In chemistry, a carbonate is a saut o carbonic acid, characterized bi the presence o the carbonate ion, CO2−

Baw-an-stick model o the carbonate anion
IUPAC name
Seestematic IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
Molar mass 60.01 g·mol−1
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).


  1. Internaitional Union o Pure an Applee'd Chemistry (2005). Nomenclature o Inorganic Chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 2005). Cambridge (UK): RSC–IUPAC. ISBN 0-85404-438-8. Electronic version.

Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, ane o the twa common, naiturally occurrin, crystal furms o calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the ither furm bein the mineral calcite). It is furmed bi biological an pheesical processes, includin precipitation frae marine an freshwatter environments.

Aragonite's crystal lattice differs frae that o calcite, resultin in a different crystal shape, an orthorhombic seestem wi acicular crystals. Repeatit twinnin results in pseudo-hexagonal furms. Aragonite mey be columnar or fibrous, occasionally in branchin stalactitic furms cried flos-ferri ("flouers o airn") frae thair association wi the ores at the Carinthian airn mines.


Cadmium is a chemical element wi the seembol Cd an atomic nummer 48. This saft, bluish-white metal is chemically seemilar tae the twa ither stable metals in group 12, zinc an mercur. Lik zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in maist o its compoonds an lik mercur it shaws a law meltin pynt compared tae transeetion metals. Cadmium an its congeners are nae always considered transeetion metals, in that thay dae nae hae pairtly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. The average concentration o cadmium in the Yird's crust is atween 0.1 an 0.5 pairts per million (ppm). It wis discovered in 1817 simultaneously bi Stromeyer an Hermann, baith in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral an the maist stable polymorph o calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The ither polymorphs is the meenerals aragonite an vaterite. Aragonite will chynge tae calcite at 380–470 °C, an vaterite is even less stable.

Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compoond wi the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance foond in rocks in aw pairts o the warld, an is the main component o shells o marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pairls, an eggshells. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, an is creatit when Ca ions in haird watter react wi carbonate ions creatin limescale. It is commonly uised medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous.


Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa o phylum Cnidaria. Thay teepically live in compact colonies o mony identical individual polyps. The group includes the important reef biggers that inhabit tropical oceans an secrete calcium carbonate tae form a haurd skelet.


Dolomite /ˈdɒləmaɪt/ is a carbonate mineral componed o calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. The wird dolomite is forbye uised for tae describe the sedimentary carbonate rock, that is componed predominantly o the mineral dolomite (itherwise kent as dolostone).

Gorla Maggiore

Gorla Maggiore is a comune (municipality) in the Province o Varese in the Italian region Lombardy, locatit aboot 30 km northwast o Milan an aboot 15 km sootheast o Varese. As o 31 Dizember 2004, it haed a population o 5,001 an a aurie o 5.3 km².Gorla Maggiore borders the follaein municipalities: Carbonate, Fagnano Olona, Gorla Minore, Locate Varesino, Mozzate, Solbiate Olona.


Karst topografie is a geological formation shaped bi the dissolution o a layer or layers o soluble bedrock, uisually carbonate rock such as limestane or dolomite, but an aa in gypsum.


Lanthanum is a chemical element wi the seembol La an atomic nummer 57.

Lanthanum is a siller white metallic element an is the first element o the lanthanide series. It is foond in some rare-yird minerals, uisually in combination wi cerium an ither rare yird elements. Lanthanum is a malleable, ductile, an saft metal that oxidises rapidly whan exposed tae air. It is produced frae the minerals monazite an bastnäsite uisin a complex multistage extraction process. Lanthanum compoonds hae hantle applications as catalysts, additives in gless, carbon lichtin for studio lichtin an projection, igneetion elements in lichters an torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, an ithers. Lanthanum carbonate (La2(CO3)3) haes been approved as a medicine for treatin renal failur.


Limescale is the hard, off-white, chalky deposit found in kettles, hot-water boilers and the inside of inadequately maintained hot-water central heating systems.

It is also often found as a similar deposit on the inner surface of old pipe and other surfaces where "hard water" has evaporated. In addition to being unsightly and hard to clean, limescale seriously impairs the operation or damages various components.The type found deposited on the heating elements of water heaters has a main component of calcium carbonate. Hard water contains calcium (and often magnesium) bicarbonate or similar ions. Calcium salts, such as calcium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate are both more soluble in hot water than cold water. Thus, heating water does not cause calcium carbonate to precipitate per se. However, there is an equilibrium between dissolved calcium bicarbonate and dissolved calcium carbonate:

Ca2+ + 2HCO3− ⇋ Ca2+ + CO32− + CO2 + H2O

where the equilibrium is driven by the carbonate/bicarbonate, not the calcium. Note that the CO2 is dissolved in the water.

