Naalɩm

Nalɩm yaa hɩlɩm pɩkɛ wezuu kpɛlɛkʊʊ tɛ lɩm mbʊ pɔtɔkɩ yɔ. Lɩm mbʊ pʊhʊlʊma nɛ palɩzɩɣ-pʊ kpɩnaa halɩñɩna wena awɛna hɩlaa yɔ a-taa. Hɩlaa a-naa a-taa wɛ nalɩm sikiri, mbʊ kɛna kajalaɣ tɔɔnaɣ kɛ mbɔsɩ nɛ pɔcɔ paapɩzɩɣ papazɩɣ tɔɔʊ tɔnasɩ lɛɛsɩ. Pʊcɔ pɩtalɩ hɩlɩm maɣmaɣ alɩwaatʊ lɛ, pʊtɔbʊʊ se kajalaɣ hɩlɩm alɩwaatʊ lɛ, hɩlɩm taa wɛ tɔmnaɣ kaɖɩnayʊ weyi ɛ-taa wɛ pʊtʊnaa mba palʊkɩna kʊdɔmɩŋ mbɔka cikpelaɣ tomnaɣ taa yɔ. Hɩlɩm mbʊ pɩ-taa wɛ ñɩm tɔɔnasɩ sakɩyɛ.

Ɛyaa lakɩ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ naalɩm mbʊ ɖɩɣa kpɩnaa haɣ ɛzɩ tɔɔnaɣ yɔ. Ɛjaɖɛ kpeekpe taa lɛ, ñɩtʊ ajɛyɛ wenaa ahaɣ hɩlɩm yɔ, hɩlɩm mbʊ pɩtalɩ tɔnɩ naa miliiyɔɔ naa 730 pɩnaɣ 2011 taa nɛ ajɛyaa wenaa akɩlɩɣ tɔɔʊ tɔɔnaɣ ŋga yɔ a-naa yɔ Ɛndɩ nɛ EerɔpʊOsitraliiEtaazuuniiSiiniRuusii.

Naalɩm lɩzɩɣ pɩkɛ tʊmɩyɛ ndɩ kpɩnaa halɩ ñɩnaa yeke koŋ pɩzɩɣ yɔ. Palɩzɩɣ hɩlɩm kɛ kpɩnaa halɩ ñɩnaa hɩlaa taa yaa ɛyʊ weyi paya-ɩ se halʊ yɔ ɛ-tɛ hɩla taa. Kajalaɣ hɩlɩm mbʊ palɩzɩɣ hɩlaa taa payaɣ se kɔɔnaɣ hɩlɩm nɛ pɩ-taa wɛ tomnaɣ taa kʊdɔmɩŋ lʊbɩnayʊ.

Kajalaɣ naalɩm tʊmɩyɛ lɛ se pacalɩ-pʊ pʊdʊ weyi palʊla-ɩ cɩɩɩ yɔ. Tɔɔnaɣ ŋga kamɩna nɛ kɛwɛ ɖeu se pahaɣ-kɛ weyi palʊla-ɩ cɩɩɩ yɔ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ka-taa ñɩm sakɩyɛ mbʊ piyeki se cɩɩɩ ɛnʊ ɛpɩsɩɣ sɔsɔ yɔ. Pʊtɔbʊʊ se ɛzɩma ɛɛkɔɔ ɛtalɩ ɛ-maɣmaɣ ɛ-tɔɔnaɣ ñɩnʊʊ nɛ tɔɔʊ alɩwaatʊ. Nalɩm lɩzɩɣ kɛ tʊmɩyɛ ndɩ ɖɩkɛ hɩlaa kpɩnaa tɛ pɩyʊʊ yɔ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ ɛlʊlʊʊ pɩɣa yɔ.

Naalɩm hʊlʊma nɛ pɩ-taa wɛ pɩyɩŋ tɩyɛ nɛ pɩwɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ sʊtʊ lɩm sɛmɩŋ tɩyɛ nɛ pɩcaɣ sotu. Mbʊ pɩwɛ pɩ-taa nɛ pɩwɛna tomnasɩ ɖɔnɛ nɛ kpɛlɩ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tɛ wɛtʊ lɩɣna ɖɔɖɔ kpɩnaa tɛ wɛtʊ cɔlɔ nɛ kpɩnaa liɖe cɔlɔ. Pɩtɛ wɛtʊ naa mba palɩɣna kajalaɣ hɩlɩm lɩɣ alɩwaatʊ cɔlɔ nɛ mʊzʊʊ alɩwaatʊ cɔlɔ.

