Ebyobuwangwa (Culture)

Eby’obuwangwa (culture) .Abantu abaasooka babeeranga wamu mu Buwangwa bwabwe era abantu okubeera awamu mu buwangwa bwabwe ye yali engeri y’okukolagana eyasooka.

Omuntu w’obuwangwa teyalina ngabanya mu mirimu ya manyi ate nga ne tekinolgiya gweyakozesanga yali wa wansi nnyo ekyaviirako okuba nti ebikolebwa byali bitono era nga n’omutindo gwabyo gwa wansi.

Buli buwangwa mu lubu lw’omuntu buba n’ebyobuwangwa obweyolekera mu lulimi, kitondekabirungi (art), kkala y’olususu, obuwangwa, enzikiriza, enteekateeka z’entalo, sayansi ne tekinologiya ow’engeri emu oba endala.

i) Olulimi.

Olulimi lweyolekera mu kwogera, okusoma n’okuluwandiika. Essomo ly’olulimi liyitibwa kalinnimi (linguistics). Waliwo ennimi 3,700 ezogerebwa okwetolola ensi. Olulimi olusinga okwogerwa abantu b’obuwangwa bwalwo abanji lukyayina kyokka olusinga okwogerwa abantu ab’enjawaulo mu ensi yonna Lungereza. Wano mu Uganda oluganda lwe lusinga okwogerwa abantu abanji ate mu Afirika ey’Obuvanjuba Luswayiri.

ii) Kitondekabirungi (art).

Kitondekabirungi abaddewo ebbanga lyonna omuntu ly’abaddewo. Kitondekabirungi mulimu ebisiige, ebiwoole, ebifaananyi, emiziki, ennyimba, ebikozesebwa eby’emiziki, nyukutologia (literature) omuli ebitabo, ebitontome, ebikokyo, engero, n’ebirala.

iii) Kkala y’olususu n’obuwangwa. Abantu bawukana okuyita mu kkala y’olususu n’obuwangwa (race and ethnicity).

iv) Eddiini n’enzikiriza. Eddiini kuba kukkiriza mu kubaawo kw’oyo asukkulumye ku bw’omuntu. Entabaganya gy’ekoma okukola okunoonyereza n’okuyitimuka mu sayansi n’okutegeera ekibeezaawo obwengula gy’ekoma okukiraba nti ddala waliwo kagezimunyu omu avunaanyizibwa ku buli kitonde olw’engeri obwengula na buli kitonde gye kisengekeddwaamu mu kibalo egya waggulu ekisukkulumye. Abatanaba kumanya kibalo kibezaawo bwengula be bakkiririza mu bukatonde obw’enjawulo kubanga baba tebannalaba bumu bwa nsengeka ya bwengula.

v) Sayansi ne tekinologia. Tekinologia kikwata ku bintu ebikolebwa abantu okubayamba okukola. Sayansi kikwata ku kutegeera engeri obwengula na buli ekibulimu gye kikola. Okusooka tekinologia yali nga mu ngeri nnyangu nnyo era awataali kuwandiika yatambuzibwanga kwogera, kyokka okuwandiika bwe kwavumbulwa, obunyukufu (literacy) ne butandika era kino kyayamba sayansi ne tekinologia okukulaakulana amangu. Olw’embeera ez’enjawulo abantu ze babeeramu, sayansi ne tekinologia mu ntabaganya ez’enjawulo tebiri kumusinji gwe gumu; obuwangwa obumu bukyaali wansi nnyo mu tekinologia ate obulala bugenze wala nnyo.

vi) Entalo. Okulwana entalo nakyo kintu kya byabuwangwa. Buli buwangwa bwalinanga enteekateeka z’okutabaala abulala okusooka nga bukozesa miggo, mayinja, nvumuulo, butida, n’amafumu. Ennaku zino sayansi okulaakulanyizza ennwana y’entalo. Kati waliwo emundu eziyitibwa emigemera , bomu ya atomu n’eya nyukiria. Kyokka olw’okuba abantu baatirimbulanga abalala awatali kutaliza, Ekibiina ky’Amawanga Amagatte okuva mu 1945 kizze kiteekawo amateeka agafuga entalo.

