Tɔsʋʋ lɛɣtʋ

Tɔsʊʊ (Krɛkɩ kɩbɩnʊʊ kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ, οἰκονομία / oikonomía « tʊma yɔɔ cɔnaʊ hɔʊ taa »), pɩkɛ ɛyʊ tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩpɔza labʊ, tɛyʊʊ, kɩlɛzʊʊ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ labɩnaʊ. Tɔsʊʊ kɛ tɔmʊʊ ŋgʊ tɔsʊʊ lɛɣtʊ tʊma kpɛlɛka ɖɩ-yɔɔ piŋ nɛ ɖɩñɩkɩɣ niye tɔsʊʊ lɩmaɣza yɔɔ, nɛ tɔsʊʊ ɖɔkʊʊ yaa tɩlɩyɛ se pɩsa nɛ palabɩna-ɖɩ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ.

Kpaɣ pɩnzɩ kudoku tɛ mbʊ yɔ pʊcɔ palʊlɩ Yeesu Krɩstʊ, Sumer ajɛyɛ taa ɛyaa hiɣ tadɩyɛ nɛ tɔsʊʊ piŋ pɩtɩŋna tɛtɛɛ ñɩm pɛdɩɣ yɔɔ. Pakpaɣ Sumer tɛ kajalaɣ paɣtʊ ɛzɩ kajalaɣ tɔsʊʊ takayɩsɩ kɩmamasɩ yɔ, nɛ sɩ-taa peeɖe sakɩyɛ wɛɛ paɖɩnɩɣ-sɩ labɩnaʊ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ liidiye hɔɔlʊʊ taa ɛzɩ sɔnɔ kɩlɛzʊʊ tadɩyɛ nɔmɔʊ taa liidiye nɖɩ ɖɩ-yɔɔ paɖʊ mɛɛsaɣ tɛɛ masɩ yɔ (kɛzɛɣa ɖo ñŋa).

Ɖajaa Adam Smith cɔlɔ lɛ, ɛyaa tɛ ɖɔʊ yaa huu tɩna ñɩm huu ɖɔɖɔ. Thomas Malthus, ɛlɛ Ɛsɔ tɛ ɖiyiyu weyi ɛ-tʊmɩyɛ kaakɛ ɛsɩŋna kʊñɔndɩnaa ɛ-tɛ egeetiye taa, nɛ kʊñɔŋ kpa-ɩ pɩlɩna ɛzɩma tɔɔnasɩ taala pɩnzɩ 1794 nɛ 1800 alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ. Ɛyʊ ɛnɛ yɔ ɛha ɛsɛ nɛ ɛñɩnɩɣ mbʊ se pɩsɩna-wɛ nɛ pɩɖɛɛna ɛsɩndaa, ɛyaa tɛ ɖɔʊ nɛ ñɩm huu. Ɛ-tɛ kajalaɣ takayaɣ ŋga yɔ maɣzɩɣ pɩlɩna samaɣ wɛtʊ yɔɔ, ɛyaa pazɩ pɔsɔɔlɩ piŋ nɛ piseɣti nɛ papazɩ kɩgalʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ Aŋgɩlɩtɛɛrɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Kpaɣ nɛ pɩnzɩ 1970 nɛ Kenneth Arrow tʊma pɩlɩna ɖeyi ɖeyi wɛtʊ yɔɔ, nɛ pɩnzɩ 20082010 tɔsʊʊ ñɔɔsɩ alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, pʊwɛ ɛzɩ tɩɖanɩ pɩsʊʊ Keynési ñɩndʊ yɔ pɩlɩna ɛzɩma kɩ-ɛyaa sakɩyɛ wɛ FMI ŋgbɛyɛ taa yɔ. Ɖooo pɩnzɩ 1750 nɛ 1850 alɩwaatʊ taa ɛyaa mba paawɛ ErɔpʊAmerika ajɛyɛ taa nɛ hayi kiŋ kaawɛ lɛɣtʊ nɛ pɔcɔŋna pɩyakʊʊ nɛ pʊsʊʊ nɛ pɩlʊʊ nɛ pɩsaŋ nɛ patɩlɩɣ ɛzɩma ɖɔʊ nɛ pɩ-tɛ liidiye ɖʊʊ nɛ pɩ-kɛsɛsɩ.