Kpaŋnɔ

Kpaŋnɔ kɛ ɖɩɣa kpɩnɛ sɔsɔyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩtɔkɩ n̄ɩtʋ siŋŋ nɛ ɖɩpɩzɩɣ ɖɩcakɩ wezuu yɔ. Kpaŋnɔ acaya tɛtɛyɩ a-hɛkɩŋ taa ɛzɩ ɖɩɣa kpɩna lɛɛna yɔ. Ɛcɩɖɛ kʋɖʋmɖɩyɛ kʋɖʋmɖɩyɛ wɛna kpam kpam ɛ-nɩŋgbanzɩ naanza yɔɔ. Pɩlaba pɩnzɩ miiliyɔɔ waa 45 yaa 55 yɔ, kpaŋnɔ lɩʋ yɔ. Kajalaɣ kpaŋnɔ kɛwɛ ɛzɩ kpɩnɛ nɖɩ ɖɩwɛna haɣ paɣlaka yɔ nɛ ɖɩwɛɛna ne yʋʋʋ yɔ. Kpaŋnaŋ sɔɔla caɣʋ yaa yɛlʋʋ com com, ɛlɛ, ɛ-taa kʋɖʋm ɖɛɣna-yɛ nɔɔ. Kpaŋnaŋ cakɩ wezuu ɛzɩ ɛyaa yɔ, mbʋ yɔ paa ɛ-taa weyi ɛwɛna ɛ-tʋmɩyɛ ɛ-ɖikpeɣliye taa. Kpaŋnaŋ sɩma seɣa tɔm siŋŋ, pʋ-yɔɔ nabʋyʋ taa ɛpɩzɩɣ ɛtʋlʋʋ ɛ-tɔɔyaa nesi tɛɛ. Pɩma kpaŋnaŋ maʋ nabʋyʋ né ndí kpem, mbʋ yɔ ɛpɩzɩɣ eɖoo ɛsɔdaa. Eeɖou ɖɔɖɔ sakɩyɛ ɛzʋnɔɔ, e-ɖom wɛ ɛzɩ kozoŋa ɖom yɔ. Payaɣ kpaŋnɔ halɩn̄ɩnʋ se "jument". Kpaŋnɔ halɩn̄ɩnʋ kpakɩɣ hɩɖɛ lɛ, fenasɩ hiu nɛ kʋɖʋmaɣ ɛlakɩ nɛ pʋcɔ ɛlʋlɩ. Payaɣ kpaŋnɔ pɩɣa se "poulain". Kpaŋnɔ lʋlʋʋ piileɖiɣ nɛ ɛ-pɩɣa pɩzɩ kapazɩ seu.

Ɛyʋ kɔŋna kpaŋnɔ ɖɩɣa nɛ ɛɖɔɔ-ɩ. Kpaŋnɔ wɛ wazaɣ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ Eerɔpʋ nɛ Aazii pɛ-tɛtʋ tɩŋa taa ɖooo caanaʋ taa. Sɔnɔdaa pɩdakasɩ kpaŋnɔ nɔɔyʋ se ɛwɛ n̄ɩtʋ taa nɛ pɩtasɩna "Przewalski" kpaŋnɔ weyi ɛyʋ pɩzɩoɣ ɛyɔɔdɩ se ɛkɛ n̄ɩtʋ taa n̄ɩnʋ siŋŋ yɔ. Ɛlɛ, ɖɩɣa kpaŋnaŋ sakɩyɛ nɩɩyɛ pɩzɩ lakʋ taa n̄ɩŋ. Ɛyʋ wɛna tɔmpe sakɩyɛ nɛ ɛpɩzɩɣ ɛkɛdɩɣna ɛzɩma mbʋ kpaŋnaŋ wɛɛ yɔ nɛ tɔlɩm ndɩ ndɩ mbʋ ɛwɛna yɔ nɛ huwa ndɩ ndɩ wena a-taa ɛwɛɛ yɔ nɛ wɛtʋ ndʋ ɛwɛna yɔ nɛ ɛzɩma mbʋ ɛcakɩ e-weziŋ yɔ. Ɛyʋ kpɛlɛkɩ kpaŋnaŋ sakɩyɛ ɛzɩma mbʋ ɛyʋ ɛcaɣ ɛ-yɔɔ nɛ ɛɖɔŋ nʋmɔʋ poliŋ n̄ɩŋʋ nakʋyʋ yaa ɛla you yɔ. Kpaŋnʋ paɣlaka siŋŋ lɛ, pɩnzɩ kagbaanzɩ taa. Kpaŋnɔ cakɩ wezuu pɩtalɩ ɛzɩ pɩnzɩ nɛɛlɛ nɛ kagbaanzɩ yaa pɩnzɩ niidozo mbʋ yɔ.

