Cretaceous

The Cretaceous is a geologic period an seestem that spans 79 million years frae the end o the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (Mya) tae the beginnin o the Paleogene Period 66 Mya. It is the last period o the Mesozoic Era, an the langest period o the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is uisually abbreviatit K, for its German translation Kreide (cauk, creta in Laitin).

The Cretaceous wis a period wi a relatively wairm climate, resultin in heich eustatic sea levels that creatit numerous shallae inland seas. Thir oceans an seas war populatit wi now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites an rudists, while dinosaurs conteena'd tae dominate on laund. In this time, new groups o mammals an birds, as weel as flouerin plants, appeared.

The Cretaceous (alang wi the Mesozoic) endit wi the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, a lairge mass extinction in that mony groups, includin non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs an lairge marine reptiles dee'd oot. The end o the Cretaceous is defined bi the abrupt Cretaceous–Paleogene boondary (K–Pg boondary), a geologic seegnatur associatit wi the mass extinction that lies atween the Mesozoic an Cenozoic eras.

Cretaceous Period
145–66 million years aby
K
Mean atmospheric O
2
content ower period duration
c. 30 vol %
(150 % o modren level)
Mean atmospheric CO
2
content ower period duration
c. 1700 ppm
(6 times pre-industrial level)
Mean surface temperatur ower period duration c. 18 °C
(4 °C abuin modren level)
Key events in the Cretaceous
-140 —
-130 —
-120 —
-110 —
-100 —
-90 —
-80 —
-70 —
 
 
Early
Late
Berriasian
Valanginian
Hauterivian
Barremian
Aptian
Albian
Cenomanian
Turonian
Coniacian
Santonian
Campanian
Maastrichtian
 
 
 
 
Cretaceous
An approximate timescale of key Cretaceous events.
Axis scale: millions of years ago.
Anseriformes

Anseriformes is an order o birds. It comprises aboot 150 livin species in three faimilies: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie Goose), an Anatidae, the lairgest faimily, which includes ower 140 species o watterfoul, amang them the deuks, geese, an swans.

Asparagales

Asparagales is the name o an order o plants, uised in modren classification seestems such as the APG III seestem (which is uised throughoot this airticle). The order taks its name frae the faimily Asparagaceae an is placed in the monocots. The order haes anly recently been recognized in classification seestems. It wis first put forward bi Huber in 1977 and later taken up in the Dahlgren seestem o 1985. Afore this, mony o its faimilies wur assigned tae the auld order Liliales: a very lairge order containin almaist aw monocots wi colourful tepals a wioot starch in thair endosperm. DNA sequence analysis indicatit that Liliales should be dividit intae at least Liliales, Asparagales an Dioscoreales. The boondaries o the Asparagales an o its faimilies hae unnergone a series o chynges in recent years; future research mey lead tae further chynges an ultimately greater stability.

Bee

Bees is fleein insects gey sib tae wasps an eemocks, an is kent for bein pollinators an for makkin hinnie an beeswaux.

Bum-bees or bummlers is sindry species o bee in the genus Bombus sic as the white airsie (Bombus lucorum), (Bombus terrestris) or (Bombus vestalis), the reid airsie (Bombus lapidaries), the foggie-bee (Bombus muscorum), the brounie (Bombus pascuorum) an the gairy-bee (Bombus hortorum).

The foggie-bee (Bombus muscorum) is a bum-bee that for ordinar bides on muirs an mosses. It nests on the grund. Kent as the a foggie-bummer, foggie-toddler or foggie-tyke an aw.

The gairy-bee (Bombus hortorum) is a bum-bee that’s black an yellae strippit.

Skep-bees is bees o the genus Apis that’s keepit for makkin hinnie.

Yirdie-bees, o the faimily Andrenidae, is bees that haes a nest unner the grund.

Bird

Birds (Aves) are a group o' endothermic vertebrates, characterised bi feathers, tuithless beaked jaws, th' layin o' haurd-shelled eggs, a heich metabolic rate, a fower-chambered hert, 'n' a lightweight bit pure tough skelet. Birds bide warldwide 'n' range in size fae th' 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird tae th' 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. Thay rank as th' cless o' tetrapods wi' th' maist livin species, at aboot ten thoosand, wi' mair nor hauf o' thae bein' passerines, whiles kent as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds.

