European Union

European Union (kufotokoza: EU) ndi mgwirizano wa mayiko 28 ku Ulaya, unayamba mu 1957 monga European Economic Community (EEC). Lakhazikitsa malo amodzi azachuma ndi malamulo a ku Ulaya omwe amalola nzika za mayiko a EU kuti azisunthira ndi kugulitsa m'mayiko ena a EU monga momwe amachitira okha. Maiko khumi ndi asanu ndi anayi a maikowa amalinso nawo ndalama zomwezo: euro.

Pangano la Lisbon ndilo pangano laposachedwa lomwe likunena momwe mgwirizanowu ukugwiritsidwira ntchito. Chiwalo chilichonse cha boma chinasainika kuti chinene kuti aliyense adagwirizana ndi zomwe akunena. Chofunika koposa, chimati ntchito (("mphamvu") ogwirizanitsa ayenera kuchitira mamembala ndi ntchito zomwe ayenera kuchita. Mamembala asankha momwe bungwe liyenera kukhalira ndi kuvota kapena kutsutsana.

Cholinga cha EU ndicho kubweretsa mayiko awo omwe akugwirizana nawo ndikulemekeza ufulu wa anthu ndi demokalase. Zimachititsa izi ndi chizoloŵezi chofala cha pasipoti, malamulo wamba okhudza malonda okondana wina ndi mzake, mgwirizano wokhudzana ndi malamulo, ndi mgwirizano wina. Ambiri amodzi amagwiritsa ntchito ndalama zofanana (euro) ndipo ambiri amalola anthu kuyenda kuchokera ku dziko lina kupita kudziko popanda kusonyeza pasipoti.

Mbiri

Pambuyo pa nkhondo yachiwiri ya padziko lonse, mayiko a ku Ulaya ankafuna kukhala mwamtendere pamodzi ndi kuthandizana chuma. M'malo molimbana ndi malasha ndi zitsulo, mayiko oyambirira (West) Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, ndi Luxembourg anapanga bungwe limodzi la European Coal and Steel mu 1952.

Mu 1957 mu mzinda wa Italy wa Rome, mayiko omwe adagwirizanitsa nawo adayina pangano lina ndikupanga European Economic Community. Tsopano unali mudzi wa malasha, zitsulo ndi malonda. Kenaka anasintha dzina ku European Community.

Mu 1993, ndi Pangano la Maastricht linasintha dzina lake ku European Union. Tsopano mayiko omwe ali m'bungwe amagwira ntchito pamodzi osati ndale komanso chuma (malasha, zitsulo ndi malonda), komanso ndalama, chilungamo (malamulo), ndi mayiko ena. Ndi mgwirizano wa Schengen, mayiko 22 a EU adatsegula malire awo, kotero kuti tsopano anthu angathe kuyenda kuchokera kudziko lina popanda pasipoti kapena khadi lachinsinsi. Tsopano kale mayiko 16 amembala adasintha ndalama zawo zadziko ndi euro. Mayiko 10 atsopano adakhala mamembala a EU mu 2004, ena awiri adakhala mamembala mu 2007, ndipo 1 ena mu 2013. Lero pali mayiko 28 omwe ali nawo mamembala onse.

Kusuntha kwaulere

Munthu yemwe ali nzika ya dziko la European Union akhoza kukhala ndi kugwira ntchito m'mayiko ena 27 omwe alibe chilolezo chogwira ntchito kapena visa. Mwachitsanzo, munthu wina wa ku France akhoza kusamukira ku Greece kukagwira ntchito kumeneko, kapena kuti azikhala komweko, ndipo iye sakusowa chilolezo kuchokera ku ulamuliro ku Greece.

Mofananamo, zopangidwa mu dziko limodzi likhoza kugulitsidwa ku dziko lina lirilonse popanda zilolezo zapadera kapena misonkho yowonjezera. Pachifukwa ichi, mamembalawo amavomereza malamulo pa chitetezo cha mankhwala - akufuna kudziwa kuti mankhwala opangidwa m'dziko lina adzakhala otetezeka ngati akadakhala ngati apangidwa okha.

Brexit

Pa June 23, 2016, UK adachita zionetsero zokhuza ngati ziyenera kukhala ku EU kapena kusiya. Ambiri [52% mpaka 48%] akukondedwa kuchoka.[1] Britain kuchoka ku EU nthawi zambiri imatchedwa Brexit.

Boma la UK linayambitsa "Article 50" ya Mgwirizano wa European Union (Mgwirizano wa Lisbon) pa 29 March 2017.[2] Izi zinayambitsa kukambirana ndi mamembala ena a EU potsata. Mndandanda wa zokambiranazi ndi zaka ziwiri, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti UK adzakhalabe membala wa EU mpaka March 2019.

