Kubereka mwana

Template:Infobox medical condition Mawu akuti kubereka mwana, omwenso ndi ofanana ndi akutiubereki, amatanthauza mapeto a mimba kapena pakati ndipo mwana m'modzikapena angapo abadwa kuchokera m'chiberekero cha mayi.[1] M'chaka cha 2015, padziko lonse pansi panabadwa ana pafupifupi 135 miliyoni.[2] Ana pafupifupi 15 miliyoni anabadwa milungu 37 asanathe,[3] ndipo ana oyambira pa 3 mpaka 12 peresenti anabadwa patadutsa milungu 42.[4] M'mayiko olemera ana ambiri amabadwira kuchipatala,[5][6] pomwe m'mayiko amene akukwera kumene ana ambiri amabadwira panyumba mothandizidwa ndi azamba.[7]

Njira yofala kwambiri yoberekera mwana ndi yomwe mwana amatuluka m'njira yachibadwa.[8] Pamakhala magawo atatu kuti mwana abadwe m'njira imeneyi: kuchepa kwa khomo lachiberekero ndi kutseguka kwa khomo lachiberekero, ndiponso kubadwa kwa mwana, ndiponso kutuluka kwa thumba limene munali mwana.[9] Gawo loyambali nthawi zambiri limachitika kwa maola oyambira pa 12 mpaka 19, gawo lachiwiri limachitika kwa nthawi yoyambira pa maminitsi 20 mpaka maola awiri, ndipo gawo lachitatu limachitika kwa maminitsi 5 mpaka kufika pa maminitsi 30.[10] Gawo loyambali limayamba ndi kupweteka kwa m'mimba kapena msana kwa masekandi 30 ndipo izi zimachitika pa maminitsi 10 mpaka 30 aliwonse.[9] M'kupita kwa nthawi, ululuwu umachitika pafupipafupi komanso umawonjezereka.[10] M'gawo lachiwiri, minofu imayamba kukungika ndipo imatha kuyamba kukankha mwanayo kuti atuluke.[10] M'gawo lachitatu kumugwira kapena kumusisita pamchomba mayiyo kwa nthawi ndithu kuti azimvako bwino.[11] Pali njira zambiri zimene zingathandize kuti mayi asamve kwambiri ululu monga kumuthandiza kuti mtima wake ukhale m'malo, kumupatsa mankhwala ochepetsa ululu, ndiponso kumuika timiyala tosalala pamsana.[10]

Ana ambiri akamabadwa, mutu ndi umene umayambirira kutuluka; komabe ana 4 pa 100 alionse, miyendo kapena matako ndi amene amayambirira kutuluka, ndipo zimenezi zimatchedwa kubadwa koyambira kumunsi.[10][12] Mayi akayamba kumva ululu woti akhoza kubereka, palibe vuto lililonse ngati atasankha kuti adye chakudya kapena kuyendayenda, koma mayi wotere salimbikitsidwa kuti ayambe kukankha kuti mwana atuluke kapena kuti mutu wa mwana utuluke, ndiponso sibwino kuti pa nthawiyi apatsidwe mankhwala othandiza kuti mwanayo abadwe mosavuta.[13] Ngakhale kuti madokotala ena amakonda kucheka kapena kung'amba njira yoberekera pofuna kuikulitsa, nthawi zambiri zimenezi zimakhala zosafunika.[10] Mu 2012, amayi pafupifupi 23 miliyoni anabereka powachita opaleshoni.[14] Nthawi zambiri madokotala amatha kuona kuti opaleshoni ikufunika ngati m'mimba mwa mayiyo muli mapasa, mwana wosabadwayo akuoneka kuti ali ndi mavuto ambiri, kapena ngati miyendo kapena matako a mwanaya ndi amene angayambirire kutuluka.[10] Ngati mayi wabereka m'njira imeneyi, pangatenge nthawi yaitali kuti chilonda chake chipole bwinobwino.[10]

Chaka chilichonse, amayi pafupifupi 500,000 amamamwalira ndi mavuto okhudzana ndi uchembere imfa zauchembere, ndipo amayi 7 miliyoni amakhala ndi mavuto aakulu osatherapo, komanso amayi 50 miliyoni amakhala ndi mavuto ena.[15] Ochuluka mwa mavuto amenewa amachitika kwa amayi a m'mayiko amene akukwera kumene.[15] Ena mwa mavuto amene amayiwa amakumana nawo amakhala kusalandira thandizo loyenera pobereka, kutaya magazi ambiri, kukomoka, ndiponso kutenga matenda ena chifukwa chosasamaliridwa bwino pobereka.[15] Ndipo mwana amene akubadwayo amatha kukhala ndi mavuto ena, monga kubanika.[16]