Tosobola kulaga mubujjuvu byabufuna bwa Buganda nga tolaze kakwaate akaaliwo wakati w’ebyobufuzi, ebyanfuna n’ebyobuwangwa mu Buganda eyedda. Ebintu ebikulu mubyobuwangwa bya Buganda mwalimu bino:

a) Obukulembeze mu bwakabaka ne mu bika

b) Emizizo

c) Emizanyo

d) Ennyimba

e) Amazina

f) Ennyambala

g) Eddagala

h) Okusinza

i) Enkuza y’abaana

j) Empisa gamba nga enjogera, okubuuza, obuyonjo, okwaniriza abagenyi

k) Ebikwate-engero, ebisoko, ebikoco

l) Empisa zo kumikolo nga okufiirwa, okwabya ennyimbe, embaga, okwalula abaana (abalongo)

m) Obulombolombo bw’ebika

n) Ebisaanyizo (virtues) nga obugumiikiriza, obukakkamu, obuvumu, ekisa, obusaasizi obuyambi, amazima, obwenkanya, obuntubulamu, okwekengera, obwegendereza n’obukujjukujja, obuyiiya

Ekinonoozo (Engineering)

Bannasayansi beyambisa "akalombolombo ka sayansi"(the scientific method), nga kanoke kakodyo ke beyambisa nga bakola "okunoonyereza okwa sayansi"(scientific research) ne bavumbula amateeka ga sayansi.

Amateeka ga sayansi gano agaba gavumbuddwa bannasayansi, abaonooza ge banonooza okubaga n'okuzimba ennyanguyirizi oba okukola ennongooosereza ku nsengekera ez'enjawulo.

Omulamwa gwa "ekinonoozo" kivudde mu kugaziya makulu g'ekikolwa eky'okunonooza( to call forth, to apply ). Okusinziira ku Ssekalowooleza Muwanga Charles ,Omunonooza(Engineer) anonooza:

(a) amateeka ga sayansi

(b) Amateeka g'ekibalangulo (mathematics)

(c)Amateka g'essomabuzimbe(Physics)

okusobola okuzimba ennyanguyirizi(machine) oba okukola ennongooserezi(innovations) .

Mu butuufu munnasayansi yeyambisa "akalombolombo ka sayansi"(the scientific method)okusobola okuvumbula amateeka ga sayansi ag'enjawulo .

Amateeka ga sayansi gano n'ekibalangulo abanonooza(engineers) ge banonooza okusobola okukola ebintu eby'enjawulo mu nsi eya tekinologiya(entondekabintu).

Kinonoozo kisonjolwa nga "okunonooza amateeka ga sayansi n'ekibalangulo okuzimba ennyanguyirizi oba okukola enongooserezi"(engineering is the application of the laws of science and mathematics to bulid systems which could be machines or make innovations of any form.

Lwaki Essomo ly’Ekinonoozo liyitibwa “kinonoozo”?

Ennono n’obulombolombo bw’abantu abalina obujajja bwe bumu bye bikola “ebyobuwangwa” (culture). Mu byobuwangwa mubaamu obulombolombo obw’enjawulo.

Bwetudda mu sayansi, ennono za sayansi ge mateeka ga sayansi agakakasibwa akalombolombo ka sayansi (the scientific method).

Ekinonoozo (engineering) n’olwekyo ly’essomo erinonooza amateeka ga sayansi n’amateeka g’ekibalangulo okuzimba ennyanguyirizi oba okukola ennongoosereza mu ensengekera (systems). Ennongoosereza ziyinza okuba mu buzaale bw’ebiramu ng’ebirime.

N’olwekyo tuyinza okwogera ku ekinonoozo ky’obuzaale (genetic engineering) okuyita mu kwekebejja endagabuzaale (genes).

Essomabuzaale (genetics) ly’essomo ly’essomabiramu erinoonyereza ku buzaale (inheritence) bw’ekiramu nga lyekebejja enkolabuzaale (genes), obutaffaali obuvunaanyizibwa ku buzaale bw’ekiramu.