Ɛyʋ kpɛlɛkɩ kpaŋnɔ se ɛlakɩ-ɩ ɛtɔma sakɩyɛ. Ɛyʋ pɩzɩɣ ɛcaɣ kpaŋnɔ nɛ ɛɖɔ nʋmɔʋ poliŋ n̄ɩŋʋ nakʋyʋ. Ɛyʋ pɩzɩɣ ɖɔɖɔ ɛhayɩna kpaŋnɔ hayɩm lemmm. Ɛyʋ pɩzɩɣ ɖɔɖɔ ɛcaɣ kpaŋnɔ yɔɔ nɛ ɛla you sɔsɔʋ nakʋyʋ. Kpaŋnaŋ yeba nɛ tadɩyɛ wobina ɛsɩndaa siŋŋ n̄ɩm ajɛɛ sɔsɔna taa.

Ɖɩɣa Kpɩna tɩŋa taa lɛ, kpaŋnɔ kɩlɩna wazaɣ siŋŋ. Ɛ-tɔm pakɩlɩ yɔɔdʋʋ caanaʋ taa. Ɛ-yɔɔ cɔnaʋ yeba nɛ nesi tɛɛ tʋma sakɩyɛ naayɩ n̄ɔ. Ɖɩkpaɣ ɛzɩ tadɩyɛ nʋmɔʋ taa nɛ tomnaɣ taa hayɩsʋʋ mbʋ payaɣ se "sports hippiques" yɔ pʋ-nʋmɔʋ taa mbʋ yɔ, ɖɩnaɣ se kpaŋnaŋ yebina nɛ tʋma ana aɖɛɛna ɛsɩndaa siŋŋ. Sɔnɔdaa ɛyaa cakɩ kpaŋnaŋ yɔɔ ajɛɛ wena a-tɔsʋʋ ɖɛ ɛsɩndaa siŋŋ yɔ se peleɣyi yaa se pala tɔnʋʋ taa kpekpeka hayɩsʋʋ tʋma. Kpaŋnɔ wɛ wazaɣ siŋŋ ɛyʋ wezuu caɣʋ taa mbʋ yɔ ɛyʋ tɔkɩ ɛ-nandʋ nɛ ɛn̄ɔɔ ɛ-naalɩm. Ɛyʋ lakɩ naadaŋgbala nɛ Kpaŋnɔ tɔnʋʋ. Kpaŋnɔ hɩm wɛ ɛyʋ wazaɣ ɖɔɖɔ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ. Ajɛɛ sɔsɔna naayɛ taa lɛ, kpaŋnɔ lakɩna nɛ haɖaʋ nɛ tadɩyɛ powokina ɛsɩndaa nɛ pɩkɩlɩɣ. Ɖɩɣa kpaŋnɔ yɔɔ cɔnaʋ caɣ kaɖɛ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ. Wondu ndʋ pakpakɩɣ nɛ pɔcɔŋnanɩ kpaŋnɔ yɔɔ yɔ, tɩwɛ ndɩ kpem. Pʋ-yɔɔ pʋpɔzʋʋ se ɛyaa mba pasɩma kpaŋnaŋ tɔm camɩyɛ yɔ, mba ɛkpɛlɛkɩna lɛlaa ɛ-yɔɔ cɔnaʋ.

Kpɩnɛ hɩɖɛ ñɩnɖɛ

Kpɩnɛ hɩɖɛ ñɩnɖɛ, akɛ ɖɔɖɔ sɩlɛŋgbɛlɛm mɔɔ kpɩna. Kpɩna ana pasɩma-yɛ nɛ mbʊ yɔ kɛna se pamʊzʊʊ pe-piyaa cikpesi nɛ hɩlɩm. Piya nzɩ paɖʊʊ yɔ pɩpɔza piŋŋ sɩ-ɖoonaa nɛ sɩ-caanaa pɔcɔna sɩ-yɔɔ nɛ hɩlɩm mbʊ pʊyɔɔ si-lotu tɛcɛyɩta (kɛlɛ pɩkɛ kɩjɛyɩɣ se hɩlɩm pɔcɔna nɛ sɩ-yɔɔ). Wɛtʊ naa lalaa sakɩyɛ wɛɛ nɛ patɩlɩɣ nɛ kpɩnɛ lɛɛna, pɩkpɛndɩna tɛtɛɛ wondu kɩbɩndʊ.

Ɖɩcaɣyɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ paɣtʊ paɣlʊʊ taa lɛ, kajalaɣ kpɩna hɩla ñɩna ana tɛtʊ yɔɔ aawɛɛ. Kpɩna ana acaŋ ahuu lɔŋ lɔŋ nɛ a-taa peeɖe ɖɩnaɣ kajalaɣ hɔɔlʊʊ nakʊyʊ (sɛmʊʊ) kʊkʊ ñakʊyʊʊ ɛsɔdaa. Tɩmɩŋ ɛnʊ ɛ-taa peeɖe sakɩyɛ pɩsɩ lɩm taa ñɩna hɔɔlʊʊ yɔ. Ñɩtʊ taa kpɩna hɩla ñɩna sakɩyɛ pɩlɩna pɩlɩna palɩzɩ paɣtʊ ndʊ se pakandɩ a-yɔɔ yɔ, sakɩyɛ wɛ takayasɩ kɩsɛmasɩ yɔɔ wena pañaŋasɩɣ-yɛ yɔ (kɔzɩ kɔzɩ wena atɔkɩ nandʊ) palakɩ a-taa lɛɛna nandʊ. Ɖɔɖɔ tiiye naayɛ taa kpɩna wena ɛyʊ ɖɔɣa yɔ kpaɣ ɖooo kpaɣɖʊ 19 alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ (pɩlɩna kpɩnɛ hɔm, nandʊ, naalɩm, kpɩnɛ nɖɩ pakʊwa yɔ tɔnʊʊ) mʊwa yaa pasa siŋŋ pɩlɩna pɔtɔza sakɩyɛ pɩcɛlɩna pɛ-tɛ lʊlʊʊ yɔɔ.

Po-tomnasi mɔɔ tɩŋa taa lɛ pe-kela kɩlana ɖoŋ, mbʊ labɩna nɛ patɩlɩ tɛtɛɛ kɩbɩnjaazɩ kpɩna hɩla ñɩna, pe-kela yɔɔ nɛ nabʊyʊ pɩkpɛdɩna tamasɩ yaa ñʊʊ pɔyɩŋ. Paa kpɩnɛ nɖɩ lɛ nɛ ɖɩ-kela kɛlɛ pɩsaŋ nɛ papɩzɩɣ patɩlɩɣ paa kpɩnɛ nɖɩ lɛ ɖɩ-tɔɔnaɣ. Ɖooo krɛtasɩ alɩwaatʊ, Maastrichti wɛɛ taa, pakalɩ kpɩna hɩla ñɩna lɛ aatalɩ 150 halɩ 300 kɛlɛ pekpeeli-yɛ tindima nɛɛlɛ nɛ lʊbɛ.

Pɩlɩna wɩyaʊ Maor kpɛlɛkɩtʊ natʊyʊ yɔɔ kɛ Tel Aviv sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa ndʊ posusa tɩ-tɔm yɔ yɔɔ lɛ, kpɩna hɩla ñɩna anɛ aakɛ cɩkpɛndʊʊ taa kpɩna ɖooo kiɖe tɛɛ nɛ papaɣzɩ labʊ pa-tʊma wɩsɩ kpaɣ nɛ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ kpɩna sɔsɔna wena atuu a-lotu apaɣza ɖɩm yɔ, alɩwaatʊ talɩ ɛzɩ pɩnzɩ miiliiyɔɔ naa 66 mbʊ yɔ. Kpɩna hɩla ñɩna ana a-taa lɛ ɖɩnaɣ sɔndʊ ñɩna, pʊ-tɔbʊʊ se ɛyʊ cɔzɔnaa.

Naalɩm mayaɣ

Naalɩm mayaɣ, ɛbɛ payaɣ ḿbʋ ? Pʋdʋnaa sakɩyɛ kpɛndɩna nɛ payaɣ se naalɩm mayaɣ. Wondu ndʋ tɩkpɛndaa nɛ payaɣ se naalɩm mayaɣ yɔ, tɩ-taa kɔyɔ : tɩnzɩ nɛ heɣlimaɣ nɛ mʋzʋʋ. Kpɛɖɛ wɛ pa-taa ɖɔɖɔ. Cʋʋ kɩkpɛdʋʋ kɩlɩna wɛʋ sakɩyɛ naalɩm yayaɣ taa. Nabʋyʋ taa kɔyɔ, pɔʋ kɩkpɛdʋʋ wɛ pʋdʋnaa ḿba paa weyi ɛ-hɛkʋ taa.

