or Great Qing, wis the last imperial dynasty o Cheenae, rulin frae 1644 tae 1912 wi a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It wis precedit bi the Ming Dynasty an succeeded bi the Republic o Cheenae.
The dynasty wis foondit bi the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastren Cheenae. The Aisin Gioro leader, Nurhachi, that wis oreeginally a vassal o the Ming emperors, began unifyin the Jurchen clans in the late saxteent century. Bi 1635, Nurhachi's son Hong Taiji coud claim thay constitutit a single an unitit Manchu fowk an began forcin the Ming oot o Liaoning in soothren Manchurie. In 1644, the Ming caipital Beijing wis sacked bi a paisant revolt led bi Li Zicheng, an umwhile minor Ming offeecial that acame the leader o the paisant revolt, who then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committit suicide whan the ceety fell. When Li Zicheng moved against Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance wi the Manchus an opened the Shanhai Pass tae the Manchurian airmy. Unner Prince Dorgon, thay seized control o Beijing an owerthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun Dynasty. Complete pacification o Cheenae wis accomplished aroond 1683 unner the Kangxi Emperor.
Ower the course o its reign, the Qing acame heichly integratit wi Cheenese cultur. The imperial examinations continued an Han ceevil servants admeenistered the empire alongside Manchu anes. The Qing reached its heicht unner the Qianlong Emperor in the aichteenth century, expandin beyond Cheenae's prior an later boondaries. Imperial corruption exemplified bi the meenister Heshen an a series o rebellions, naitural disasters, an defeats in wars against European pouers gravely weakened the Qing durin the nineteent century. "Unequal Treaties" providit for extraterritoriality an removed lairge auries o treaty ports frae Cheenese sovereignty. The govrenment attempts tae modrenise durin the Sel-Strenthenin Muivement in the late 19t century yieldit few lastin results. Losin the First Sino-Japanese War o 1894–1895 wis a wattershed for the Qing govrenment an the result demonstratit that reform haed modrenized Japan signeeficantly syne the Meiji Restoration in 1867, especially as compared wi the Sel-Strenthenin Muivement in Cheenae.
The 1911 Wuchang Uprisin o the New Airmy endit wi the owerthrow o the Empress Dowager Longyu an the infant Puyi on Februar 12, 1912. Despite the declaration o the Republic o Cheenae, the generals wad continue tae ficht amongst themselves for the next several decades durin the Warlord Era. Aisin-Gioro Puyi wis briefly restored tae pouer in Beijing bi Zhang Xun in Julie 1917, an in Manchukuo bi the Japanese atween 1932 an 1945.Seoul
Seoul (Korean pronunciation: [sʌ.ul] ( listen)), offeecially the Seoul Special Ceety, is the caipital an lairgest ceety o Sooth Korea. A megaceety wi a population o ower 10 million, it is ane o the lairgest ceeties in the warld. The Seoul Naitional Caipital Aurie is the warld's seicont lairgest metropolitan aurie wi ower 24.5 million indwallers, whit includes the Incheon metropolis an maist o Gyeonggi province.. Amaist hauf o Sooth Korea's population bide in the Seoul Naitional Caipital Aurie, an nearly a quarter in Seoul itsel, makkin it the kintra's foremaist economic, poleetical, an cultural centre.
Seoul haes been a major dounset for ower 2,000 years, wi its foondation datin back tae 18 B.C. whan Baekje, ane o the Three Kinricks o Korea, establisht its caipital in whit is nou sooth-east Seoul. It continued as the caipital o Korea durin the Joseon Dynasty an the Korean Empire. The Seoul Naitional Caipital Aurie is hame tae fower UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids: Changdeokgung, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine an the Ryal Tombs o the Joseon Dynasty.The day, Seoul is considered tae be a leadin global ceety, rankin amang the tap ten global ceeties in the Global Ceeties Index of 2010. It is ane o the warld's tap ten financial an commercial centres, hame tae major multinaitional conglomerates sic as Samsung, LG an Hyundai-Kia. In 2008, Seoul wis named the warld's saxt maist economically pouerful ceety bi Forbes.Seoul haes a hiechlie technologically advanced infrastructure. Its Digital Media Ceety is the warld's first complex for IT an multimedia applications. Seoul wis the first ceety tae featur DMB, a digital mobile TV technology an WiBro, a wireless hie-speed mobile internet service. It haes a fast, hie-penetration 100Mbps fibre-optic broadband netwirk, that is bein upgradit tae 1Gbps bi 2012. Seoul Station hooses the 350 km/h KTX bullet train an the Seoul Subway is the third lairgest in the warld, wi ower 200 million passengers ivery year. Seoul is connectit via AREX tae Incheon Internaitional Airport, rated as the best airport in the warld bi Airports Council International.
Seoul hostit the 1988 Simmer Olympics an the 2002 FIFA Warld Cup. The ceety wis named the Warld Design Caipital for 2010 bi the Internaitional Cooncil o Societies o Industrial Design an hostit the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit.Sooth Korea
The Republic o Korea is a kintra in East Asie, constitutin the soothren pairt o the Korean Peninsula an lyin east tae the Asie mainland.The name Korea is derived frae Goguryeo that wis ane o the great pouers in East Asie in its time, rulin maist o the Korean Peninsula, Manchurie, pairts o the Roushie Far East an Inner Mongolie, under Gwanggaeto the Great. Sooth Korea lies in the north temperate zone an haes a predominantly muntainous terrain. It comprises an estimatit 51.4 million residents distributit ower 99,392 km2 (38,375 sq mi). The caipital an lairgest ceety is Seoul, wi a population o 10 million.
Airchaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula wis inhabitit by early humans stairtin frae the Lawer Paleolithic period (2.6 Ma–300 Ka). The history o Korea begins wi the foondation o Gojoseon in 2333 BC bi the leegendar keeng Dangun. Follaein the unification o the Three Kinricks o Korea unner Unifee'd Silla in AD 668, Korea wis subsequently ruled bi the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) an the Joseon dynasty (1392–1910). It wis annexed bi the Empire o Japan in 1910. At the end o Warld War II, Korea wis dividit intae Soviet an U.S. zones o occupations. A separate election wis held in the U.S. zone in 1948 that led tae the creaution o the Republic o Korea (ROK), while the Democratic Fowkrepublic o Korea (DPRK) wis established in the Soviet zone. The Unitit Naitions at the time passed a resolution declarin the ROK tae be the anly lawfu govrenment in Korea.The Korean War begoud in 1950 whan forces frae the North invadit the Sooth. The war lastit three years an involved the U.S., Cheenae, the Soviet Union an several ither naitions. The mairch atween the two naitions remeens the maist hivily fortifee'd in the warld. Unner lang-time militar leader Park Chung-hee, the Sooth Korean economy grew signeeficantly an the kintra wis transformed intae a G-20 major economy. Militar rule endit in 1987, an the kintra is nou a presidential republic conseestin o 17 admeenistrative diveesions.
Sooth Korea is a developit kintra an a heich-income economy, wi a "verra heich" Human Development Index, rankin 18t in the warld. The kintra is conseedert a regional pouer an is the warld's 11t lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an the 12t lairgest bi PPP as o 2010. Sooth Korea is a global leader in the industrial an technological sectors, bein the warld's 5t lairgest exporter an 8t lairgest importer. Its export-driven economy primarily focuses production on electronics, automobiles, ships, machinery, petrochemicals an robotics. Sooth Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the Unitit Naitions, Unitin for Consensus, G20, the WTO an OECD an is a foondin member o APEC an the East Asie Summit.Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) wis the seicont o the fower major Islamic caliphates established efter the faith o Muhammad.