Malifalensi

  1. Martin, Elizabeth. Concise Colour Medical Dictionary (in English). Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 9780199687992.
  2. "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. July 11, 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  3. "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  4. Buck, Germaine M.; Platt, Robert W. (2011). Reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780199857746.
  5. Co-Operation, Organisation for Economic; Development (2009). Doing better for children. Paris: OECD. p. 105. ISBN 9789264059344.
  6. Olsen, O; Clausen, JA (12 September 2012). "Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (9): CD000352. PMID 22972043.
  7. Fossard, Esta de; Bailey, Michael (2016). Communication for Behavior Change: Volume lll: Using Entertainment–Education for Distance Education. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9789351507581. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  8. Memon, HU; Handa, VL (May 2013). "Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders". Women's health (London, England). 9 (3): 265–77, quiz 276-7. PMID 23638782.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Birth". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6 ed.). Columbia University Press. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-30 from Encyclopedia.com. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 "Pregnancy Labor and Birth". Women's Health. September 27, 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  11. McDonald, SJ; Middleton, P; Dowswell, T; Morris, PS (11 July 2013). "Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD004074. PMID 23843134.
  12. Hofmeyr, GJ; Hannah, M; Lawrie, TA (21 July 2015). "Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD000166. PMID 26196961.
  13. Childbirth: Labour, Delivery and Immediate Postpartum Care (in English). World Health Organization. 2015. p. Chapter D. ISBN 978-92-4-154935-6. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  14. Molina, G; Weiser, TG; Lipsitz, SR; Esquivel, MM; Uribe-Leitz, T; Azad, T; Shah, N; Semrau, K; Berry, WR; Gawande, AA; Haynes, AB (1 December 2015). "Relationship Between Cesarean Delivery Rate and Maternal and Neonatal Mortality". JAMA. 314 (21): 2263–70. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15553. PMID 26624825.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Education material for teachers of midwifery : midwifery education modules (PDF) (2nd ed.). Geneva [Switzerland]: World Health Organisation. 2008. p. 3. ISBN 978-92-4-154666-9.
  16. Martin, Richard J.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Walsh, Michele C. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 116. ISBN 9780323295376.
Matenda a Zika

Matenda a Zika (omwe amadziwikanso kuti matenda a vairasi ya Zika) ndi matenda omwe amayambitsidwa ndi vairasi yotchedwa Zika.Nthawi zambiri kachirombo koyambitsa matendawa kakalowa m'thupi, munthuyo sasonyeza zizindikiro zilizonse, ndipo ngati angasonyeze, zizindikirozo sizikhala zodetsa nkhawa ndipo zingakhale zofanana ndi zipere za pakhungu.Zizindikiro zina zingakhale kuphwanya kwa thupi, ndi kufiira kwa maso, ndi mumfundo za mafupa ndiponso, zilonda za pakhungu. Nthawi zambiri zizindikiro zimenezi zimaoneka kwa masiku osapitirira 7. Padakalipano, palibe umboni wosonyeza kuti munthu winawake anafa tizilombo ta matendawa titangolowa kumene m'thupi. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda a Zika tikalowa m'thupi timathanso kuyambitsa matenda otchedwa Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS).Matenda a Zika amafalitsidwa kwambiri ndi udzudzu wotchedwa Aedes. Matendawa alinso m'gulu la matenda opatsirana pogonana chifukwa munthu yemwe ali nawo angapatsire mnzake amene akugonana naye, komanso njira ina imene matendawa amafalikira ndi kuikidwa magazi a munthu wina. Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tikalowa m'thupi la mayi wapakati, mayiyo amatha kupititsa padera kapenanso kubereka mwana wolumala. Madokotala akafuna kudziwa ngati munthu ali ndi tizilomboti m'thupi mwake, amafunika kumuyeza magazi, mkodzo kapenanso malovu, ndiponso amaunika RNA ya munthuyo.Njira imodzi yopewera matendawa ndi kudziteteza kuti musalumidwe ndi udzudzu m'madera amene kuli matendawa, ndipo njira ina ndi kugwiritsa ntchito makondomu moyenerera pogonana. Mungapewe kulumidwa ndi udzudzu ngati mumadzola mafuta othamangitsa udzudzu, kuvala zovala zimene zingakutetezeni kuti udzudzu usakulumeni, kugona muneti, ndi kukwirira maenje kapena zinthu zina zimene mungamaime madzi n'kumachititsa kuti udzudzu uziswanano. Padakalipano palibe katemera yemwe angathandize bwinobwino kupewa matendawa. Akuluakulu oona zaumoyo amalimbikitsa kuti azimayi a m'madera amene mwabuka mliri wa Zika mu 2015–16, apewe kutenga pakati ndipo azimayi amene ali ndi pakati, asamapite kumadera amene kwabuka mliri wa matendawa. Ngakhale kuti palibe mankhwala enieni ochiritsa matendawa, mankhwala a paracetamol (acetaminophen) amathandiza kuchepetsa zizindikiro zake. Ndipo sikawirikawiri kuti anthu amene ali ndi matendawa afike pogonekedwa m'chipatala.Kachirombo komwe kamayambitsa matendawa kanatulukiridwa koyamba mu 1947. Ndipo nthawi yoyamba yodziwika bwino imene mliri wa matendawa unabuka ndi m'chaka cha 2007 ku Federated States of Micronesia. Pomafika mu January 2016, matendawa anali akupezeka m'madera 20 a ku North ndi South America. Matendawa akupezekanso ku Africa, Asia ndi kuzilumba zina za kunyanja ya Pacific. Chifukwa cha mliri wamatendawu womwe unabuku ku Brazil mu 2015, Bungwe Loona za Umoyo Padziko Lonse, mu February 2016 linanena kuti vutoli ndi Lokhudza Aliyense ndipo M'pofunika Kuti Mayiko Onse Agwirane Manja Kuti Tithane Nalo.

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