Encyclopedia

Buku lakuti encyclopedia kapena encyclopaediandilo buku lofotokozera kapena kufotokozera mwachidule zidule za chidziwitso kuchokera kwa nthambi zonse kapena kuchokera ku munda kapena chilango.[1] Mapulogalamu amagawidwa kukhala zigawo kapena zolembedwera zomwe nthawi zambiri zimakonzedweratu ndi alfabheti ndi dzina lachaputala ndi nthawi zina ndi zigawo zosiyana. Zolemba za Encyclopedia ndizowonjezereka komanso zowonjezereka kuposa zomwe ziri muzinenero zambiri. Kawirikawiri, mosiyana ndi zolemba za dikishonale zomwe zimagwiritsa ntchito chidziwitso cha zilankhulo za mawu, monga tanthawuzo, kutchulidwa, kugwiritsa ntchito, ndi mawonekedwe a grammatical, nkhani zolemba mabuku zimagwiritsa ntchito mfundo zeniyeni zokhudzana ndi nkhani yotchulidwa m'nkhani ya mutuwo.

Mapulogalamu ena akhalapo kwa zaka zoposa 2,000 ndipo adasintha kwambiri kuyambira nthawi imeneyo monga chinenero (cholembedwa m'zinenero zamitundu yonse kapena chinenero chamanja), kukula (zochepa kapena zambiri), cholinga (kufotokozera dziko lonse kapena zochepa za chidziwitso) (chidziwitso, chikhalidwe), kuwerenga (maphunziro, chikhalidwe, zofuna, mphamvu), komanso zipangizo zamakono zomwe zimapezeka kuti zikhale ndi zogawira (zolembedwa pamanja, zochepa kapena zazikulu kusindikizidwa, kutulutsa intaneti). Monga gwero lamtengo wapatali la chidziwitso chodalirika chinapangidwa ndi akatswiri, mabaibulo osindikizidwa omwe amapezeka malo otchuka mu makalata, masukulu ndi masukulu ena a maphunziro.

Encyclopedia Britannica (crop)
Encyclopædia Britannica

Zolemba

  1. "Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on August 3, 2007. Glossary of Library Terms. Riverside City College, Digital Library/Learning Resource Center. Retrieved on: November 17, 2007.
Chitsamunda

Chitsamunda ndi liwu lomwe limanena za anthu amene amakhulupilira kuti chikhalidwe ndi zikhulupiliro zawo ndi zapamwamba kuposa za anhu amene anapangidwa chitsamundacho. Mchitidwewu umaphatikizidwa ndi tsankho ndi zikhulupiliro za sayansi zimene zinatchuka mu zaka za m'ma 1800 ndi 1900. Ku mayiko a azungu, zikhulupilirozi zinapangitsa kuti azungu azikhulupilira kuti iwowo ndi apamwamba kuposa anthu ena onse a pa dziko lapansi.

Dziko Lathu

Dziko Lathu kapena Chalo Chatu ndilojekiti ya intaneti yolemba mu chinenero cha Chingerezi yomwe ikulemba zochitika zonse Zambia zokha zokhudzana ndi zochitika zakale ndi zochitika zamakono, makampani, mabungwe, webusaiti, dziko zipilala ndi zinthu zina zofunikira za Zambia. Webusaitiyi ndipanda malipiro: ogwiritsa ntchito samalipiritsa koma angasankhe kupereka ku Chalo Chatu Foundation. Ndi "zotseguka", izi zikutanthawuza kuti aliyense angathe kuzijambula. Ndilo buku lalikulu kwambiri komanso lokhalokha pa intaneti ku Zambia. Dzina la Chalo Chatu likutanthauzira ngati dziko lathu mu chinenero cha Zambiya. Chalo Chatu inayamba pa June 1, 2016 ndi Jason Mulikita. Chalo Chatu ali ndi bungwe la Zambia, Chalo Chatu Foundation, yomwe ili ku Lusaka.