“Abanonooza” (Engineers) beyambisa sayansi n’okubala okugonjoola obukunizo, okukola ennongoosereza oba okutondekawo ebikole ebyetaagisa okugonza obulamu. “Ekinonoozo” (engineering) kyekuusiza ku kunonooza mateeka ga sayansi n’okubala okugonjoola obuzibu obw’ebyetaago by’omuntu okuyita mu kuzimba ennyanguyirizi, ebyobuzimbi, okukola ennongoosereza mu birime oba obuzaale bw’omuntu.

Bannasayansi bakola okunoonyereza nga beyambisa “akalombolombo ka sayansi” (the scientific method) ne bavumbula “amateeka ga sayansi” (laws of science) ate “abanonooza” (engineers) ne banonooza amateeka ga sayansi ago n’amateeka g’okubala okukola ennongoosereza n’ennyanguyirizi. Abanonooza bakola batya ennongoosereza n’ennyanguyirizi? Abanonooza banonooza amateeka ga sayansi, ag'ekibalangulo, n'agessomabuzimbe(Physics) ne:

(i) Babaga (design)

(ii) Bawendowaza (evaluate)

(iii) Bazimba (develop)

(iv) Bagezesa (test)

(v) Bakola enkyusiriza oba ennongoosereza (modify)

(vi) Bapanga (install)

(vii) Bekebejja (inspect)

(viii) N’okufulumya ebitondeko (products) ebya buli kika n’ensengekera zabyo.

Abanonooza era:

(i) Basalawo era ne balaga matiiriyo ki na mitendera ki egyetaagisa okuyitamu okutondeka (to manufacture) ekintu

(ii) Bakola nga bakalabalaba b’entondeka y’ebikole (manufacturing) n’enzimba y’ebitondeko

(iii) Bekebejja ensibuko y’obuzibu obubabubaluseewo mu kipango.

(iv) Bakola okuwabula okw’ekikugu (consultation)

(v) Basomesa amasomo g’ekinonoozo mu matendekero ne settendekero.

Amasomo g’Ekinonoozo (Fields of engineering)

Mu masomo g’ekinonoozo (fields of engineering) milimu gano wansi:

• Ekinonoozo ky’ekitambuzo (mechanical engineering)

• Ekinonoozo ky’amasannyalaze (electrical engineering)

• Ekinonoozo ky’Obuzimbi(civil engineering)

• Ekinonoozo ky’essomabibuuka(Aeronautic engineering)

• Ekinonoozo essomabuziizi (nuclear engineering)

• Ekinonoozo ky’obuzimbe (Structural engineering).

Abanonooza ab’obuzimbe babaga ebibago (frameworks) by’ebizimbe nga ebitimbagano by’ebiyungagano (truss) bya sitiiru atatalagga ow’obusolya bw’ebizimbe okulaba nga biyinza okugumira oba okuwanirira ekinyigirizo (stress) n’embeera z’obudde.

• Ekinonoozo ky’enzijanjabiso(biomedical engineering)

• Ekinonoozo ky’obuzumbe obwebuziba(atomic structure)

• Ekinonoozo kya atomu (atomic structure)

• Ekinonoozo kya kompyuta(computer engineering)

• Ekinonoozo ky’amakolero(industrial engineering)

• Ekinonoozo ky’obutonde bw’ensi(environment engineering)

Ekinonoozo ky’ekitambuzo kye ki?

“Ekitambuzo” (mechanics) kiva mu kigambululo “ekibalo ekitambuza” ebitundu by’ensengekera y’ennyanguyirizi, meaning, “the science and mathematics that leads to the motion of the parts of a machine system”.

“Ekinonoozo eky’ekitambuzo” (Mechanical engineering) ly’erimu ku matabi g’ekinonoozo agaasooka okuviira ddala namuziga ezasooka lwe zaatandika okukozesebwa nga zokyebwa ku kikono okukola ekigaali ekiwaluzi (cart) mu Bulaaya.

Mu byafaayo, omuntu azze avumbula n’okuzimba ebikozesebwa n’ennyanguyirizi enzibu n’enzibuwavu buli olukedde, okusobola okulongoosa embeera y’obulamu bwe.

“Ekinonoozo ky’ekitambuzo” kyatandikira eyo mu Buyonaani ne China nga beyambisa kalinjola (screws), ebitondekamaanyi eby’omukka ogw’amazzi (steam engine), okukola amasaawa (clocks), n’ebiwangagano (gears) ebyasooka.

