ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ

ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱟᱭᱜᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡᱽ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ (dynasty) ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ᱾

Tutmask
ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ
Tutmask

ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ

ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱩᱛᱨᱚᱫᱷᱤᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ,ᱡᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱱᱤ, ᱢᱤᱫ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱠᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱛᱛᱟ ᱨᱤᱠᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱨᱤᱠ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱪᱟᱭᱱᱮᱥᱴᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱫᱟᱲᱮ, ᱡᱟᱢᱤᱸᱫᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱢᱟᱸᱰ᱾ ᱨᱟᱡ ᱜᱟᱫᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱤᱡ ᱩᱛᱨᱚ ᱫᱷᱤᱠᱟᱨᱡ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱜᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱟᱵᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱨ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱥᱮ ᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱮ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱚᱢᱯᱨᱚᱵᱷᱩ ᱩᱛᱨᱚ ᱫᱷᱤᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱤᱠᱟᱹ ᱮᱭᱟ, ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱥᱭᱚ ᱩᱛᱨᱚ ᱫᱷᱤᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱨᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱵᱚᱞᱚ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟ ᱟ᱾ ᱟᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱢᱟᱢᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱛᱨᱚᱫᱷᱤᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱮᱴᱟᱜᱤᱡ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱨ ᱮ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱟ, ᱡᱮᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱝ ᱟ᱾ ᱥᱟᱫᱨᱤᱥᱷᱭᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱜᱟᱣ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱹᱛ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱯᱤᱲᱷᱤ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱥᱟᱛᱛᱟ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱣ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ, ᱡᱮᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱨᱟᱡ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ , ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱑᱙᱓᱖ ᱟᱨ ᱑᱙᱘᱐ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱮᱞᱮᱝ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱱᱤᱠᱟᱨᱜᱩᱣᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾

ᱡᱟᱭᱜᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ

ᱟᱯᱷᱨᱤᱠᱟ

ᱪᱟᱰ

Duguwa dynasty (c. 700 – c. 1075) Sayfawa dynasty (c. 1075 – 1846)

ᱢᱤᱥᱨᱚ

  • 1st dynasty (c. 3050 – 2890 BC)
  • 2nd dynasty (2890 – 2686 BC)
  • 3rd dynasty (2686 – 2613 BC)
  • 4th dynasty (2613 – 2498 BC)
  • 5th dynasty (2498 – 2345 BC)
  • 6th dynasty (2345 – 2181 BC)
  • 7th and 8th dynasties (2181 - 2160 BC)
  • 9th dynasty (2160 – 2130 BC)
  • 10th dynasty (2130 – 2040 BC)
  • 11th dynasty (2134 – 1991 BC)
  • 12th dynasty (1991 – 1803 BC)
  • 13th dynasty (1803 – 1649 BC)
  • 14th dynasty (1705 – 1690 BC)
  • 15th dynasty (1674 – 1535 BC)
  • 16th dynasty (1660 – 1600 BC)
  • 17th dynasty (1650 – 1549 BC)
  • 18th dynasty (1549 – 1292 BC)
  • 19th dynasty (1292 – 1186 BC)
  • 20th dynasty (1186 – 1069 BC)
  • 21st dynasty (1069 – 945 BC)
  • 22nd dynasty (945 – 720 BC)
  • 23rd dynasty (837 – 728 BC)
  • 24th dynasty (732 – 720 BC)
  • 25th dynasty (732 – 653 BC)
  • 26th dynasty (672 – 525 BC)
  • Achaemenid dynasty (525 – 404 BC)
  • 28th dynasty (404 – 398 BC)
  • 29th dynasty (398 – 380 BC)
  • 30th dynasty (380 – 343 BC)
  • Achaemenid dynasty (343 – 332 BC)
  • Argead dynasty (332 – 309 BC)
  • Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 – 30 BC)
  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC – AD 68)
  • Flavian Dynasty (69 – 96)
  • Nervan-Antonian Dynasty (96 – 192)
  • Severan Dynasty (193 – 235)
  • Constantinian dynasty (303 – 336)
  • Valentinian Dynasty (364 – 457)
    • House of Theodosius from 379
  • Leonid dynasty (457 – 518)
  • Justinian Dynasty (518 – 602)
  • Sassanian dynasty
  • Heraclian Dynasty (602 – 695 and 705 – 711)
  • Rashidun Caliphate
  • Umayyad Caliphate
  • Abbasid Caliphate
  • Mamelukes
  • Ottoman Sultanate
  • Muhammad Ali Dynasty (1805 – 1953)

ᱤᱛᱷᱤᱭᱚᱯᱤᱭᱟ

  • Aksumite Empire
  • Zagwe dynasty (c. 900 – 1270)
  • Solomonic dynasty (1270 – 1974)
  • Mudaito Dynasty (1734 –वर्तमान)

ᱜᱤᱱᱤᱭᱟ (Guinea)

  • Keita dynasty (c. 1200 – 1670)

ᱢᱚᱨᱠᱠᱚ

  • Idrisid dynasty (789 – 974)
  • Maghrawa dynasty (987 – 1070)
  • Almoravid dynasty (1073 – 1147)
  • Almohad dynasty (1147 – 1269)
  • Marinid dynasty (1258 – 1420)
  • Wattasid dynasty (1420 – 1554)
  • Saadi dynasty (1554 – 1659)
  • Alaouite dynasty (1666 onwards)

ᱱᱟᱤ ᱡᱤᱨᱤᱭᱟ

  • Eri dynasty of the Igbo and Igala peoples
  • Eweka dynasty of Benin (a cadet branch of the Ooduan dynasty)
  • Ibn Fodio dynasty of Sokoto and Gwandu
  • Jaja dynasty of Opobu
  • Modibo Adama dynasty of Adamawa
  • el-Kanemi dynasty of Bornu
  • Ooduan dynasty of Ife, Egba, Ketu, Sabe, Oyo, Ijero and the Ilas
  • Asodeboyede dynasty of Akure (a cadet branch of the Ooduan dynasty)
  • Ologun Kutere dynasty of Lagos (a cadet branch of the Ooduan dynasty)
  • Sayfawa dynasty of Bornu

ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱞᱤᱭᱟ

  • Gareen Dynasty
  • Walashma Dynasty
  • Gobroon Dynasty
  • Gerad Dynasty
  • Hobyo Dynasty

ᱫᱟᱪᱷᱤᱱ ᱟᱯᱷᱨᱤᱠᱟS

  • Zulu Royal Family
  • Rain Queen dynasty
  • Transkeian dynasty of the Thembus (which counts Nelson Mandela as a non-regnal member)

ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ

ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ

  • Durrani Dynasty (1747 – 1823 and 1839 – 1842)
  • Barakzai Dynasty (1818 – 1839, 1842 – 1929 and 1929 – 1973)
  • Usurper King (January 17, 1929 - October 13, 1929)

ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱟᱱ

  • House of Wangchuck (1907–ᱱᱤᱛᱟᱝ)

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ

  • ᱱᱮᱭᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ (pre-Vedic-18th century AD)
  • ᱱᱟᱸᱫ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ (424 – 321 BCE)
  • ᱢᱚᱨᱭᱚ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ (321 – 184 BCE)
  • ᱥᱩᱝ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ (185 – 73 BCE)
  • Jadeja/Sama dynasty (divided from Chandravansh.2000BC – 1948AC some places of India)
  • Kanva dynasty (75 – 26 BCE)
  • Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE – 220 CE)
  • Chera dynasty (300 BCE – 1200 CE)
  • Chola dynasty (278 BCE – 1279 CE)
  • Pandya dynasty (300 BCE – 1345 CE)
  • Pallava dynasty (250 BCE – 800 CE)
  • Kushāṇa dynasty (60 – 240 CE)
  • Vakataka dynasty (250 – 500 CE)
  • Gupta dynasty (280 – 550 CE)
  • Western Ganga dynasty (350 – 1000 CE)
  • Vishnukundina dynasty (420 – 624 CE)
  • Shahi dynasty (6th to 12th century)
  • Chalukya dynasty (6th to 12th century)
  • Pratihara dynasty (650 – 1036 CE)
  • Pala dynasty (750 – 1174 CE)
  • Rashtrakuta dynasty (753 – 982 CE)
  • Tibetan empire (7th to the 11th century)
  • Paramara dynasty (800 – 1327 CE)
  • Yadava dynasty (850 – 1334 CE)
  • Solanki dynasty (942 – 1244 CE)
  • Hoysala dynasty (1040 – 1346 CE)
  • Sena dynasty (1070 – 1230 CE)
  • Eastern Ganga dynasty (1078 – 1434 CE)
  • Kakatiya dynasty (1083 – 1323 CE)
  • Travancore dynasty (1102 – 1949 CE)
  • Ahom dynasty (1228 – 1826 CE)
  • Sultanate dynasties (1206 – 1526 CE)
  • Vijayanagara dynasty (1336 – 1646 CE)
  • Mughal dynasty (1526 – 1803 CE)
  • Maratha dynasty (1674 – 1818 CE)
  • Nehru-Gandhi dynasty (1947 CE -)