The fossil record indicates that birds ur th' lest surviving dinosaurs, termed avian dinosaurs, huvin evolved fae feathered ancestors wi`in th' theropod group o' saurischian dinosaurs. True birds foremaist appeared while th' cretaceous period, aroond 100 million years ago.[3] dna-based cum stain finds that birds diversified dramatically aroond th' time o' th' cretaceous–paleogene extinction event that murdurred aff a' ither dinosaurs. Birds in sooth america survived this event 'n' then migrated tae ither bits o' th' warld via multiple land brigs while diversifying while periods o' global cooling.[4] primitive bird-lik dinosaurs that lie ootdoors cless aves proper, in th' broader group avialae, hae bin fun datin back tae th' mid-jurassic period.[1] mony o' thae earlie "stem-birds", sic as archaeopteryx, wur nae yit capable o' fully powered flight, 'n' mony retained primitive characteristics lik' toothy jaws in steid o' beaks, 'n' lang bony tails.[1][5]

Birds hae wings whilk ur mair or less made dependin oan th' species; th' ainlie kent groups wi'oot wings ur th' extinct moas 'n' elephant birds. Wings, whilk evolved fae forelimbs, gie maist birds th' ability tae flee, althoogh further speciation haes led tae some flightless birds, anaw ratites, penguins, 'n' diverse endemic island species o' birds. Th' digestive 'n' respiratory seestems o' birds ur an' a' uniquely adapted fur flight. Some doo species o' aquatic environments, parteecularly th' aforementioned flightless penguins, 'n' an' a' members o' th' duck fowk, hae an' a' evolved fur soummin`. Birds, specifically darwin's finches, played an important pairt in th' inception o' darwin's theory o' evolution bi naitural selection.

Some birds, especially corvids 'n' parrots, ur amang th' maist intelligent ainimals; loads doo species mak' 'n' uise tuils, 'n' mony social species bygae oan knowledge o'er generations, whilk is considered a form o' culchur. Mony species annually migrate stoatin distances. Birds ur social, communicating wi' visual signals, calls, 'n' doo sangs, 'n' pairteecipatin in sic social behaviours as cooperative breedin 'n' huntin, flocking, 'n' mobbing o' predators. Th' vast maist folk o' doo species ur socially monogamous, forordinar fur yin breedin seezin at a time, whiles fur years, bit seendle fur lee. Ither species hae polygynous ("many females") or, seendle, polyandrous ("many males") breedin seestems. Birds produce affspring bi laying eggs whilk ur fertilized thro' sexual reproduction. Thay're forordinar leid in a nest 'n' incubated bi th' parents. Maist birds hae an extendit period o' parental care efter hatching. Some birds, sic as hens, lay eggs even whin nae fertilized, tho unfertilized eggs dae nae produce affspring.

Mony species o' birds ur economically important. Domesticatit 'n' undomesticated birds (poultry 'n' gemme) ur important soorces o' eggs, bridie, 'n' feathers. Songbirds, parrots, 'n' ither species ur weel-kent as pets. Guano (bird excrement) is harvested fur uise as a fertilizer. Birds prominently figure throo'oot human culchur. Aboot 120–130 species hae acome extinct due tae human activity sin th' 17t hunner years, 'n' hunders mair afore then. Human activity threatens aboot 1,200 doo species wi' extinction, tho efforts ur underway tae pertect thaim. Recreational birdwatching is an important pairt o' th' ecotourism industry.

Eudicots

The Eudicots, Eudicotidae or Eudicotyledons is a monophyletic clade o flouerin plants that haed been cried tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots bi previous authors. The botanical terms wur introduced in 1991 bi evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle an paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton tae emphasise the later evolutionary divergence o tricolpate dicots frae earlier, less specialised, dicots. The close relationships amang flouerin plants wi tricolpate pollen grains wis initially seen in morphological studies o shared derived chairacters. Thir plants haes a distinct trait in thair pollen grains o exhibitin three colpi or grooves parallelin the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships amang flouerin plants wi tricolpate pollen grains an dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons" as it conteens the majority o plants that hae been considered dicots an hae chairacteristics o the dicots. The term "eudicots" haes subsequently been widely adoptit in botany tae refer tae ane o the twa lairgest clades o angiosperms (constitutin ower 70% o angiosperm species), monocots bein the ither. The remainin angiosperms is whiles referred tae as basal angiosperms or paleodicots but thae terms hinnae been widely or consistently adoptit as thay dinnae refer tae a monophyletic group.