Khate

Khate, lomwenso limatchedwa matenda a Hansen (HD), ndi okhalitsa omwe amayambitsidwa ndi mabakiteriya otchedwaMycobacterium laprae ndiponso Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Kawirikawiri tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tikalowa m'thupi, pamatenga nthawi yombira pa zaka 5 mpaka 20 kuti zizindikiro za matendawa ziyambe kuonekera.Zina mwa zizindikiro zake ndi kutupa kwa malo amene mwadutsa minyewa, kutupa kwa ziwalo zothandiza kupuma, kutupa kwa khungu ndiponso maso. Zimenezi zingachititse kuti wodwalayo asamamve ululu, zomwe zimachititsa kuti azivulala mobwerezabwereza mpaka ziwalo zina kuduka, kapenanso azikhala ndi zolonda zosapola. Nthawi zina wodwalayo amakhala wofooka ndipo saona bwinobwino.Matenda a khate ndi opatsirana. Zikuoneka kuti munthu amene ali ndi matendawa angapatsire ena potsokomola kapena ngati anthu enawo angakhudze mamina a munthuyo. Kawirikawiri anthu osauka ndi amene amadwala khate ndipo zikuoneka kuti amapatsirana kwambiri poyetsemula. Koma mosiyana ndi zimene anthu ambiri amakhulupirira, sikuti matendawa amafalikira kwa anthu ena mosavuta. Matendawa ali m'magulu awiri akuluakulu potengera kuchuluka kwa mtundu wa tizilombo timene tawayambitsa, monga: pauchibacillary ndi multbacillary. Magulu awiri a matendawa amasiyanitsidwa potengera kuchuluka kwa malo otuwa ndiponso malo amene khungu lafa. Ngati nthendayo ili m'gulu la paucibacillary, malo otuwa kapena amene khungu lafa amakhala osapitirira pa 5, ndipo ngati ili m'gulu la multibacillary, malowo amakhala oposa pa 5. Pofuna kutsimikizira ngati munthu ali ndi matendawa, madokotala amayeza kuti aone ngati tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tikupezeka pakhungu la munthuyo kapenanso amayeza DNA yake pogwiritsa ntchito njira yoyezera.Matenda a khate ndi ochiritsika ndipo mankhwala a mitundu ingapo amaphatikizidwa polimbana ndi matendawa. Mankhwala omwe amachiritsa khate la m'gulu la paucibacillary amatchedwa dapsone ndi rifampicin ndipo wodwala amayenera kulandira thandizoli kwa miyezi 6. Pomwe mankhwala a khate la m'gulu la multibacillary ndi rifampicin, dapsone, ndiponso clofazimine ndipo amayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa miyezi 12. Chithandizo cha mankhwala amenewa n'chaulere ndipo chimaperekedwa ndi Bungwe Loona za Umoyo Padziko Lonse. Munthu amene akudwala matendawa angapatsidwenso mankhwala ena osiyanasiyana olimbana ndi mabakiteriya. M'chaka cha 2012, chiwerengero cha anthu odwala khate padziko lonse chinali 89,000, ndipo chiwerengerochi n'chochepa tikayerekezera ndi anthu 5.2 miliyoni omwe anali ndi matendawa m'zaka za m'ma 1980. Ndipo anthu atsopano amene anayamba kudwala matendawa m'chakachi anali 230,000. Ambiri mwa anthu amenewa anali a m'mayiko 16. Pamayiko amenewo, anthu ochuluka zedi kuposa hafu ya anthu atsopano amene anayamba kudwala matendawa anali a ku India. Pa zaka 20 zapitazi, anthu 16 miliyoni padziko lonse achira matenda a khate. Ndipo pafupifupi anthu 200 amapezeka ndi matenda a khate chaka chilichonse m'dziko la United States.Anthu akhala akuvutika ndi matenda a khate kwa zaka masauzande ambirimbiri. Mawu achingelezi amene pa Chichewa tawamasulira kuti khate, anachokera kumawu a Chilatini akuti lepra, omwe amatanthauza "mamba", ndipo mawu akuti "matenda a Hansen" anachokera kudzina la dokotala wotchedwa Gerhard Armauer Hansen. Kutenga anthu odwala khate n'kumawasiya m'nyumba zosungira odwala matendawa kukuchitikabe m'madera ena monga ku India, China, ndiponso ku Africa. Komabe, nyumba zambiri zosungira odwala khate zatsekedwa chifukwa anthu ayamba kuzindikira kuti matendawa sangafalikire kwa anthu ena mwachisawawa.Kuyambira kale kwambiri, anthu akhala a Kusalana ndipo zimenezi zimachititsa kuti anthu ena akaona kuti mwina ali ndi khate, asamapite kuchipatala n'kulandira chithandizo mofulumira. Ndipo ena amaona kuti mawu akuti "wakhate" ndi onyoza, poyerekezera ndi mawu kuti "munthu amene ali ndi vuto la khate". Tsiku Loganizira za Matenda Akhate Padziko Lonse linakhazikitsidwa mu 1954 n'cholinga chothandiza anthu kudziwa zambiri za matendawa.