ᱪᱤᱱ

  • Five Emperors (2852 – 2205 BC)
  • Xia Dynasty (2100 – 1600 BC)
  • Shang Dynasty (1600 – 1046 BC)
  • Zhou Dynasty (1046 – 256 BC)
  • Warring States Period (475 – 221 BC)(Several of the Dynasties in the Warring States were descended from the Zhou royal family)[᱑]
    • State of Song (part of warring states) The rulers of the state of Song were descendants of the Shang royal family.[᱑]
    • State of Yue (part of warring states) The kings of Yueh claimed descent from the royal family of the Xia dynasty.[᱒]
    • State of Wu Same royal family as Zhou dynasty
    • State of Jin Same royal family as Zhou dynasty
    • State of Ba (barbarian state, non sinicized)
  • Qin Dynasty (221 – 206 BC) (The royal family of Qin ruled the State of Qin during warring states) (They also claimed descent from one of the Five emperors, Zhuanxu)
  • Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220)
    • Minyue - same royal family as state of yueh- they fled when conquered by Chu and established Minyue, Min yue coexisted with the Warring states period, Qin, and Han dynasty until han conquered it.
    • Nanyue (South Yue) - Proto-Cantonese state founded by Qin general Zhao Tuo. (It is also Vietnam's Trieu Dynasty.)
    • Xin Dynasty (AD 9 – 23) Xin dynasty inturepted the han dynasty, splitting it into east and west periods
  • Three Kingdoms (220 – 265) (The emperor of Shu was a descandant of the Han Dynasty royal family)
  • Jin Dynasty (265–420)
  • Northern Wei (controlled northern China to the Huai river) (386 – 534)
  • Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 – 589)
  • Sui Dynasty (581 – 618)
  • Tang Dynasty (618 – 907) (The Tang Emperors were members of the Li family,
descended from a ruler in the Southern and Northern Dynasties)
    • Second Zhou Dynasty (690 – 705) Interrupted Tang dynasty
  • Liao Dynasty (Khitan) (907 – 1125) (controlled the 16 prefectures)
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907 – 960)
  • Song Dynasty (960 – 1279)
  • Jin Dynasty (Jurchen) (controlled northern China to the Huai river) (1115–1234)
  • Yuan Dynasty (Mongol) (1271 – 1368)
  • Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644)
  • Shun Dynasty (1644)
  • Qing Dynasty (Manchu) (1644 – 1912)
    • Kingdom of Tungning (Taiwan, with Han Chinese rulers) (1662 – 1683)
  • Empire of China (1915 – 1916)

ᱢᱚᱫᱷᱭᱚ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ

  • Tamerlane Timurid
  • Ghaznavid Empire
  • Ghurid Empire
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Seljuq Khanate
  • Mughal Empire Mughulistan
  • Durrani Empire
  • Chagatai Khanate
  • Hotaki Dynasty
  • Suri Dynasty
  • Mamluk Sultanate
  • Khilji Dynasty
  • Tughlaq Khanate
  • Lodhi Dynasty
  • Khwarazm Dynasty
  • Samanid Dynasty

ᱤᱡᱨᱟᱭᱤᱞ

  • Davidic Dynasty
  • Hasmonean Dynasty
  • Achaemenid dynasty (343 – 332 BC)
  • Argead dynasty (332 – 309 BC)
  • Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 – 30 BC)
  • Herodian Dynasty
  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC – AD 68)
  • Flavian Dynasty (69 – 96)
  • Nervan-Antonian Dynasty (96 – 192)
  • Severan Dynasty (193 – 235)
  • Constantinian dynasty (303 – 336)
  • Valentinian Dynasty (364 – 457)
    • House of Theodosius from 379
  • Leonid dynasty (457 – 518)
  • Justinian Dynasty (518 – 602)
  • Heraclian Dynasty (602 – 695 and 705 – 711)

ᱡᱟᱯᱟᱱ

  • Yamato dynasty, Imperial house of Japan (660 BC–ᱱᱤᱛᱟᱜ, with power fluctuating between absolute ruler to ceremonial figurehead to constitutional monarch)
  • Shunten Dynasty (1187 – 1259)
  • Eiso dynasty (1260 – 1349)
  • Hokuzan (1314 – 1419)
  • Chuzan (1314 – 1429)
  • Nanzan (1314 – 1429)
  • First Shō Dynasty (1406 – 1469)
  • Second Shō Dynasty (1469 – 1879)

ᱠᱚᱨᱤᱭᱟ

  • Gojoseon (2333 – 108 BCE)
  • Proto–Three Kingdoms (108 – 57 BCE)
  • Three Kingdoms of Korea (57 BCE – 668)
    • Silla (57 BCE – 935)
    • Goguryeo (37 BCE – 668)
    • Baekje (18 BCE – 660)
    • Gaya (42 CE – 562)
  • North-South States (698 – 935)
    • Unified Silla (668 – 935)
    • Balhae (698 – 926)
    • Later Three Kingdoms (892 – 936)
  • Goryeo Dynasty (918 – 1392)
  • Joseon Dynasty (1392 – 1897)
  • Korean Empire (1897 – 1910)

ᱢᱟᱞᱫᱤᱣ

  • House of Theemuge (1117 – 1388)
  • Hilaalee dynasty (1388 – 1558)
  • (1558 – 1573) Interregnum
  • Utheemu dynasty (1573 – 1692)
  • (1692 – 1701) Kings who do not belong to a particular dynasty.
  • Isdhoo dynasty (1701 – 1704)
  • Dhiyamigili dynasty (1704 – 1757)
  • Huraa dynasty (1757 – 1766)
  • Dhiyamigili dynasty (1766 – 1773)
  • Huraa dynasty (1773 – 1953)
  • (1953 – 1953) Republic (President Muhammad Amin Didi).
  • Huraa dynasty (1953 – 1968)
  • (1968 – 1978) Republic (President Ibrahim Nasir).
  • (1978 – 2008) Republic (President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom).

ᱢᱟᱞᱮᱥᱷᱤᱭᱟ

  • White Rajahs (1841 – 1946)

ᱢᱟᱸᱜᱚᱞᱤᱭᱟ

  • ᱢᱟᱸᱜᱚᱞ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱭᱚ (1206 – 1368)
    • Yuan Dynasty (1271 – 1368)
    • Golden Horde (1240s – 1502)
    • Ilkhanate (1256 – 1335)
    • Chagatai Khanate (1225 – 1687)
  • Northern Yuan Dynasty (1368 – 1634)
  • Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1912)

ᱢᱭᱟᱝᱢᱟᱨ (ᱵᱟᱨᱢᱟ)

  • Toungoo dynasty (1486 – 1752)
  • Konbaung dynasty (1752 – 1885)

ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱤᱯᱤᱸᱥ

Royal Families

  • Malay Dynasties
    • The Datu Puti Lineage (Ruled the defunct Confederation of Madya-as) (1200s – 1565)
  • ᱦᱤᱸᱫᱩ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ
    • The Lakandula Dynasty (Ruled the defunct Kingdom of Tondo) (1150 – 1589)
    • The House of Tupas (Ruled the defunct Rajahnate of Cebu) (up to 1565)
    • The House of Sri Bata Shaja(Ruled the defunct Rajahnate of Butuan) (989 – 1586)
  • ᱢᱩᱥᱞᱤᱢ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ
    • The Ud-Din Royal Hashemite Family (A dynasty which ruled the Maguinadanao Sultanate) (1480 – 1830)
    • The Kiram Royal Hashemite Family (Rules the Sulu Sultanate) (1823 – Present)