The ither name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name whilk refers tae the rit structur o the pollen. Members o the group hae tricolpate pollen, or fairms derived frae it. Thae pollen hae three or mair pores set in furrows cried colpi. In contrast, maist o the ither seed plants (that is the gymnosperms, the monocots an the paleodicots) produce monosulcate pollen, wi a single pore set in a differently orientit raut cried the sulcus. The name "tricolpates" is preferred bi some botanists fur tae evit confuision wi the dicots, a non-monophyletic group (Judd & Olmstead 2004).

Numerous faimiliar plants are eudicots, includin mony common fuid plants, trees, an ornamentals. Some common an faimiliar eudicots include members o the sunflower faimily lik the common dandelion, the forget-me-nae, cabbitch an ither members o its faimily, aiple, buttercup, maple an macadamie. Maist leafy trees o mid-latitudes belang eudicots an aa, wi notable exceptions bein magnolies an tulip trees whilk alang tae magnoliids, an Ginkgo biloba whilk isnae an angiosperm.

The name "eudicots" (plural) is uised in the APG seestem, o 1998, an APG II seestem, o 2003, for classification o angiosperms. It is applee'd tae a clade, a monophyletic group, which includes maist o the (umwhile) dicots.

Eutheria

Eutheria (/juːˈθɪəriə/; frae Greek ευ-, eu- "true/guid" an θηρίον, thērion "beast" hence "true beasts") is ane o twa mammalian clades wi extant members.

Jurassic

The Jurassic (frae Jura Moontains) is a geologic period an seestem that accordin tae current scienteefic consensus, spans 56.3 million years frae the end o the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) tae the beginnin o the Cretaceous Period 145 Mya.

Malpighiales

Malpighiales is ane o the lairgest orders o flouerin plants, containin aboot 16000 species, approximately 7.8% o the eudicots. The order is very diverse, containin plants as different as the willow, violet, Poinsettia an coca plant, an haird tae recognize except wi molecular phylogenetic evidence. It is nae pairt o ony o the classification seestems that are based anly on plant morphology.

Malpighiales is dividit intae 32 tae 42 faimilies, dependin upon which clades in the order are given the taxonomic rank o faimily. In the APG III seestem, 35 faimilies are recognized. Medusagynaceae, Quiinaceae, Peraceae, Malesherbiaceae, Turneraceae, Samydaceae, an Scyphostegiaceae are consolidated intae ither faimilies. The lairgest faimily, by far, is Euphorbiaceae, wi aboot 6300 species in aboot 245 genera.In a 2009 study o DNA sequences o 13 genes, 42 faimilies wur placed intae 16 groups, rangin in size frae ane tae ten faimilies. Almaist nothing is kent aboot the relationships amang these 16 groups. Malpighiales an Lamiales are the twa lairge orders whose phylogeny remains maistly unresolved.

Monocotyledon

Monocotyledons an aa kent as monocots, are ane o twa major groups o flouerin plants (or angiosperms) that are tradeetionally recognised, the ither bein dicotyledons, or dicots. Monocot seedlings teepically hae ane cotyledon (seed-leaf), in contrast tae the twae cotyledons teepical o dicots. Monocots hae been recognised at various taxonomic ranks, an unner various names. The APG III seestem recognises a clade cried "monocots" but daes nae assign it tae a taxonomic rank.

Neognathae

Neognaths (Neognathae) are birds within the subclass Neornithes o the class Aves. The Neognathae include virtually aw livin birds; exceptions bein thair sister taxon (Palaeognathae), which contains the tinamous an the flichtless ratites.

Palaeogene

The Paleogene (informally Lawer Tertiary) is a geologic period an seestem that spans 43 million years frae the end o the Cretaceous Period 66 million years ago (Mya) tae the beginnin o the Neogene Period 23.03 Mya.