Mbʋ payaɣ se ɖɩɖɔmɩyɛ nʋmɔʋ, naalɩm mayaɣ ŋ́ga ka-taa wɩsɩ wɛtʋ wɛɛ. Tɩnzɩ miiliyaarɩ waa mɩnɩŋ mɩnɩŋ wɛ ɖɩɖɔnɛ nʋmɔʋ taa. Naalɩm mayaɣ nʋmɔʋ walanzɩ talɩ 80 000 mʋntʋsʋʋ-pɩnaɣ. Ɛsɔdaa pʋdʋnaa tɩlɩyaa ŋgbɛyɛ payaɣ se ‘Gaia’. Anasaayɩnaa ajɛya taa ŋgbɛyɛ ɖɩnɛ ɖɩñɔɔ. ‘Gaia’ ŋgbɛyɛ ñɩnaa nɛ ɖɩna takayaɣ nakɛyɛ nɛ kosusi ka-taa tɔm agoza fenaɣ kɩyakʋ nɛɛlɛ nɛ kagbaanzɩ (25) ñɩŋgʋ wiye, pɩnaɣ 2018 taa. Pama pa-takayaɣ ŋ́ga ka-taa se tɩnzɩ 1 692 919 135 wɛnɩ ɖɛ-tɛ naalɩm mayaɣ taa.

Ɛsɔdaa pʋdʋnaa ndɩ ndɩ tɩlɩyaa ñɩnɩ tɛtʋ putuuɖe kpeekpe yɔɔ nɛ pala akɔnta nɛ patɩ tɩnzɩ kpeekpe ñʋʋ. Pakaɖaa se, tɩnzɩ mɩnʋʋ yɔɔ lɛ, tɩŋa kʋɖʋmaɣ kɛ ɖɛ-tɛ naalɩm mayaɣ tɩŋa.

Tɩnzɩ nzɩ sɩwɛʋ naalɩm masɩ nzɩ sɩwɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ ɖɛ-tɛ naalɩm mayaɣ yɔ, sɩlɩ ɖama. Ɛlɛ, naalɩm masɩ cikpesi wɛɛ ɖɔɖɔ. Sɩsɩ taa tɩnzɩ ñamakɩɣna ɛzɩ miiliyaarɩ waa hiu mbʋ yɔ. Piyele, naalɩm masɩ sɔsɔsɩ taa tɩnzɩ ñatalɩɣ miiliyaarɩ waa ɛgbɔŋ ɛgbɔŋ. Ɛsɔdaa pʋdʋnaa ndɩ ndɩ tɩlɩyaa ñɩnaa nɛ pakaɖɩ kpayɩ se, naalɩm masɩ miiliyaarɩ waa mɩnɩŋ mɩnɩŋ wɛnɩ tɛtʋ putuuɖe kpeekpe yɔɔ. Pɔyɔɔdɩ ɖɔɖɔ se, naalɩm masɩ nzɩ sɩwɛ tɛtʋ putuuɖe kpeekpe yɔɔ yɔ, sɩpaɣlɩ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ nɛ sɩtɛ sɩwɛɛ yuŋ hɩlɩmaaɣ.

Samaɣ ndɩ ndɩ ŋga kɛwɛ naalɩm masɩ cikpesi taa yɔ, pɩwɛ kaɖɛ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ se patɩlɩ ka-ñʋʋ. Pɩwɛ kaɖɛ, mbʋ pʋyɔɔ yɔ, wɩsɩ tatɩɩfɛyɩ ɖoŋ naalɩm masɩ nzɩ sɩ-taa. Pɩwɛ kaɖɛ se patɩlɩ samaɣ ŋ́ga ka-ñʋʋ pɩlɩɩnɩ sɩ-hɩlɩmɩyɛ cɔlɔ.

Sikiri

Sikiri kɛ pɩyʊʊ mbʊ pʊwɛ leleŋ nɛ palɩkʊʊ fɩŋ fɩŋ taa nɛ camɖɩyɛ leeleŋ ñɩndɛ taa (sakaroozɩ). Sikiri ŋgʊ kɩ-taa wɛ pʊtʊʊ nɔyʊʊ ɛnʊ payaɣ se sakaroozɩ. Tɔm piye sikiri lɩnɛ Itaalii kʊnʊŋ taa Zucchero ɛlɛ ɖɩ-maɣmaɣ ɖɩlɩnɛ Arabɩɩ kʊnʊŋ taa sukkar (سكر) nɛ tɔm piye ndɩ ɖɩ-tɛ lɛ Ɛndɩ kʊnʊŋ nɛ Sansɩkrɩtɩ kʊnʊŋ tɛ çârkara. Tɩŋ sakɩyɛ wɛ palɩzʊʊ ɛ-taa sɩkɩrɩ ŋgʊ kɩ-taa wɛ sakaroozɩ yɔ.