There is also an equilibrium of carbon dioxide between dissolved in water (dis) and the gaseous state (g):

CO2(dis) ⇋ CO2(g)The equilibrium of CO2 also moves to the right towards gaseous CO2 when the water temperature rises. When water that contains dissolved calcium carbonate is warmed, CO2 is removed from the water as gas causing the equilibrium of bicarbonate and carbonate to shift to the right, increasing the concentration of dissolved carbonate. As the concentration of carbonate increases, calcium carbonate precipitates as the salt: Ca2+ + CO32− ⇋ CaCO3.

As new cold water with dissolved calcium carbonate/bicarbonate is added and heated, CO2 gas is removed, carbonate concentration increases, and more calcium carbonate precipitates.

Descaling agents are used to remove scale. Prevention of scale build-up relies on the technologies of water softening.


Limestane is a sedimentary rock componed lairgely o the meenerals calcite an aragonite, which are different creestal forms o calcium carbonate (CaCO3).


Magnesite is a mineral wi the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate).


Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, wi the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. This opaque, green bandit mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal seestem, an maist eften furms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fracturs an spaces, deep unnergrund, whaur the watter table an hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but dae occur as slender tae acicular prisms. Pseudomorphs efter mair tabular or blocky azurite crystals an aa occur. teepical malachite is laminatit an whether or nae microbes intervene in its furmation is unkent.


Marble or merble or marrabale or marbae or marval or marvel is a non-foliate metamorphic rock componed o recrystallised carbonate minerals, maist commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists uise the term "marble" fur tae refer tae metamorphosed limestane; housomever, stanemasons uise the term braidly tae encompass unmetamorphosed limestane. Marble is commonly uised for marble sculpturs an as a biggin material. It can conteen clay minerals, micas, quartz, pyrite, iron oxides an graphite.


A pairl or purl is a haurd object produced within the saft tishie (speceefically the mantle) o a leevin shelled mollusc or anither ainimal, sic as a conulariid. Juist lik the shell o a clam, a pairl is componed o calcium carbonate (mainly aragonite or a mixtur o aragonite an calcite). in minute creestalline form, which haes been depositit in concentric layers.

Potassium carbonate

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white saut, soluble in watter (insoluble in ethanol), which forms a strangly alkaline solution.

Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compoond wi the formula NaHCO3.

Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate (an aa kent as washin soda, soda ash an soda crystals), Na2CO3, is a sodium saut o carbonic acid (soluble in watter).


Zinc is a chemical element wi the seembol Zn an atomic nummer 30. It is the first element in group 12 o the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically seemilar tae magnesium: baith elements exhibit anly ane normal oxidation state (+2), an the Zn2+ an Mg2+ ions are o seemilar size. Zinc is the 24t maist abundant element in Yird's crust an haes five stable isotopes. The maist common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The lairgest workable lodes are in Australie, Asia, an the United States. Zinc is refined bi froth flotation o the ore, roasting, an final extraction uisin electricity (electrowinning).

Bress, an alloy o capper an zinc in various proportions, wis uised as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the Unitit Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan an Georgia, an the seicont millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Sirie, Iraq, an Israel (Judea). Zinc metal wis nae produced on a lairge scale until the 12t century in India an wis unkent tae Europe until the end o the 16t century. The mines o Rajasthan hae gien definite evidence o zinc production going back tae the 6t century BC. Tae date, the auldest evidence o pure zinc comes frae Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9t century AD when a distillation process wis employed tae mak pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air tae form what thay cried "philosopher's wool" or "white snow".

The element wis probably named bi the alchemist Paracelsus efter the German wird Zinke (prong, tuith). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited wi discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Wirk bi Luigi Galvani an Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties o zinc bi 1800. Corrosion-reseestant zinc plating o iron (het-dip galvanisin) is the major application for zinc. Ither applications are in electrical batteries, smaw non-structural castins, an alloys sic as bress. A variety o zinc compoonds are commonly uised, sic as zinc carbonate an zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-fousk shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), an zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory.

Zinc is an essential meeneral perceived bi the public the day as bein o "exceptional biologic and public health importance", especially regarding prenatal an postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects aboot twa billion fowk in the developin warld an is associated wi mony diseases. In childer, deficiency causes growthe retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, an diarrhea. Enzymes wi a zinc atom in the reactive centre are widespread in biochemistry, sic as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption o excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy an capper deficiency.

In ither leids

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