Zolemba

  1. "Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU".
  2. Laura Kuenssberg. "'No turning back' on Brexit as Article 50 triggered". BBC News. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
Europe

Europe (Listeni / jʊərəp / kapena / jɜrəp /) ndi kontinenti kuti zizindikiro ndi westernmost chilumba cha Eurasia. Anthu ambiri anagawa ku Asia ndi okulira limagaŵikira a Ural ndi Caucasus mapiri a Ural mtsinje, ndi Caspian ndi Black Pacific, ndi Bosporus waterway wolumikiza Black ndi Aegean Pacific.

Europe ndi mphepete mwa Arctic Ocean kumpoto, nyanja ya Atlantic kumadzulo, nyanja ya Mediterranean kum'mwera, ndi Black Sea ndi m'pamene madzi ndi kum'mwera. Koma malire a Europe-chiphunzitso zinayambira ku zachikhalidwe yamakedzana-ndi lachabechabe, monga makamaka physiographic akuti "kontinenti" komanso yophatikiza chikhalidwe ndi andale.

Europe ndi yachiwiri zing'onozing'ono Africa ndi padziko area, zofunda za 10.180.000 sikweya makilomita (3,930,000 m'litali mi) kapena 2% ya Dziko lapansi ndi za 6.8% ya m'dziko lake m'deralo. Ya ku Ulaya pafupifupi 50 m'mayiko, Russia ndi yaikulu kwambiri onse m'deralo ndi anthu, nasenza 40% Africa (ngakhale dziko lili m'dera ku Ulaya ndi Asia), pamene Vatican City ndi laling'ono. Europe ndi lachitatu-koposa mitundu Africa pambuyo Asia ndi Africa, ndi anthu 739-743 miliyoni kapena 11% ya padziko lonse. The ambiri amangoti ntchito ndalama ndi yuro.

Europe, makamaka wakale Greece, ndi adzabadwira Azungu. Iwo ankasewera ndi chimaonetsa udindo padziko lonse zochitika kuyambira pa 15 m'ma onwards, makamaka pambuyo pa chiyambi cha colonialism. Pakati pa 16 ndi 20 zaka European mitundu ankalamulira panthawi zosiyanasiyana America, ambiri Africa, Oceania, ndi namtindi wa Asia. The Industrial anthu anaukira, omwe anayamba mu Great Britain kuzungulira kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 18, chinkapangitsa kwakukulu chuma, chikhalidwe, komanso kusintha Western Europe, ndipo kenako anthu atenge dziko. Zaziwerengero kukula anatanthauza kuti, ndi 1900, Europe a gawo la padziko lonse 25%.

Zonse zapadziko lonse makamaka kuyang'ana pa Europe, anapereka kwambiri kuti kufooka ku Western European lalikulu padziko lapansi ndi m'ma 20 m'ma monga United States ndi Soviet Union anatenga kutchuka. Pa Chidani, Europe unagawidwa m'mphepete mwankhanza pakati NATO kumadzulo ndi Warsaw ke kummawa. European kusakanikirana zinachititsa kuti pakhale la Council of Europe ndi European Union ku Western Europe, ndi amene akhala kuwonjezera kum'mawa kuyambira kusintha zinthu 1989 ndi kugwa kwa Soviet Union mu 1991. The European Union masiku ano ali kukula mphamvu kwa yake membala mayiko. Ambiri European m'mayiko a Schengen Area, amene achotsa malire ndi olowa ndi kutuluka amazilamulira mwa anthu ake.

Europu

Italia

Dziko la Italy ndilo kum'mwera kwa Ulaya ndipo ndi membala wa European Union. Dzina lake lenileni ndi Repubblica Italiana. Mbendera ya Italy ndi yobiriwira, yoyera ndi yofiira. Italy ndi Republican demokarasi ndipo ndi woyambitsa bungwe la European Union. Purezidenti wake Sergio Mattarella ndi nduna yake ndi Giuseppe Conte. Italy nayenso ali membala wa G8, popeza ali ndichisanu ndi chitatu cha Padziko Lonse Padziko Lonse.

Zisanafike 1861, zinali ndi maufumu ang'onoang'ono ndi midzi. Italy yatchuka chifukwa cha vinyo, komanso chakudya chake. Zina mwa zakudya zotchuka kwambiri zimaphatikizapo mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya pasitala, pizza, ndi mphesa. Maolivi amakhalanso odzaza kwambiri mu mbale.

Mzinda wa Rome, womwe ndi likulu la dzikoli, ndi umodzi mwa mizinda yotchuka kwambiri padziko lapansi, chifukwa unali likulu la Ufumu wa Roma. Mizinda ina yotchuka ku Italy ndi Venice, Naples, Genoa, Florence, Palermo, ndi Milan.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom wa Great Britain ndi Northern Ireland, wangoti United Kingdom kapena UK, ndi boma lolamulira ku Northern Europe. Ndi ufumu wadziko lapansi womwe uli ndi mayiko anayi: England, Wales, Scotland ndi Northern Ireland. Ndi membala wa European Union, United Nations, Commonwealth, NATO ndi G8. Ili ndi chuma chachisanu chachikulu padziko lonse lapansi.

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