Paa ɛzɩmtaa kɔyɔ leleŋ tɩmʊʊ liɖe taa wondʊʊ wɛna leleŋ ɖoŋ kpaɣ ɛzɩ leleŋ nimviduu ŋgʊ ɖɩyaɣ nɛ kilikozi yɔ nɛ hɩla sikiri ŋgʊ ɖɩpɩzɩɣ ɖɩyaɣ se frɩkɩtozɩ yɔ, mba pakɩlɩɣ labɩnɛʊ tʊmɩyɛ tɔnasɩ kɩtɔsɩ tʊma sɔsɔnaa taa nɛ hɔɔlɩŋ lɛɛŋ taa. Ɛyaa cɔlɔ lɛ, tɔm piye sikiri kɛ leeleŋ pɩyʊʊ. Tɔnasɩ kɩtɔsɩ takʊʊ kpata yɔ lɛ, sikiri kɛ mbʊ pʊwɛ leleŋ yɔ nɛ pɩwɛnɛ leleŋ tɛ ɖoŋ yɔ pɩkɔzɩna hɩla sikiri nɛ sakaroozɩ nɛ leleŋ nimviduu nɛ cɛŋgbɛ sikiri nɛ naalɩm sikiri.

Pʊwayɩ lɛ tʊŋ num nɛ tɩŋ pee nayɛ (ɛzɩ pɔm mbʊ yɔ) taa wɛ sikiri kpaɣ ɖooo canaʊ kɩpɩnʊʊ, tɩŋ nɩɩyɛ taa wɛ sikiri siŋ nɛ palakɩnɛ-ɩ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ ɛzɩ kajalaɣ wondʊʊ ndʊ palɩzɩ tɩ-taa sikiri yɔ nabʊyʊ taa pʊwɛ ɛzɩ sikiri lɩm (sirɔp). Kajalaɣ sikiri haɖaʊ nɛ pɩkpɛndɩnɛ tɩŋ maɣmaɣ kɛwɛ Aazii nɛ Hadɛ Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ taa nɛ Pasifiki ajɛyɛ wena lɩm cɔyɛ nɛ pɩtaa yɔ a-taa. Pɔtɔkɩ fɩŋ fɩŋ camɖɩyɛ nɛ palɩzɩɣ kɩ-taa lɩm. Papazɩɣ sikiri labʊʊ pɩtɩŋnɛ kɩ-lɩm lɩzʊʊ yɔɔ yɔ pazɩɣ nɛ Ɛndɩ nɛ Hayi kiŋ Wɩsɩ ɖɩlɩyɛ taa yaa Pasifiki nɛ hadɛ pɩnzɩɣ 10000 yaa 6000 pɔcɔ palʊʊlɩ Yeesu Krɩstʊ alɩwaatʊ taa.

Erɔpʊ nɛ wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Krɛkɩ mba cɔlɔ, palakaɣ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ tʊŋ num sikiri ɛzɩ aseeɖe naɖɩyɛ lɩzʊʊ nɛ ɖɩwɩlɩɣ se Kɩnɔsɔs nɛ Mycène nɛ Paestum tɔm kɩpɩndʊʊ ñɩnʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, pakatɩ ŋgbaŋ. Ɛlɛ patalɩɣ fɩŋ fɩŋ sikiri (Egipiti mba kɩpɩma hayaɣ-kʊ) pɩlɩnɛ lɩŋgamɩŋ yɔ nɔmɔŋ wobʊtʊ ɛlɛ kɩwɛ kɛtɛɖaɣ nɛ kɩwɛ ɖɔɖɔ lidiye. Pɩtɩŋnɛ Romanɩ ɛjaɖɛ pajaɣ mɔyɔɔ kɩ-yɔ tʊʊ pɩlɩnɛ mbʊ se pajaɣ Egipiti ɛjaɖɛ yɔ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ pɩkpɛndɩnɛ Pɛrɩsɩ hɔɔlʊʊ nakʊyʊʊ ɛlɛ njɔna kɔyɔ tʊŋ num sikiri wakaɣna tʊmɩyɛ labʊʊ.

Sɩtrɔntɩyɔm

Sɩtrɔntɩyɔm kɛ kpɛlɩ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tɛ pʊtʊ weyi ɛ-ñʊʊ mayaɣ kɔyɔ 38 nɛ yʊsaɣ ñɩŋa yɔSr yɔ. Strɔntɩyɔm ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ kalɩsɩyɔm yɔ, ɛkɛ ɖʊʊyʊ tɛtʊ pɩyʊ. Ɛwɛ ɖɔfɩɩ, papɩzɩɣ pamabɩ-ɩ yaa pɔyɔkɩ-ɩ, ɛsɛɛ caʊʊ. Ɛwɛ helim taa ɛmʊ miŋ nɛ lɩm etukina-ɩ kɔyɔ ɛwasɩɣ.