Ennyanguyirizi nnyingi ze tulaba buli lunaku, omuli ebidduka n’ebikozesebwa, bizimbibwa abanonooza ab’ekitambuzo (mechanical engineers) nga banonooza amateeka ga sayansi n’ekibalangulo. Mu ngeri ennyangu, “ekinonoozo eky’ekitambuzo” kikola ku buli kintu ekitambula oba ekiva mu kifo.

Okutambula kuyinza okuleetebwawo emifumbi mu bantu oba mu nsolo, obwoki, n’akanyigirizi k’entabamuliro (combustion pressure), enfuumo y’amazzi, omugendo gw’amasannyalaze ne magineeti (electromagnetism), essikirizo, oba seppulingi ez’enjawulo.

“Omunonoza” (engineer) alina okuba omunnyonnyofu mu sayansi w’okuva (the science of motion) ow’enjawulo n’ennyanguyirizi ezisookerwako (basic or simple machines) okusobola okuzimba ennyanguyirizi enzibuwavu okusingawo (more complex machines).

Ekyokulabirako, mu motoka “ekitandiso” (starter motor) kikozesa mugendo gwa “masannyalaze ne magineeti” (electromagnetism), ekitondekamaanyi kyeyambisa akanyigirizi k’entabamuliro akabugaana okuva mu kwokya amafuta, siteeringi, ebiziiza, okunokoolayo ebimu.

Abanonooza ab'ekitambuzo(Mechanical Engineers)

Abanonooza ab’ekitambuzo bazimba ebintu ng’ennyanguyirizi n’ebikozesebwa ebigonza embeera z’abantu. Ekigambo ekikulu wano kwe “kuzimba”.

“Abanonooza eb’ekitambuzo” (mechanical engineers) beyambisa buli kibaddewo eky’ekuusiza ku kitambuzo (mechanics) omuli namuziga, ebikono, ensuubo, kalinjola, seppulingi, ne pata okukola ennyanguyirizi nga emotoka, ennyanguyirizi z’amalimiro (farm machinery), ebikozesebwa awaka, obukokolo (robots), n’ebikozesebwa mu makolero.

Abanonooza era babaga ebitundu by’ebipango (sub-assemblies) eby’ennyanguyirizi ezo, omuli n’ensengekera ezizitetenkanya (control systems), ebikozesebwa, n’ebitundu by’ennyanguyirizi kinnakimu.

Abanonooza bakozesa matiiriyo ez’enjawulo nga ebyuma, “ebyokubumba” (ceramics), ebya pulasitika n’ebirala. Kyetaagisa abanonooza okumanya enneeyisa oba ebinnyonnyozo bya matiiriyo ez’enjawulo.

Okumanya “ebinnyonnyozo”(properties) ebya matiiriyo zino, gamba ng’obukwafuwavu (density) bwazo, obugumu, amaleego (tensile strength), embavu eyeweta, kiyamba abanonooza okubaza engeri matiiriyo zino gye zineeyisaamu mu mbeera ez’okunyigiriza nga ekikkatiro, kawereege, okuweta oba okunyooleza awamu ne mu mbeera z’obudde ez’enjawulo eza tempulikya, akanyigirizi, ggaasi ezifumya (corrosive gases), ebikulukusi (liquids) n’olubugumu (radiation). Era balina okubaza engeri matiiriyo gye zinaaberamu oluvannyuma lw’ekiseera ekiwanvu.

Abanonooza balina okuba n’obumanyirivu okuva mu masomo g’ekinonoozo ag’enjawulo, omuli “ekinonoozo eky’ebizimbibwa” (civil engineering), ekinonoozo ky’enzirusi ez’obwengula, ekinonoozo kya kompyuta, ekinonoozo ky’amasannyalaze, n’amalala.

Obusobozi obwetaagisa ennyo mu kinonoozo buva mu kunnyonnyoka essomabutonde (physics), ekibalangulo (mathematics), n’obuzimbe awamu n’ebinnyonnyozo bya matiiriryo ez’enjawulo.=

Mu nnimi ndala

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