ᱥᱨᱤ ᱞᱟᱸᱠᱟ

  • Polonnaruwan Dynasty
  • Aryacakravartese Dynasty
  • Ceilão Dynasty
  • Zeylan Dynasty
  • Kandy Dynasty
  • Ceylon Dynasty
  • Dominion Dynasty
  • First Sinhalese Dynasty
  • Eelamese Dynasty
  • Second Sinhalese Dynasty
  • Raigaman Dynasty
  • Kotte Dynasty
  • Sitawakan Dynasty
  • Kandy Dynasty
  • Ceylon Dynasty
  • Dominion Dynasty
  • Sinhalese Dynasty

Saudi Arabia

  • House of Saud (1932–वर्तमान)

ᱛᱤᱵᱵᱚᱛ

  • Yarlung Dynasty (up to 842)
  • Sakya lama (13–14th century, but subordination to the Mongol Yuan Dynasty)
  • Phagmodrupa Dynasty
  • Dalai Lama (1492 – 1959, but subordination to Manchu Qing Dynasty between 1720 and 1912)

ᱛᱷᱟᱭᱤᱞᱮᱸᱰ

  • Hari Pun Chai dynasty (663 – 1293)
  • Phra Roung dynasty (Sukhothai Kingdom) (1237 – 1438)
  • Mangrai dynasty (1261 – 1578)
  • Eu Thong dynasty (1350 – 1370), (1388 – 1409)
  • Suphanabhumi dynasty (1370 – 1350), (1409 – 1569)
  • Phra Roung Dynasty (Ayutthaya Kingdom) (1569 – 1629)
  • Prasart Thong dynasty (1629 – 1688)
  • Bann Plu Luang dynasty (1688 – 1767)
  • Tipchakratiwong dynasty (Seven princes dynasty) (Lanna Kingdom) (1732 – 1932)
  • Thonburi dynasty (1767 – 1782)
  • Chakri dynasty (1782 onwards)

ᱛᱩᱨᱠᱤ

  • Seljuq Dynasty (1077 – 1307)
  • Ottoman Dynasty (1281 – 1923)

ᱣᱤᱭᱟᱛᱱᱟᱢ

  • Hồng Bàng Dynasty (2919 – 258 BC)
  • Thục Dynasty (257 – 207 BC)
  • Triệu Dynasty (207 – 111 BC)
  • Han Dynasty (Chinese) (111 BC – 39 AD and 43 – 220)
  • Trưng Sisters (40 – 43)
  • Eastern Wu Dynasty (Chinese) (229 – 280)
  • Jin Dynasty (Chinese) (280 – 420)
  • Southern Qi Dynasty (Chinese) (479 – 502)
  • Liang Dynasty (Chinese) (502 – 544)
  • Anterior Lý Dynasty (544 – 602)
  • Sui Dynasty (Chinese) (602 – 618)
  • Tang Dynasty (Chinese) (618 – 905)
  • Khúc Family (906 – 930)
  • Ngô Dynasty (939 – 967)
  • Đinh Dynasty (968 – 980)
  • Prior Lê Dynasty (980 – 1009)
  • Lý Dynasty (1009 – 1225)
  • Trần Dynasty (1225 – 1400)
  • Hồ Dynasty (1400 – 1407)
  • Posterior Trần Dynasty (1407 – 1413)
  • Ming Dynasty (Chinese) (1414 – 1427)
  • Later Lê Dynasty (1428 – 1527 and 1533 – 1788)
  • Mạc Dynasty (1527 – 1677)
  • Trịnh Lords (1545 – 1787)
  • Nguyễn Lords (1558 – 1777)
  • Tây Sơn Dynasty (1778 – 1802)
  • Nguyễn Dynasty (1802 – 1945)
  • House of Bonaparte (European) (1870)
  • 1st dynasty (192 - 336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336 - 420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420 - 529)
  • 4th dynasty (529 - 758)
  • 5th dynasty (758 - 854)
  • 6th dynasty (854 - 989)
  • 7th dynasty (989 - 1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044–1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074–1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139–1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145–1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190–1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318–1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390–1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458–1471)
  • vacant (1471–1695)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695–1822)

ᱭᱩᱨᱚᱯ

Austria

  • House of Habsburg (1273-1918)

Albania

  • Progon Dynasty (1190–1216)
  • Angevin (1272–1368)
  • Kastrioti (1444–1468)
  • Wied (1914)
  • Zogu (1928–1939)

Armenia

  • Orontid Dynasty
  • Artaxiad Dynasty or the Artashesi Dynasty (189 BC-12 AD)
  • Arsacid Dynasty or the Arshakuni Dynasty (54-428)
  • Bagratuni Dynasty or the Bagratid Dynasty of Armenia (885-1045)
  • Rubenid Dynasty or the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1080–1225)

Belgium

  • House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1831–वर्तन)

Bosnia

  • House of Boričević (1154–1163, 1536-)
  • House of Kulinić (1163–1250)
  • House of Kotromanić (1250–1463)
  • House of Berislavić, deposed (1463–1536)

Bulgaria

  • House of Dulo (632 - 753)
    • Krum's dynasty (777 - 976/997)
    • Cometopuli dynasty (976/997 - 1018)
  • House of Asen (1187–1280)
  • House of Terter (1280–1331)
  • House of Sratsimir (1331–1422)
  • Battenberg family (1878–1886)
  • House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1886–1947)

Barbarians

  • Agilolfing Dynasty
  • Merovingian Dynasty (481-751)
  • Carolingian Dynasty (751-843)
  • Arnulfings or Pippinids, mayors of the palaces

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. Period Ruler

  • Vund c. 360
  • Balamber 360 - 378
  • Baltazár (Alypbi) 378 - 390
  • Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns) 390 - 410
  • Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns & beyond) 410 - 412
  • Charaton (Aksungur) 412 - 422
  • Octar[1] 422 - 432
  • Rugila 432-434
  • Bleda with Attila c. 434-c. 445
  • Attila "the Hun" c. 434-453
  • Ellac 453-c. 455
  • Tuldila fl. c. 457
  • Dengizich (Sabirs attack c.460-463) ?-469 with Hernach/BelkErmak
  • Hernach/BelkErmak[2] 469-503
  • House of Dulo Bulgaria (390-503) A Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans genealogy claims that the Dulo clan is descended from Attila the Hun.
  • Edeko
  • Odoacer (435–493), was the 5th-century King of Italy
See Early kings of the Lombards.
  • Lething Dynasty (until early 6th century)
  • Gausian Dynasty (546-572)
  • Bavarian Dynasty (616-712)
  • Amal Dynasty (before 474-536)
  • Suebic Dynasty (409-585)
  • Hasdingi (before 407-534)
  • Balthi Dynasty (395-531)

Byzantine Empire

  • Constantinian dynasty (303-336)
  • Valentinian Dynasty (364-457)
    • House of Theodosius from 379
  • Leonid dynasty (457-518)
  • Justinian Dynasty (518-602)
  • Heraclian Dynasty (602-695 and 705-711)
  • Isaurian Dynasty (717-802)
  • Phrygian Dynasty (820-867)
  • Macedonian Dynasty (867-1056)
  • Komnenid Dynasty (1057–1059 and 1081–1185)
  • Doukid Dynasty (1059–1081)
  • Angelid Dynasty (1185–1204)
  • Laskarid Dynasty (1204–1261), in exile in Nicaea
  • Palaiologid Dynasty (1261–1453)

ᱠᱨᱚ ᱟᱴᱤᱭᱟ

  • Trpimirović Dynasty (845-1091)
  • Árpád Dynasty (c.1102-1301)
  • Přemyslid Dynasty (1301–1305)
  • House of Wittelsbach (1305–1308)
  • Capetian Dynasty, House of Anjou (1308–1395)
  • House of Luxemburg (1387–1437)
  • Habsburg Dynasty (1437–1457, 1526-1918)
  • Jagiellonian Dynasty (1440–1526)
  • Zápolya Dynasty (1526–1571)
  • Habsburg Dynasty (1526-1918)