Papɩzɩɣ payaa tɔsʋʋ lɛɣtʋ yem tobi se tɔsʋʋ. Tɔsʋʋ lɛɣtʋ kɛ lɛɣtʋ piliŋa ŋga kañɩnɩɣ yaa kɛkpɛlɛkɩɣ nɛ katɩlɩɣ ɛzɩma tɔsʋʋ ɖɔŋ yɔ.

Ɖajaa John Maynard Keynes ñɩnɩ siŋŋ tɔsʋʋ lɛɣtʋ nʋmɔʋ taa nɛ ɛtɩlɩ se payaʋ se tɔsʋʋ yɔ, pʋwɛ tam naalɛ. Tɔsʋʋ cikpeluu wɛɛ nɛ tɔsʋʋ sɔsɔʋ ñɛwɛɛ. Tɔsʋʋ sɔsɔʋ kpɛlɛkɩɣ tɔsɩŋ sɔsɔŋ ɖɔnɛ.

Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se kɩkpɛlɛkɩɣ ɛzɩma mbʋ liidiye sɔsɔna sʋʋ nɛ alɩɣ lɩʋ mbʋ yɔ. Kɩkpɛlɛkɩɣ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩma tɔsʋʋ sɔsɔʋ hukuu huuu mbʋ yɔ. Kɩkpɛlɛkɩɣ ɛzɩma ɛyaa ɖʋʋ pe-liidiya tɔsɩŋ koozasɩ ndɩ ndɩ taa yɔ.

Piyele tɔsɔɔ cikpeluu ñɛkpɛlɛkɩɣ ɛyaa wɛtʋ tɔsʋʋ lɛɣzʋʋ nʋmɔʋ taa. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se kɩkpɛlɛkɩɣ ɛzɩma mbʋ ɛyaa lakɩ yee tɔsʋʋ ɛkpɩlɣ kɩkpɩlʋ yɔ. Kɩkpɛlɛkɩɣ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩma palakɩ yee tɔsʋʋ ehukuu kuhuu kɔyɔ. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se kɩcɔŋna nɛ kɩnaɣ ɛzɩma mbʋ tadɩyɛ ɖɔŋ, yee ɛjaɖɛ tɔsʋʋ ɛkpɩlɩɣ kɩkpɩlʋʋ kɔyɔ.

Kɩcɔŋna ɖɔɖɔ nɛ kɩnaɣ ɛzɩma mbʋ tadɩyɛ ɖɔŋ, yee ɛjaɖɛ tɔsʋʋ ehukuu huuu yɔɔ kɔyɔ.

Lɛɣtʋ tɔsʋʋ nʋmɔʋ taa ɖɔɖɔ lɛ, mbʋ payaɣ se lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔsʋʋ yɔ, pʋwɛɛ nɛ mbʋ payaɣ se labʋ tɔsʋʋ yɔ, pʋbʋ ñɛwɛɛ ɖɔɖɔ. Lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔsʋʋ lakɩ lɩmaɣza kɩlabʋ ɛzɩma mbʋ papɩzɩɣ pâla nɛ tɔsʋʋ ɖɛɛna ɛsɩnda yɔ.

Kɩɩlakɩ tʋmɩyɛ naɖɩyɛ keekee se tɔsʋʋ ehuu yaa kɩɖɛɛna ɛsɩndaa, ɛlɛ, kɩlɩzɩɣ lɩmaɣza kɩbana wena a-yɔɔ patɩŋnaa tɔsʋʋ pɩzɩɣ kɩɖɛɛna ɛsɩndaa yɔ. Piyele labʋ tɔsʋʋ ñalakɩ pʋyʋ keekee se tɔsʋʋ ehuu.

Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se labʋ tɔsʋʋ tʋlʋʋ tʋma ndɩ ndɩ nɛ ɛyaa lakɩ-yɛ nɛ liidiye sʋʋ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Kɩla tada ndɩ ndɩ. Kɩlakɩ tɔma sakɩyɛ wena akɔŋna liidiye ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ pɩtɩŋna hɔɔlɩŋ tɩŋa yɔɔ. Pɩkɛ tɔnʋʋ taa alaafɩya nʋmɔʋ taa, yaa sukuli labʋ nʋmɔʋ taa Ɛlɛ, lɩmaɣza tɔsʋʋ lɛɣtʋ yɔɔ kɩtɩŋɩɣna nɛ kɩlakɩ kʋ-tʋma kpeekpe.