Sir Humphry Davy lɩzɩna strɔntɩyɔm eyeke (Aŋglɩtɛɛrɩ tʊ) pɩnaɣ 1808 alɩwaatʊ ndʊ pana ɛ-tɛ ɔkɩsɩzɛnɩ wonuu kɛ ñɩɣlɩm tɛtʊ kañaɖaɣ nakɛyɛ taa pʊñɔtɩna Strontian, strɔntianite SrCO3 pɩnaɣ 1790 pɩtɩŋna Thomas Charles Hope yɔɔ. Ɛyʊ ɛnɛyɔ ɛlɛ ñatɩŋna William Cruickshank nɛ Adair Crawford pa-tʊma yɔɔ kɛnɛ, pɛkɛ ɛyaa mba pɛlɛɣ tɩlɩɣ pʊtʊ nɔyʊ patatɩɩ tɩlɩta-ɩ strontianite taa.

Loyuu tɔkɩ strɔntɩyɔm ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ kalɩsɩyɔm yɔ ɛlɛ kalɩsɩyɔm tɛ kɩlɩ ɖeu. Strɔntɩyɔm hɔɔlɩŋ weyi ɛtaɖɩ ɛyʊ tomnaɣ taa pɩsɩɣ pɩtalɩ 99% ɛyʊ mɔɔ taa, kelaa taa. Naalɩm kelaa taa wiluu sɩna se ɛzɩma strɔntɩyɔm kʊɖɔŋ ɖɛʊ nɛ pɩtasɩna ɖɔɖɔ pʊtʊnaa lɛlaa pɩwɛɛ kɛlɛʊ yee ɛyʊ ɛlaba tʊmɩyɛ nɛ mɔɔ yɔ. Pɩtɩŋna pɔyɔɔ lɛ, pehiɣ pana se Etaazuunii ɛjaɖɛ strɔntɩyɔm tɛ naalɩm kelaa ɖɔʊ pɩnzɩ 1990.

Pɩkɛ sɛmɩŋ pɩyʊ, ajana miŋ kɩsɛmɩŋ weyi pɔtɔ-ɩ ɛsɔtaa tɛ azɔɔtɩ siziŋ ɖɔm se pɩpɩsɩ mʊntʊsʊʊ kɩsɛmʊʊ. Strɔntɩyɔm poyoluuna fɛrɩnɩɩ nɛ pataɣ cʊŋ wondu. Kpanjasɩ nasɩyɛ kɛ strɔntɩyɔm tɛ wondu, ɛnʊ palaakɩna alɩwaatʊ wɩlɩɣ ñɩɣyɩŋ nɩɩyɛ tɛ ɛjɔŋ.

Ɛwɛɣ tɔɔnasɩ nasɩyɛ taa (pee taa, ɖoozi hatʊ nɛ mbʊ pɩkɛ naalɩm wondu yɔ. Kpɩna tɛ lɛ sakɩyɛ ɛɛtɛŋ kpidi kpidi mʊʊna lɩm taa, hɩm yaa lɩm naa mba palɩɣ yɔ sɔɔlʊʊ caɣyʊ mɔɔ taa. Naŋ, namɩŋ, kpagbasɩ yaa yambɔyɩŋ pɩzɩɣ pɛwɛna ɖɔɖɔ. Ɖooo lɛ paañɩba strɔntɩyɔm nɛ pepi karasɩm nɛ amala taa.

Tii

Tii kɛ sɔzɩŋ sʊlʊm mbʊ palaba-pʊ nɛ tii tɩŋ hatʊ yɔ. Pɩkɛ cɔkɔyɛ ndɩ ɖɩ-hatʊ wɛ kpɩzɩŋ yɔ nɛ ɖɩlɩna Azii ɛjaɖɛ taa. Papɩzɩɣ pɔñɔɔ-kʊ nɛ miŋ yaa niikaɣ. Kɩ-taa wɛ epikalokatesiini nɛ kalatɩ nɛ tiiyaniini nɛ kɔfɩ nɛ tii tɛ nɩm. Pɔsɔɔlɩ-kʊ kɩ-leleŋ yɔ nɛ mbʊ kɩwɛ wazaɣ siŋ kɛ ɖoŋ hɔɔlʊʊ taa nɛ ɖɔɖɔ alaafɩya hɔɔlʊʊ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ tɩŋ hatʊ sɛmɩŋ tɛ tii.