Perciformes

Perciformes, an aa cried the Percomorphi or Acanthopteri, are the lairgest order o vertebrates, containin aboot 40% o aw bony fishes. Perciformes means "perch-like". Thay belang tae the class o ray-finned fish, an comprise ower 10,000 species foond in almaist aw aquatic environments. The order contains aboot 160 faimilies, which is the maist o ony order within the vertebrates. It is an aa the maist variably sized order o vertebrates, rangin frae the 7 mm (0.28 in) Schindleria brevipinguis tae the 5 m (16 ft) Makaira species. Among well-kent members o this group are cichlids, sunfish/bluegill, damselfish, bass, an perch.

Placentalia

Placentalia ("Placentals") is ane o the three extant subdiveesions o the cless o ainimals Mammalia; the ither twa are Monotremata an Marsupialia.

Poaceae

The Poaceae (cried Gramineae or true grasses an aw) is a lairge an nearly ubiquitous faimily o monocotyledonous flouerin plants. Wi mair nor 10,000 domesticatit an wild species, the Poaceae represents the fift-lairgest plant faimily, follaein the Orchidaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, an Rubiaceae.

Tho commonly cried "gresses", seagresses, rashes, an segs faw ootside this faimily. The rashes an segs is sib tae the Poaceae, bein members o the order Poales, but the seagresses is members o order Alismatales.

Gresslands is estimated tae compone 20% o the vegetation kiver o the Yird. Poaceae leeves in mony ither habitats, includin weetlands, wids, an tundra.

Domestication o poaceous cereal craps sic as maize (corn), wheat, rice, baurley, an millet lies at the foondation o sedentary leevin an ceevilization aroond the warld, an the Poaceae still constitutes the maist economically important plant faimily in modren times, providin forage, biggin materials (bamboo, thack) an fuel (ethanol), as weel as fuid.

Ranunculales

Ranunculales is an order o flouerin plants. O necessity it contains the faimily Ranunculaceae, the buttercup faimily, because the name o the order is based on the name o a genus in that faimily. Ranunculales belongs tae a paraphyletic group kent as the basal eudicots. It is the maist basal clade in this group; in ether wirds, it is sister tae the remainin eudicots.

Rosaceae

Rosaceae (the rose faimily) are a medium-sized faimily o flouerin plants, includin aboot 2830 speshies in 95 genera. The name is derived frae the teep genus Rosa. Among the lairgest genera are Alchemilla (270), Sorbus (260), Crataegus (260), Cotoneaster (260), and Rubus (250). The lairgest genus bi far is Prunus (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots an awmonds) wi aboot 430 speshies. However, aw o these numbers should be seen as unnerestimates - much taxonomic wirk is left tae be done here.

Rosids

The rosids are members o a lairge clade o flouerin plants, containin aboot 70,000 species, mair than a quarter o aw angiosperms. The clade is dividit intae 16 tae 20 orders, dependin upon circumscription an classification. These orders, in turn, thegither comprise aboot 140 faimilies. The rosids an the asterids are bi far the lairgest clades in the eudicots.

Snake

Snakes is cauld bluidit legless reptiles sib tae lizards, maist snakes is thocht tae be venomfu but that isna richt acause anerly a quarter o the snakes on the warld is pushionable.

Vipera berus the edder or muir-edder, whiles cried a muir-eel or hill-eel

Anguis fragilis the slae

Theropoda

Theropoda (theropod /ˈθɛrəpɒd/; suborder name Theropoda /θᵻˈrɒpoʊdə/, frae Greek meanin "beast feet") is baith a suborder o bipedal saurischian dinosaurs, an a clade consistin o that suborder an its descendants (includin modren birds). Dinosaurs belangin tae the suborder Theropoda wur primarily carnivorous, altho a nummer o theropod groups evolved herbivory, omnivory, an insectivory. Theropods first appeared durin the Carnian age o the late Triassic period aboot 230 million years ago (Ma) an includit the sole lairge terrestrial carnivores frae the Early Jurassic till at least the close o the Cretaceous, aboot 66 Ma. In the Jurassic, birds evolved frae smaa specialized coelurosaurian theropods, an are the day representit bi 9,900 livin species.

Amang the featurs linkin theropod dinosaurs tae birds are a furcula (wishbone), air-filled bones, broodin o the eggs, an (in coelurosaurs, at least) feathers.

In ither leids

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