ᱰᱮᱱᱢᱟᱨᱠ

  • see List of Danish monarchs (-1412)
  • House of Oldenburg (1448-1863)
    • House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1863 to the present)

France

  • Carolingian Dynasty (843-987)
  • Capetian Dynasty (987-1792, 1814–1848)
    • Direct Capetians (987-1328)
    • House of Valois (1328–1589)
      • Direct House of Valois (1328–1498)
      • House of Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)
      • House of Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)
    • House of Bourbon (1589–1792 and 1814–1848)
      • House of Bourbon-Vendôme (1589–1792, 1814–1830)
      • House of Bourbon-Orléans (1830–1848)
  • Bonaparte Dynasty (1804–1814 and 1852–1870)

Georgia

  • Pharnabazid Dynasty (299-90 BC, 30BC-189 AD)
  • Artaxiad Dynasty (90-30 BC)
  • Arsacid Dynasty (189-284 AD)
  • Chosroid Dynasty (284-580, 627-684)
    • Guaramid Dynasty (588-627, 684-748, 779-786)
  • Nersianid Dynasty (748-780)
  • Bagratid (Bagrationi) dynasty (813-1810)

Germany

  • Carolingian Dynasty (843-911)
  • Conradines (911-918)
  • Ottonian Dynasty (919-1024)
  • Salian Dynasty or Franconian Dynasty (1024–1125)
  • Supplinburger Dynasty (1125–1137)
  • House of Hohenstaufen (1137–1254)
  • House of Habsburg (1273–1291, 1298–1308, and 1438-1740)
    • House of Lorraine (1745–1806)
  • House of Nassau (1292–1298)
  • House of Luxemburg (1308–1313, 1347–1400, and 1410–1437)
  • House of Wittelsbach (1314–1347, 1400–1410, and 1742–1745)
  • House of Hohenzollern (1871–1918)
  • Liutpolding Dynasty 889-947
  • Ottonian Dynasty 947-1017
  • House of Luxembourg 1017-1026, 1039–1047
  • Salian Dynasty 1026-1039, 1053–1061
  • House of Welf 1070-1138, 1156–1180
  • House of Babenberg 1138-1156
  • House of Wittelsbach 1180-1918
  • Liudolfing Dynasty 843-961
  • Billung Dynasty 961-1106
  • Supplinburger Dynasty 1106-1127
  • House of Welf 1127-1138, 1142–1180
  • Ascanian Dynasty 1138-1142, 1180–1422
  • Wettin Dynasty 1422-1918

Hungary

  • Árpád Dynasty (c.895-1301)
  • Samuel Aba of Hungary Aba - Árpád Dynasty (1038–1044)
  • Přemyslid Dynasty (1301–1305)
  • House of Wittelsbach (1305–1308)
  • Capetian Dynasty, House of Anjou (1308–1395)
  • House of Luxemburg (1387–1437)
  • Habsburg Dynasty (1437–1457, 1526-1918)
  • Jagiellonian Dynasty (1440–1526)
  • Zápolya Dynasty (1526–1571)
  • Habsburg Dynasty (1526-1918)

Monaco

  • House of Grimaldi which is actually Italian in origin.

Montenegro

  • Vojislavljević Dynasty (c. 7th century - 1186)
  • Nemanjić Dynasty (1186–1355)
  • Balšić Dynasty (1356–1435)
  • Crnojević Dynasty (1435–1516)
  • Petrović-Njegoš Dynasty (1696–1918)
  • Karađorđević Dynasty (1918–1941)

Iberia

  • Jiménez Dynasty (1035–1162)
  • House of Barcelona (1162–1410)
  • House of Trastámara (1412–1516)
  • House of Habsburg (1516–1700 and 1701–1707)
  • Peláyez Dynasty (718-739)
  • Pérez Dynasty (739-925)
  • House of Barcelona (878-1410)
  • House of Trastámara (1412–1516)
  • House of Habsburg (1516–1700 and 1701–1714)
  • House of Bourbon (1714–1716)
  • House of Lara (930-1032), counts
  • Jiménez Dynasty (1035–1126), kings
  • House of Burgundy (1126–1369)
  • House of Trastámara (1369–1516)
  • House of Habsburg (1516–1700)
  • Pérez Dynasty (910-1037)
  • Jiménez Dynasty (1037–1126)
  • House of Burgundy (1126–1369)
  • House of Trastámara (1369–1516)
  • House of Habsburg (1516–1700)
  • House of Íñiguez (824-905)
  • Jiménez Dynasty (905-1234)
  • House of Champagne (1234–1305)
  • House of Capet (1284–1349)
  • House of Évreux (1328–1441)
  • House of Trastámara (1425–1479)
  • House of Foix (1479–1516)
  • House of Albret (1483–1572)
  • House of Bourbon (1572–1620)
  • House of Vímara Peres (868-1071), counts
  • House of Burgundy or Afonsine Dynasty (1093–1383), counts until 1139, then kings
  • House of Aviz or Joannine Dynasty (1385–1580)
    • House of Aviz-Beja (1495–1580)
  • House of Habsburg or Philippine Dynasty (1580–1640)
  • House of Braganza or Brigantine Dynasty (1640–1910)
    • House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1853–1910)
  • House of Trastámara (1492–1516)
  • House of Habsburg (1516–1700)
  • House of Bourbon (1700–1714) (Disputed during the War of the Spanish Succession)
  • House of Bourbon (1714–1868, 1874–1931, and 1975 to the present)
  • House of Bonaparte (1808–1813)
  • House of Savoy (1871–1873)

Ireland

  • Fir Ol nEchmacht
  • Dal Fiachrach Suighe
  • The Connachta
  • Uí Fiachrach
  • Uí Néill
  • Eóganachta
  • Uí Dúnlainge
  • Uí Cheinnselaig
  • Dál Riata
  • Dál nAraidi
  • Dál Fiatach
  • Clann Cholmáin
  • Síl nÁedo Sláine
  • Cenél nEógain
  • Cenél Conaill
  • Uí Briúin Bréifne
  • Dál gCais
  • MacDermot
  • Ó Neill
  • O'Donnell (O Domhnaill)
  • O Connor Sligo
  • O'Conor Don
  • O'Brien

ᱤᱴᱞᱤ

  • House of Savoy (1861–1946)

Netherlands

  • House of Orange (1772- to the present)

Norway

  • Fairhair Dynasty (890-1319)
  • House of Lade
  • House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1905 to the present)

ᱯᱚᱞᱮᱸᱰ

  • Piast Dynasty (9th century-1296 and 1306–1370)
  • Přemyslid Dynasty (1291–1306)
  • Capetian Dynasty, House of Anjou (1370–1399)
  • Jagiellonian Dynasty (1386–1572 and 1575–1586)
  • Valois Dynasty (1573–1574)
  • House of Báthory (1576–1586)
  • House of Vasa (1587–1668)
  • House of Wiśniowiecki (1669–1673)
  • House of Sobieski (1674–1696)
  • Wettin Dynasty (1697–1706, 1709–1733 and 1736–1764)
  • House of Leszczyński (1704–1709 and 1733–1736)
  • House of Poniatowski (1764–1795)

Romania

  • House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1866–1947)

Russia

  • House of Rurikovich (862-1598, 1606–1610)
  • House of Romanov (1613–1762)
  • House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, called Romanov (1762–1917)

Serbia

  • House of Vlastimirović (610-960)
  • House of Vojislavljević (1034–1186)
  • House of Nemanjić (1166–1371)
  • House of Lazarević (1371–1427)
  • House of Branković (1427–1502)
  • House of Karađorđević (1811–1813, 1842–1858 and 1903–1941)
  • House of Obrenović (1815–1842 and 1858–1903)

Sweden

  • House of Uppsala (970-1060)
  • House of Stenkil (1060–1130)
  • House of Sverker (1130–1222), interspersed with House of Eric
  • House of Eric (1156–1250), interspersed with House of Sverker
  • House of Bjälbo or Folkung Dynasty (1248–1387)
  • House of Vasa (1521–1654)
  • House of Wittelsbach or House of Palatinate–Zweibrücken-Kleeburg (1654–1720)
  • House of Hesse (1720–1751)
  • House of Holstein-Gottorp (1751–1818)
  • House of Bernadotte (1818 to the present)