GDP PPP Per Capita IMF 2008
Adam Smith

Adam Smith kɛ Ekɔsi ɛjaɖɛ taa tʋ. Palʋla-ɩ mɩsɩkʋm fenaɣ taa, kɩyakʋ kagbanzɩ (5) n̄ɩŋgʋ wiye, pɩnaɣ 1723 n̄ɩŋga taa. Ɛ-pɩcatʋ taa ɛwɛ hɛɛɛ nɛ paa ɛzɩmtaa lɛ, ɛwɛ maɣzɩm taa kɛnɛ.

Ɖajaa Adam Smith sɩba hasɩyaɖɛ fenaɣ taa, kɩyakʋ hiu nɛ lʋbɛ (17) n̄ɩŋgʋ wiye pɩnaɣ 1790 n̄ɩŋga taa. Kirkcaldy tɛtʋ taa ɛsɩba. Kirkcaldy tɛtʋ kɛ Ekosi ɛjaɖɛ tɛtʋ natʋyʋ. Ɛ-lakasɩ taa fɛyɩ ɛzɩ ɛyʋ weyi ɛtʋʋza yɔ. Ɛlakɩ mɛnfɛyɩ n̄ʋʋ lakasɩna. Toovenum lɛ, ɛ-lakasɩ kɛkɛ kɩbanzɩ siŋŋ, ɛlɛ, sɩkɩla ɖoŋ samaɣ. Mbʋ yebina nɛ samaɣ kpaɣ-ɩ se ɛkɛ kpandʋ.

Ɛ-lɩmaɣza cukaŋ n̄ɩna siŋŋ kɔyɔ se ɛtɩlɩ ɛyʋ. Ɖajaa ɛnɛ, ɛkɛ mbʋ payaɣ size filozɔɔfʋ yɔ siŋŋ. Ɖɩzɩma mbʋ size paa weyi ɛkɛ filozɔɔfʋ, ɛlɛ, ɖajaa Adam Smith lɩmaɣza kɩlɩ yuŋ nɛ atɛ awɛɛ ndɩ kpem nɛ lalaa ñɩna.

Paa ɛzɩmtaa lɛ, ɖajaa Adam Smith wɛ lim lim maɣzɩm taa kɛnɛ. Filozɔɔfʋ kɛ ɛyʋ weyi ɛ-tʋmɩyɛ kɛlɛ size, ɛn̄ɩnɩ ɛyʋ yɔɔ lɩmaɣza yɔ. Ɛkɛ ɛyʋ yɔɔ lɔnzɩnɖɛ tʋmɩyɛ kpɛlɛkɩyʋ yaa ɛyʋ yɔɔ lɔnzɩnɖɛ n̄ɩnʋʋ tʋmɩyɛ laɖʋ yɔ. Ɖajaa Adam Smith kɛ ɖɔɖɔ, tɔsʋʋ kpɛlɛkʋʋ tʋmɩyɛ laɖʋ sɔsɔ siŋŋ nɔɔyʋ.

Ekosi ɛjaɖɛ taa filozɔɔfʋ ɛnɛ, ɛkɛ Ekosi ɛjaɖɛ ńɖɩ ɖɩ-tɛ n̄alɩmɩyɛ. Ekula samaɣ ɛsɛ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ. Ɛwɩla ɛjaɖɛ taa ñɩma lɔnzɩnɖɛ nɛ lɛɣtʋ pa-nʋmɔŋ. Ɖajaa Adam Smith tɔm pama caanaʋ takayaɣ taa size, ɛkɛ ɛyʋ lɔŋ tʋ weyi, pʋmʋnaa size payaɣ size Tɔsʋʋ Lɛɣtʋ kɩfatʋ yaa sɔnɔ n̄ɩndʋ Caa yɔ.

Ɖajaa Adam Smith Ekosi tʋ ɛnɛ, ɛkɛ soliɣa. Ɛ-caa sɩba lɔŋ, ɛtasɩmɩ-ɩ nɛ pʋcɔ ɛlɛ sɩkɩ. Ɛlɩzɩ takayaɣ nakɛyɛ tɔsʋʋ tʋmɩyɛ labʋ nʋmɔʋ taa. Paya ɛ-takayaɣ ŋ́ga se The Wealth of Nations (Pʋtɔbʋʋ se "Ajɛɛ n̄ɩm"). Pɩnaɣ 1776 ñɩŋa taa ɛlɩza-kɛ.

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