Kubereka mwana

Template:Infobox medical condition

Mawu akuti kubereka mwana, omwenso ndi ofanana ndi akutiubereki, amatanthauza mapeto a mimba kapena pakati ndipo mwana m'modzikapena angapo abadwa kuchokera m'chiberekero cha mayi. M'chaka cha 2015, padziko lonse pansi panabadwa ana pafupifupi 135 miliyoni. Ana pafupifupi 15 miliyoni anabadwa milungu 37 asanathe, ndipo ana oyambira pa 3 mpaka 12 peresenti anabadwa patadutsa milungu 42. M'mayiko olemera ana ambiri amabadwira kuchipatala, pomwe m'mayiko amene akukwera kumene ana ambiri amabadwira panyumba mothandizidwa ndi azamba.Njira yofala kwambiri yoberekera mwana ndi yomwe mwana amatuluka m'njira yachibadwa. Pamakhala magawo atatu kuti mwana abadwe m'njira imeneyi: kuchepa kwa khomo lachiberekero ndi kutseguka kwa khomo lachiberekero, ndiponso kubadwa kwa mwana, ndiponso kutuluka kwa thumba limene munali mwana. Gawo loyambali nthawi zambiri limachitika kwa maola oyambira pa 12 mpaka 19, gawo lachiwiri limachitika kwa nthawi yoyambira pa maminitsi 20 mpaka maola awiri, ndipo gawo lachitatu limachitika kwa maminitsi 5 mpaka kufika pa maminitsi 30. Gawo loyambali limayamba ndi kupweteka kwa m'mimba kapena msana kwa masekandi 30 ndipo izi zimachitika pa maminitsi 10 mpaka 30 aliwonse. M'kupita kwa nthawi, ululuwu umachitika pafupipafupi komanso umawonjezereka. M'gawo lachiwiri, minofu imayamba kukungika ndipo imatha kuyamba kukankha mwanayo kuti atuluke. M'gawo lachitatu kumugwira kapena kumusisita pamchomba mayiyo kwa nthawi ndithu kuti azimvako bwino. Pali njira zambiri zimene zingathandize kuti mayi asamve kwambiri ululu monga kumuthandiza kuti mtima wake ukhale m'malo, kumupatsa mankhwala ochepetsa ululu, ndiponso kumuika timiyala tosalala pamsana.Ana ambiri akamabadwa, mutu ndi umene umayambirira kutuluka; komabe ana 4 pa 100 alionse, miyendo kapena matako ndi amene amayambirira kutuluka, ndipo zimenezi zimatchedwa kubadwa koyambira kumunsi. Mayi akayamba kumva ululu woti akhoza kubereka, palibe vuto lililonse ngati atasankha kuti adye chakudya kapena kuyendayenda, koma mayi wotere salimbikitsidwa kuti ayambe kukankha kuti mwana atuluke kapena kuti mutu wa mwana utuluke, ndiponso sibwino kuti pa nthawiyi apatsidwe mankhwala othandiza kuti mwanayo abadwe mosavuta. Ngakhale kuti madokotala ena amakonda kucheka kapena kung'amba njira yoberekera pofuna kuikulitsa, nthawi zambiri zimenezi zimakhala zosafunika. Mu 2012, amayi pafupifupi 23 miliyoni anabereka powachita opaleshoni. Nthawi zambiri madokotala amatha kuona kuti opaleshoni ikufunika ngati m'mimba mwa mayiyo muli mapasa, mwana wosabadwayo akuoneka kuti ali ndi mavuto ambiri, kapena ngati miyendo kapena matako a mwanaya ndi amene angayambirire kutuluka. Ngati mayi wabereka m'njira imeneyi, pangatenge nthawi yaitali kuti chilonda chake chipole bwinobwino.Chaka chilichonse, amayi pafupifupi 500,000 amamamwalira ndi mavuto okhudzana ndi uchembere imfa zauchembere, ndipo amayi 7 miliyoni amakhala ndi mavuto aakulu osatherapo, komanso amayi 50 miliyoni amakhala ndi mavuto ena. Ochuluka mwa mavuto amenewa amachitika kwa amayi a m'mayiko amene akukwera kumene. Ena mwa mavuto amene amayiwa amakumana nawo amakhala kusalandira thandizo loyenera pobereka, kutaya magazi ambiri, kukomoka, ndiponso kutenga matenda ena chifukwa chosasamaliridwa bwino pobereka. Ndipo mwana amene akubadwayo amatha kukhala ndi mavuto ena, monga kubanika.

Paulo Mtumwi

Paulo Mtumwi (Chilatini: Paulus; Chigiriki: Παῦλος, translit. Paũlus, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 - c 64 kapena 67), amene amadziwika kuti Paulo Woyera komanso wodziwika ndi dzina lake lachiyuda lakuti Saulo wa ku Tariso (Chihebri: שאול התרסי, translit. Sha'ūl ha-Tarsī; Chigiriki: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saũlos Tarseús), anali mtumwi (ngakhale osati mmodzi wa Atumwi khumi ndi awiri) amene adaphunzitsa uthenga wa Khristu ku dziko la zana loyamba.

Wikipedia

Wikipedia ndi ma multilingual, web-based, encyclopedia yaulere yotengera chitsanzo cha zinthu zowonongeka. Ndilo buku lalikulu kwambiri komanso lodziwika bwino lomwe likuwonekera pa intaneti, ndipo ndi imodzi mwa malo otchuka kwambiri ndi Alexa.Zili ndi mwiniwake komanso wothandizidwa ndi Wikimedia Foundation, bungwe la 501 (c) (3) bungwe / bungwe lopanda phindu lomwe limagwira ntchito ndalama zomwe amalandira kuchokera kwa opereka.

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