Two Sicilies

  • House of Hauteville (1071–1198), counts until 1130
  • House of Hohenstaufen (1194–1266)
  • House of Capet, House of Anjou (1266–1282)
  • House of Barcelona (1282–1410)
  • House of Trastámara (1412–1516)
  • House of Habsburg (1516–1700 and 1720–1735)
  • House of Bourbon (1700–1713)
  • House of Savoy (1713–1720)
  • House of Bourbon (1735–1861)
  • (As a region of the Kingdom of Italy.) House of Savoy (1861–1946)

British Isles (under English rule)

  • House of Wessex (802-1016 and 1042–1066)
  • House of Denmark (1013–1014 and 1016–1042)
  • Norman Dynasty (1066–1154)
  • Plantagenet Dynasty (1154-1485)
    • House of Anjou (1154–1399)
    • House of Lancaster (1399–1461 and 1470–1471) (Throne merged with Irish)
    • House of York (1461–1470 and 1471–1485)
  • House of Tudor (1485–1603)
  • House of Stuart (1603–1714) (Throne merged with Scotland)
  • Crowley
  • Burke
  • Clanricarde
  • Plantagenet Dynasty (1154-1485)
    • House of Anjou (1154–1399)
    • House of Lancaster (1399–1461 and 1470–1471) (Throne merged with English)
  • House of Alpin (843-1034)
  • House of Dunkeld (1034–1040, 1058–1286)
  • House of Moray (1040–1058)
  • House of Baliol (1292–1296) (see Belgium, Flanders)
  • Plantagenet Dynasty
  • House of Bruce (1306–1371)
  • House of Stewart (1371-1707) (Throne Merged with English)

The crown of the Kingdom of England and Ireland merged with that of the Kingdom of Scotland to form a personal union between England-Ireland and Scotland (the former a personal union itself)

  • House of Stuart (1603–1707)
  • House of Stuart (1707–1801)
  • House of Hanover (1714–1801)
  • House of Hanover (1801–1901)
  • House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1901–1910)
  • House of Windsor (1921–1949)
  • House of Windsor (1949–ᱱᱤᱛᱟᱝ)

Roman Empire

  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC-AD 68)
  • Flavian Dynasty (69-96)
  • Nervan-Antonian Dynasty (96-192)
  • Severan Dynasty (193-235)
  • Constantinian dynasty (303-363)
  • Valentinian Dynasty (364-457)
    • House of Theodosius from 379

ᱜᱟᱱᱨᱡᱽᱭᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱱᱤᱛᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ

Though in elected governments rule does not pass automatically by inheritance, political power often accrues to generations of related individuals even in Republics. Eminence, Influence, familiarity, tradition, genetics, and even nepotism may contribute to this phenomenon.

Family dictatorships are a slightly different concept, where political power passes within a family due to the overwhelming authority of the leader, rather than informal power accrued to the family.

ᱟᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱨᱟᱢᱱᱤᱛᱤᱠ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱺ

  • The Beazley and Crean families (Australian Labor Party)
  • Ziaur Rahman's and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's families (Bangladesh)
  • Aung San Suu Kyi's family (Burma)
  • The Nehru-Gandhi family (India)
  • The Soekarnos (Indonesia)
  • The Kims (North Korea)
  • The Bhutto family (Pakistan)
  • The Zia family (Pakistan)
  • The Macapagal Family (Philippines)
  • The Aquino Family(Philippines)
  • The Estrada Family (Philippines)
  • The Marcos Family (Philippines)
  • The Medici family (Republic of Florence)
  • Lee Kuan Yew's family (Singapore)
  • Solomon Bandaranaike's family (Sri Lanka)
  • The Assads (Syria)
  • The Churchills/Dukes of Marlborough (UK)
  • The (Earl) Russells (UK)
  • The Chamberlains (UK)
  • The Greys (UK)
  • The Pitts (UK)
  • The Adamses (United States)
  • The Kennedys (United States)
  • The Bushes (United States)
  • The Long family (United States)
  • The Roosevelts (United States)
  • The Tafts (United States)
  • The Cuomo family (United States)
  • The Udalls (United States)

ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞᱢᱮ

  • ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱣᱚᱫ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ

  1. ᱑.᱐ ᱑.᱑ The Times Atlas of World History (third edition), ISBN, 0-7230-0304-1
  2. The State of Yue
ᱟᱠᱵᱚᱨ

ᱟᱵᱩᱞ-ᱯᱷᱟᱛ ᱡᱟᱞᱟᱞ-ᱩᱫᱽ-ᱫᱤᱱ ᱢᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱟᱠᱵᱚᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱠᱵᱚᱨ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱠᱵᱚᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱚᱜᱚᱞ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱛᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱥᱚᱢᱨᱟᱴ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱨᱮᱥ ᱥᱟᱥᱮᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱩᱥᱞᱟᱹ ᱥᱚᱢᱨᱟᱴ ᱢᱩᱸᱫᱽ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱱᱩᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱟᱭᱟᱦᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱩᱯᱷᱤ ᱢᱚᱛᱚᱵᱟᱫᱽ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱩᱠᱛᱤ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱨᱚᱵᱷᱟᱵᱽ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱯᱟᱱ ᱟᱹᱯᱤᱱ ᱜᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱟᱯᱟᱱ ᱟᱹᱯᱤᱱ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱤᱨᱠᱟᱹ ᱵᱷᱟᱵᱽᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾

ᱟᱥᱚᱠ

ᱟᱥᱚᱠ

ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ :- ᱒᱖᱙ ᱵᱤᱥᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱒᱓᱒ ᱵᱤᱥᱤ ᱾

ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱢᱟᱹᱪᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱩᱲᱩᱵ :- ᱒᱗᱐ ᱵᱤᱥᱤ ᱾

ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ :- ᱓᱐᱔ ᱵᱤᱥᱤ, ᱯᱟᱴᱤᱞᱤ ᱯᱩᱛᱨᱚ, ᱯᱟᱴᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱜᱩᱨ :- ᱒᱓᱒ ᱵᱤᱥᱤ, ᱯᱟᱴᱤᱞᱤ ᱯᱩᱛᱨᱚ, ᱯᱟᱴᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱺᱜᱤᱵᱷᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ :- ᱫᱚᱥᱚᱨᱚᱛᱷ ᱢᱚᱣᱨᱭᱟ ᱾

ᱮᱨᱟ :- ᱫᱮᱵᱤ ᱠᱟᱨᱩᱵᱟᱠᱤ ᱯᱚᱫᱽᱢᱟᱵᱚᱛᱤ ᱛᱤᱥᱭᱚᱨᱚᱠᱥᱤᱛᱟ ᱾

ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ :- ᱢᱚᱣᱨᱭᱚ ᱾

ᱵᱟᱵᱟ :- ᱵᱤᱱᱫᱩᱥᱟᱨ ᱾

ᱟᱭᱳ :- ᱥᱩᱵᱷᱚᱫᱨᱟᱝᱜᱤ (ᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱢᱟ) ᱾

ᱟᱵᱽᱨᱟᱦᱟᱢ

ᱟᱵᱽᱨᱟᱦᱟᱢ (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם‬, Modern ʾAvraham Tiberian ʾAḇrāhām, Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim) ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱭᱵᱮᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱯᱮ ᱜᱩᱥᱴᱤ ᱦᱟᱲᱟᱢᱨᱮᱱ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱹᱲ ᱵᱟᱭᱵᱮᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱑᱑ᱹ᱒᱖ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱒᱕ᱹ᱑᱘ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱦᱩᱫᱤ, ᱤᱥᱟᱹᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱤᱥᱞᱟᱢ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤᱠᱟᱭ ᱫᱚᱦᱚᱞᱮᱫᱟ᱾ᱟᱵᱽᱨᱟᱦᱟᱢᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱹᱲ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱥᱟᱛᱚᱢ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱟᱥᱟ ᱡᱩᱢᱤ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱᱨᱮᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱟᱡᱨᱮᱱ ᱟᱯᱟᱛ ᱵᱟᱸᱪᱟᱣ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱱᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱲᱟᱜ ᱠᱷᱚᱡ ᱮ ᱩᱰᱩᱜᱽ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱛᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱥᱨᱤᱡᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱟᱯᱟᱢ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱚᱱᱟᱭ ᱮᱦᱚᱵᱽ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱᱨᱮᱜᱮ᱾

ᱠᱚᱱᱯᱷᱩᱥᱤᱭᱚᱥ

ᱠᱚᱱᱯᱷᱩᱥᱤᱭᱚᱥ (ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 28, 551 BC-479 BC) ᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱤᱡ ᱢᱟᱪᱮᱛ, ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱮᱫ, ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱨᱥᱚᱱᱤᱠ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱨᱠᱩᱛ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱤ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱚ ᱠᱤ ᱵᱟᱝᱢᱟ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱚ ᱱᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱵᱟᱵᱚᱛ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱭ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱭ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱞᱮᱜ-ᱟ᱾ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱠᱚ ᱟᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱞᱟᱰᱷᱟᱹᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱥᱛᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱭᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱣ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱠᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱱᱤᱨᱚᱲ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱮᱢᱟᱞ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚᱱᱯᱷᱩᱥᱤᱭᱚᱥ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱩᱫᱷᱹᱨ ᱟᱹᱫᱜᱩᱭ ᱪᱮᱥᱴᱟ ᱞᱮᱫ-ᱟ᱾

ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ

ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱾ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱱᱟ, ᱨᱩᱯᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱟᱹᱛᱤᱰᱟᱴᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱴᱩᱡ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱩᱛᱟᱹᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱩᱢᱟᱹᱝ ᱞᱩᱜᱽᱲᱤ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱹᱱ ᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱚᱪᱚ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱙᱘᱙ ᱠᱷᱤᱥᱴᱟᱫᱽᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱩᱵᱽᱱᱮᱥᱚᱨ, ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱬᱟᱨᱠ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱙᱔᱘ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱷᱩᱵᱽᱱᱮᱥᱚᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱵᱤᱠᱱᱟᱹᱣᱜ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ , ᱯᱟᱞᱮ ᱙ ᱥᱚᱛᱟᱵᱽᱫᱷᱤ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱩᱵᱽᱱᱮᱥᱚᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱣᱲᱟ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱡᱤᱞᱞᱟᱹ

ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟ.ᱡᱩᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱩᱯᱟ. ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ (Silver city) ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ ᱛᱟᱭ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱜᱮᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱟᱨᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱟᱵᱽᱫᱷᱤ ᱫᱷᱟᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱮᱦᱮᱧ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱸᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨᱤ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱮᱥᱚᱨᱤ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱰᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱ ᱥᱚᱭᱱᱤᱠ ᱥᱤᱵᱤᱨ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱤᱞᱟ, ᱢᱩᱫᱽᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱧᱪᱟᱣᱥᱟᱲᱟ ᱴᱩᱨᱤᱥᱴ ᱠᱚᱭ ᱢᱩᱦᱤᱛ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜᱟᱜ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱡᱩᱜᱤᱭᱟ. ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱫᱽᱢᱟᱵᱚᱛᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱱᱚᱫᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱦᱚᱫ ᱱᱟᱺᱭ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱳᱡᱚᱰᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱟᱯᱟᱢ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱡᱚᱨᱰᱟᱱ

ᱡᱚᱨᱰᱟᱱ (Arabic: الْأُرْدُنّ‎ Al-ʾUrdunn [al.ʔur.dunː]), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎ Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Hāshimīyah), ᱫᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱮᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱡᱚᱨᱰᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱚᱡᱽᱨᱚᱛ ᱢᱩᱦᱟᱢᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱜᱚᱲᱚᱢᱵᱟ ᱦᱟᱥᱮᱢ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱼᱟ᱾

ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱨᱰᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱮ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ᱾ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱡ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱥᱟᱢᱟᱱᱤᱭᱳ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱡᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱠᱷᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱲᱦᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱨᱤᱴᱤᱥ ᱫᱚᱠᱷᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱑᱙᱔᱖ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱴᱨᱟᱱᱥ ᱡᱚᱨᱰᱟᱱ ᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱯᱷᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱑᱙᱔᱙ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱡᱚᱨᱰᱟᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ᱾

ᱡᱚᱫᱷᱯᱩᱨ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ

ᱡᱚᱫᱷᱯᱩᱨ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱚᱫᱷᱯᱩᱨ ᱥᱚᱦᱚᱨ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱪᱟᱪᱞᱟᱣ ᱦᱮᱰᱠᱩᱣᱟᱴᱚᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

᱒᱐᱑᱑ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱡᱚᱫᱷᱯᱩᱨ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ (᱓᱓ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ) ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ᱡᱚᱫᱷᱯᱩᱨ ᱢᱟᱨᱣᱟᱲ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱸᱰᱚᱨ, ᱯᱨᱟᱛᱤᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱛ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ (᱖ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ-᱑᱓ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱛᱟᱵᱫᱤ) ᱟᱨ ᱚᱥᱤᱭᱟᱸ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱨᱟᱛᱤᱦᱟᱨ ᱢᱚᱱᱫᱤᱨ ᱥᱚᱦᱚᱨ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱚᱫᱷᱯᱩᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱴᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ ᱑᱕ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱛᱟᱵᱫᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟᱵᱷ ᱡᱚᱫᱷᱟ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ᱟᱨ ᱑᱙᱔᱗ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱷᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱨᱟᱴᱷᱚᱨ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱣᱟᱲ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱥᱮᱵᱟ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾

ᱡᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨ

ᱡᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱯᱮᱨᱮᱡ ᱟᱠᱟᱢ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱩᱛᱚᱨ ᱱᱟᱠᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱷᱚᱫᱽᱨᱚᱠ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱨᱡᱟ ᱢᱩᱫᱽᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ , ᱡᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱡᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱮᱥᱚᱨᱤ ᱨᱟᱡᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱠᱚᱴᱚᱠ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱪᱟᱹᱲ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱫᱚ ᱾ "ᱡᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨ" ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱯᱮᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱸᱥᱠᱨᱤᱴ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ "ᱭᱟᱡᱽ" ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱡᱚᱜᱽᱭᱚᱸ ᱛᱚᱨᱟᱣ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱰᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱡᱟᱛᱤ ᱠᱮᱥᱚᱨᱤ ᱜᱮᱞ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱚᱥᱣᱚᱢᱮᱫᱷ ᱡᱚᱜᱽᱭᱚᱭ ᱠᱚᱨᱟᱣ ᱦᱚᱪᱚ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱭᱚᱠᱩᱵᱽᱡᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱐,᱐᱐᱐ ᱵᱟᱵᱽᱬᱮᱭ ᱟᱹᱜᱩ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱛ ᱦᱟᱥᱟ ᱮᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱪᱟᱞ ᱟᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨ, ᱡᱟᱡᱽ ᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱭᱚᱜᱽᱭᱚᱸᱯᱩᱨ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ

ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱨᱟᱺᱪᱤ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱤᱢᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱸᱭᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱦᱟᱨ, ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱛᱚᱨ ᱯᱨᱚᱫᱮᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱤᱥᱜᱚᱰ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱵᱟᱸᱜᱽᱞᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱪᱷᱚᱴᱟᱱᱚᱜᱯᱩᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱥᱩᱞ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱤᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱨᱡᱚᱱ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱩᱸᱫᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱢᱥᱮᱫᱽᱯᱩᱨ, ᱫᱷᱟᱱᱵᱟᱫᱽ, ᱵᱚᱠᱟᱨᱚ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱾

ᱤᱸᱫᱽᱨᱟ ᱜᱟ.ᱱᱫᱷᱤ

ᱢᱟ.ᱱᱤᱡ ᱤᱸᱫᱽᱨᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱼᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱫᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟ. ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱩᱞᱩᱜ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱤᱛ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱮᱦᱨᱩ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟ. ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱼᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱟᱠᱚ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱚᱱᱠᱟᱱ ᱪᱤᱛᱟ.ᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱞᱮ ᱯᱩᱨᱟ. ᱫᱷᱟ.ᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱠᱟ.ᱡ ᱜᱮ ᱧᱮᱞᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱨᱤᱭᱚᱫᱚᱨᱥᱤᱱᱤ ᱤᱸᱫᱽᱨᱟ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟ. ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱼᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱞᱟᱯᱷᱟᱝ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱟᱠᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱥᱚᱱᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱚᱞᱼᱛᱚᱞ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱞᱤ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱨᱟ ᱥᱮ ᱵᱟ.ᱦᱩ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱥᱩᱥᱟ.ᱨᱤᱭᱟ., ᱜᱟᱭᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟ. ᱟᱨ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱪᱟ.ᱞᱩᱭ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱩᱞᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱥᱟ.ᱠᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟ.ᱱᱤᱡ ᱤᱸᱫᱽᱨᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱾

ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ

ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱛ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱥᱤᱸᱫᱷ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱷᱟᱨᱯᱚᱨᱠᱚᱨ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱜᱩᱡᱽᱨᱟᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱪᱪᱷᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱢᱩᱞ ᱱᱤᱣᱟᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱤᱛᱟᱝ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱒᱔ ᱜᱮᱥᱟᱭ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱓᱐ ᱜᱮᱥᱟᱭ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ᱾ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱮᱭᱟᱭ-ᱤᱨᱟᱞ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱤᱡᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱛ ᱡᱟᱹᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ᱾ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱩᱱᱠᱩᱣᱟᱜ ᱟᱣᱚᱨᱡᱚᱱ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱟᱥᱚᱞ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱮᱫ-ᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱚᱪᱚ ᱟᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ᱾

ᱨᱟᱛᱮᱠᱚᱴ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱢᱟᱨᱠᱚᱴ ᱨᱤᱭᱟᱥᱚᱛᱮ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱛ (ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱱ) ᱠᱚ ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱱᱩᱠᱩ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱸᱫᱷ ᱯᱨᱟᱸᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱢᱢ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ᱾ ᱟᱢᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱴ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ (ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱱ) ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱛ ᱨᱟᱛᱮᱠᱚᱴ ᱫᱩᱨᱜᱮ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱜ᱾ ᱱᱩᱠᱩᱣᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱡᱷᱮ ᱥᱟᱹᱜᱟᱹᱭ ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽᱭᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱛ ᱪᱚᱠᱨᱚᱣᱚᱨᱛᱤ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱣᱤᱠᱨᱚᱢᱟᱫᱤᱛᱭᱚ ᱩᱡᱡᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱠᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱤᱛᱠᱟᱹᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱱᱚᱢ ᱣᱤᱠᱨᱚᱢ ᱥᱚᱣᱚᱸᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱪᱚᱠᱨᱚᱣᱚᱨᱛᱤ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱧᱩᱨ ᱣᱤᱠᱨᱚᱢᱟᱫᱤᱛᱭᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱒᱕ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱯᱤᱲᱷᱤ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱨᱚᱯᱚᱛᱤ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱣᱤᱨ ᱢᱟᱞᱣᱟ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱵᱷᱚᱡᱽ ᱮᱱᱟᱭ᱾

ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱨᱚᱯᱚᱛᱤ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱡᱚᱜᱽᱫᱮᱣ ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱩᱡᱽᱭᱚᱸᱭᱟᱫᱤᱯ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱭᱚ ᱩᱡᱽᱡᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱚᱨ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱥᱠᱟᱛᱤ ᱣᱟᱸᱠᱚᱞ ᱟᱭᱚ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱡᱟᱜᱽᱫᱮᱣ ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱨ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ᱾ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱡᱟᱜᱽᱫᱮᱣ ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱨ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱤᱨᱟᱹᱞ ᱯᱤᱲᱷᱤ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱨᱚᱯᱚᱛᱤ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱵᱟᱦᱚᱲᱫᱮᱣ ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱨ ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱣᱤᱠᱨᱚᱢ ᱥᱚᱣᱚᱸᱛ ᱑᱑᱘᱓ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱮᱨᱟᱰᱩ (ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱷᱟᱡᱩᱨᱟᱦᱚ ᱵᱟᱲᱢᱮᱨ) ᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱣᱤᱠᱨᱚᱢ ᱥᱚᱸᱣᱚᱛ ᱑᱑᱙᱖ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱚᱦᱟᱲᱨᱟᱣ ᱯᱚᱨᱢᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱨ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱵᱟᱲᱢᱮᱨ ᱚᱪᱚ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟᱭ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱱᱤᱛᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟ-ᱟ᱾ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱨᱩᱣᱟ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱛᱮ ᱜᱚᱡᱽ ᱮᱱᱟᱭ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱩᱱᱤᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱨᱚᱯᱚᱛᱤ ᱪᱟᱦᱟᱲᱨᱟᱣ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱲᱢᱮᱨ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱕᱐ ᱠᱚᱥ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱤᱱ ᱥᱤᱣᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱱᱟᱢᱟᱠ ᱡᱟᱭᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟᱭ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱱᱤᱛᱟᱝ (ᱵᱟᱲᱫᱚᱨ ᱥᱤᱣ ᱣᱤᱫᱷᱟᱱᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱡᱟᱭᱜᱟ) ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱟ᱾ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱚᱸᱣᱚᱨ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱥᱟᱠᱛᱤ ᱥᱪᱪᱤᱭᱟᱭ ᱟᱭᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ( ᱚᱥᱤᱭᱟᱸ, ᱠᱮᱨᱟᱰᱲᱩ) ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱠᱩᱲᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱥᱟᱸᱠᱷᱞᱟ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱛ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱣᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱭᱚ ᱡᱟᱺᱜᱩᱞᱫᱮᱥ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱝ ᱤᱡ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱣᱤᱠᱨᱚᱢ ᱥᱚᱸᱣᱚᱛ ᱑᱒᱙᱒ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱸᱫᱷ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱬᱛᱤ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱡᱩᱲᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱲᱦᱟᱹᱭ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱡᱤᱛᱠᱟᱹᱨ ᱞᱮᱱᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱚᱛᱮᱠᱚᱴ ( ᱠᱮᱞᱟᱥ ᱠᱚᱴ) ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱢᱩᱜᱚᱞ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱠ ᱨᱚᱛᱟ ᱵᱟᱫᱥᱟᱦ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱣᱤᱨᱱᱟᱛᱷ ᱟᱜ ᱟᱥᱤᱥ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱢᱩᱜᱚᱞ ᱨᱟᱛᱛᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱚᱡᱽ ᱮᱱᱟᱭ᱾

ᱟᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱛᱷᱟᱨᱯᱟᱨᱠᱚᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱢᱚᱨᱠᱚᱴ ᱟᱜ ᱠᱤᱞᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱟᱹᱣ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ᱾ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱩᱸᱣᱟᱨ ᱪᱟᱠᱫᱮᱣ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱩᱸᱣᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱩᱸᱣᱟᱨ ᱫᱩᱫᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱜᱤᱫᱟᱹᱨ ᱨᱟᱬᱟ ᱢᱟᱦᱮᱱᱫᱨᱚ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱥᱚᱲᱷᱟ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟᱭ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱩᱞᱟᱹᱲ ᱫᱩᱯᱩᱞᱟᱹᱲ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱢᱩᱢᱚᱞᱼ ᱢᱚᱦᱮᱸᱫᱨᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱛᱷᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ᱾

ᱥᱤᱵᱤ

ᱥᱤᱵᱤ (ᱵᱟᱞᱚᱪᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱨᱫᱩ سِبی) ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱝᱢᱟ ᱥᱤᱣᱤ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱞᱚᱪᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢ᱾ᱫ ᱵᱟᱡᱟ ᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱵᱤ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱳ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱟᱹᱤᱥ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱚᱦᱥᱤᱞ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱪᱤᱞᱟᱨᱟᱭ

ᱪᱤᱞᱟᱨᱟᱭ ᱥᱮ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱪᱤᱞᱟᱨᱟᱭ চিলাৰায় বা বীৰ চিলাৰায়ৰ (ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ: Chilarai, ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ:1510 - ᱜᱚᱡ:1571)ᱟᱜ ᱟᱥᱚᱞ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱩᱠᱞᱚ ᱫᱣᱚᱡᱽ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱟ।ᱟᱯᱟᱛᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱮᱞ ᱥᱟᱭᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚᱢᱚᱛᱟ ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱴᱷᱤ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱵᱟᱵᱟᱱᱫᱷᱟᱣᱤᱡ ᱵᱤᱥᱣᱚ ᱥᱤᱝᱦᱚ , ᱮᱝᱜᱟᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱫᱽᱢᱚᱵᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱫᱟᱛ ᱱᱚᱨᱚᱱᱟᱨᱟᱭᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ। ᱱᱚᱨᱚᱱᱟᱨᱟᱭᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱜᱟ.ᱠᱷᱩᱲ ᱯᱷᱟ.ᱫᱽ ᱟᱜ-ᱭᱩᱨᱤᱡ-ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱡᱟᱱᱟ। ᱱᱩᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱞ ᱛᱟᱦᱟ ᱠᱩᱬᱤᱫ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱵᱟ.ᱭᱨᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱴᱷᱮᱱᱮ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱪᱤᱞᱟᱨᱟᱭ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱭ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ। ᱪᱤᱞᱟᱨᱟᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱮᱣᱟᱱ ᱥᱮ ᱢᱟᱱᱛᱟᱨᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱚ'ᱭ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱪᱤᱞᱟᱨᱟᱭ ᱫᱮᱣᱟᱱ ᱦᱚ'ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱭ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱱᱟ। ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱵᱟᱨᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱥ.ᱲᱦᱟ.ᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱟ.ᱠᱷᱩᱲᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱠᱚᱪ ᱯᱷᱟ.ᱫᱽ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱤᱭᱟ, ᱠᱟᱥᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱦᱩᱢ ᱯᱷᱟ.ᱫᱽ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱞᱟ.ᱲᱦᱟ.ᱭ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ।

ᱪᱩᱣᱟᱰᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ

ᱪᱩᱣᱟᱰᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱪᱷᱮ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱩᱞᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱞᱟᱦᱟᱛᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱠᱩᱥᱴᱤᱭᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱵᱷᱤᱛᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱞᱟᱦᱟᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱫᱤᱭᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱮᱨᱤᱥᱴᱚᱴᱚᱞ

ᱮᱨᱤᱥᱴᱚᱴᱚᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱜᱨᱤᱠ ᱧᱮᱱᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ. (ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱚᱥᱚᱯᱷᱚᱨ), ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ., ᱟᱨ ᱥᱚᱢᱫᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟ.ᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱤᱱᱟ.ᱝ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤᱭ ᱚᱞᱼᱛᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱮᱨᱤᱥᱴᱚᱴᱚᱞ ᱯᱞᱮᱴᱳ ᱭᱤᱡ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫᱤᱭᱟ. ᱟᱨ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱡᱤᱛᱠᱟ.ᱨᱤᱭᱟ. ᱥᱤᱠᱚᱱᱫᱚᱨ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱱᱤᱡ ᱜᱩᱨᱩᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱮᱨᱤᱥᱴᱚᱴᱚᱞ ᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱓᱘᱔ ᱵᱤ. ᱥᱤ. ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱤᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱫᱚᱨᱮᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱦᱴᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱴᱟᱜᱤᱨᱟ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱞᱮᱠᱡᱟᱱᱰᱟᱨ (ᱥᱤᱠᱚᱱᱫᱚᱨ) ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱱᱤᱡ ᱜᱚᱲᱚᱢ ᱦᱟᱲᱟᱢ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱦᱟ.ᱠᱤᱢ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮᱭ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱚᱞᱼᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱮᱢᱟᱭ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟ.ᱱ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱞᱚᱜᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱷᱟ.ᱨᱛᱤᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱵᱤᱫᱟ.ᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱗ ᱵᱚᱨᱥᱚ ᱵᱚᱭᱚᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱜᱟ.ᱰᱤᱭᱟ.ᱱ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱨᱟ. ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱵᱣᱚᱫᱷᱤᱠ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱮᱛᱷᱮᱱᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱷᱮᱡᱟ ᱠᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱟ. ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱩᱨᱤ

ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱳᱰᱤᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱠᱩᱢᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱮᱰᱠᱣᱟᱴᱚᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱚᱝᱜᱚᱯᱥᱟᱜᱚᱨ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱵᱷᱩᱵᱽᱱᱮᱥᱚᱨ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱖᱐ ᱠᱤᱞᱚ ᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ (᱓᱗ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ) ᱥᱟᱺᱜᱤᱧ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱜᱚᱱᱱᱟᱛᱷ ᱢᱩᱫᱽᱨᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ ᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱟᱠᱟᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱱᱭᱟᱹ ᱢᱩᱲᱩᱛ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱷᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱜᱚᱱᱱᱟᱛᱷ ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱪᱟᱢᱯᱟᱴᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱨᱤᱠᱷᱮᱛᱨᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱚᱜᱚᱱᱱᱟᱛᱷ ᱢᱩᱫᱽᱨᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱚᱰᱚᱫᱮᱣᱲᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱘᱐᱓ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱴᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱷᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱢᱩᱫᱽᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱸᱜᱽᱨᱟᱹᱡᱽ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱵᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱩᱫᱽᱨᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱤᱛ ᱵᱤᱦᱤᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱚᱡᱚᱯᱚᱛᱤ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣ ᱵᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱦᱟᱹᱡᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱩᱫᱽᱨᱤ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩ ᱢᱚᱴᱷᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱟᱜ ᱦᱨᱤᱫᱚᱭ (HRIDAY) ᱡᱚᱡᱽᱱᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱪᱤᱱᱦᱟᱹᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱵᱟᱨᱚᱵᱟᱹᱴᱤ ᱵᱟᱡᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱰᱮᱦᱨᱟᱰᱩᱱ

ᱰᱮᱦᱨᱟᱰᱩᱱ (ᱩᱪᱨᱟ.ᱣ ᱺ ᱤᱸᱜᱽᱞᱤᱥ ᱛᱮ Dehradun), ᱰᱮᱦᱨᱟᱰᱩᱱ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝᱥᱟᱲᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱒᱓᱐ ᱠᱤ.ᱢᱤ. ᱥᱟᱺᱜᱤᱧ ᱰᱩᱱ ᱜᱷᱟ.ᱴᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱚᱥᱠᱚᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱐᱐᱐ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱩᱛᱚᱨ ᱯᱨᱚᱫᱮᱥ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱦᱟ.ᱴᱤᱧ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱤᱱ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱩᱛᱚᱨᱟᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱱᱟᱫᱚ ᱩᱛᱚᱨᱟᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ (ᱩᱱ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱩᱛᱚᱨᱟᱧᱪᱚᱞ) ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱰᱮᱦᱨᱟᱰᱩᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱟᱬᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ, ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ, ᱞᱟᱠᱪᱟᱨ, ᱥᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹᱛ ᱪᱚᱨᱚᱠ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱞᱟᱯᱷᱟᱝ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ

ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱥᱮ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱟᱹᱠᱷᱤᱱ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱮᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤᱛᱮᱛ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱲᱠᱩ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ᱾ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟᱱ (constitution) ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱚᱱᱚᱯᱨᱚᱡᱟᱛᱳᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱯᱟᱹᱪᱷᱤᱢ, ᱩᱛᱟᱹᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱵᱽ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ, ᱫᱟᱹᱠᱷᱤᱱ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱵᱽ ᱥᱮᱡ ᱢᱤᱭᱟᱱᱢᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱹᱠᱷᱤᱱ coastal ᱥᱮᱡ ᱵᱚᱝᱜᱚᱯᱚᱥᱟᱜᱚᱨ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱑᱙᱗᱑ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱲᱦᱟᱹᱭ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱯᱷᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱞᱟᱦᱟᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱵᱽ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱮᱛ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ᱾

ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱲᱠᱩ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱱ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱹᱞᱠᱟᱹ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱘ ᱡᱟᱜᱟᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱭᱟ ᱛᱚᱵᱮ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱛ ᱥᱮ ᱦᱟᱥᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱙᱔ ᱡᱟᱜᱟᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱭᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢᱨᱮ ᱑᱖ ᱠᱳᱴᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱳᱣᱟ᱾ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱙᱘% ᱦᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱮ

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