Tii tɛ lɛ Yunnan pʊŋ taa ɖenɖe paasɩma-kʊ ɖooo canaʊ taa yɔ. Kɩyɛlɩ wɩsɩ ɖooo hayɩ kiŋ taa pʊcɔ kɩtalɩ Erɔpʊ ajɛyaa taa kpaɣɖʊ 16 alɩwaatʊ taa pɩtɩŋna Pɔrɩtɩkɛ taɖɩyɛ laɖaa yɔ. Britaniiki mba paazɩ-kʊ hayʊ Ɛɛndɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa kpaɣɖʊ 19 alɩwaatʊ taa ŋgʊ Fransɩɩ mba nɛ-paɣzɩɣ-kʊ hayʊ Indosiini ɛjaɖɛ nɛ Neeyerɩlandɛ waa nɛ-hayʊ-kʊ Indosiini ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Tii walɩɣ kedeŋga kpeekpe taa kpem nɛ kɩpɩsɩ sɔnɔɔ sʊlʊm mbʊ pakɩlɩɣ-pʊ paale kɛ lɩm wayɩ. Tii naa mba pɔɖɔɔ piŋ ɛjaɖɛ pɩlɩna tɛtʊ cɔlɔ nɛ kɩ-hayɩyaa cɔlɔ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ ɛzɩma pahayʊʊ-kʊ yɔ nɛ ɛzɩma pakpakʊʊ-kʊ hayɩm taa lɛ, pɔjɔŋna kʊ-yɔɔ yɔ. Nɛ pɩtɛ wɛtʊ ndʊ tɩyeba se ɖɩwɛna tii naa sakɩyɛ sɛmɩŋ ndɩ ndɩ taa. Kpɛdɩŋ pindim nɛ tɩŋ hatʊ sɛmɩŋ nɛ caʊʊ sɛmɩŋ nɛ kʊhʊlʊmɩŋ ŋgʊ wɛtʊ lɛɛtʊ yeki se patɩlɩ kɩ-leeleŋ nɛ kɩ-maɣmaɣ kɩwɛtʊ.

Tii ŋgʊ kɩ-tɛ tɩzʊʊ wɛna wɛtʊ ndɩ ndɩ ɖɔɖɔ. Nabʊyʊ taa paɖʊʊ naalɩm nɛ pesidi nɛ sikiri Kewiyaɣ Ɛjaɖɛ taa. Patɩzɩ pɩ-leɖi nɛ pozoki yɛɖɛ yɛɖɛ waa kɛ Moŋgolii ɛjaɖɛ taa. Magrɛbɩ ajɛyaa taa lɛ palakɩ-kʊ nɛ mantɩɩ (menthe) tɩŋ, mbʊ ɖɔɖɔ palakɩ-kʊ Afrika Wɩsɩ Ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa. Ɛɛndɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa lɛ, patɩzɩɣ nɛ paɖʊʊ yɛɖɛ yɛɖɛ waa nɛ naalɩm nɛ patɩzʊʊ-kʊ tii ñanzɩ cikpesi taa.

Tii tɩŋ (Camellia sinensis) kɛ cɔkɔyɛ ndɩ ɖɩlɩna Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ taa ɖooo hayi kiŋ taa yɔ kɛ tii tɩmʊʊ liɖe taa. Tii ŋgʊ lɛ, kɩwɛ tɔm nabutozo taa ɛjaɖɛ yɔɔ cɩna Camellia sinensis assamica (Asam) nɛ Camellia sinensis sinensis (Yunnan) nɛ Camellia sinensis cambodiensis. Ajɛya wena akɩlɩɣ-kʊ hayʊʊ yɔ a-na yɔ, Siini nɛ Ɛɛndɩ nɛ Sriilanka nɛ Fɩyɛtɩnaam nɛ Tayɩwanɩ nɛ Japɔŋ nɛ Nepaalɩ nɛ Tuurkii nɛ Keniya nɛ Tanzani. Ɖɩtɔɔzʊʊ se Sriilanka nɛ Tayɩwanɩ tii mbʊ yɔ pɛpɛɖɩɣ-kʊ nɛ canaʊ hɩla nɛ payaɣ se Ceylan et Formose.

Waagasɩ

Waagasɩ kɛ tɔɔnaɣ ŋga kalɩnɛ naalɩm mbʊ pikiwa yɔ payaɣ se waagasɩ yaa wonduu ndʊ tɩkɛ naalɩm pʊyʊʊ yɔ ɛzɩ naanum, nɛ lɩm catʊʊ pɩkpɛndɩnɛ yaa pɩɩkpɛndɩnɛ pɩdʊʊ nabʊyʊʊ taa, pɩkpɛndɩnɛ catʊtʊ (waagasɩ kɩjatʊʊ). Sakɩyɛ taa lɛ, palakɩ waagasɩ nɛ nɔ tɛ naalɩm, ɛlɛ ɖɔɖɔ heŋ nɛ pʊŋ nɛ tɛyɛ naŋ halɩñɩŋ yaa kpɩna naŋgbanzɩ nanza waa lɛɛnɛ.

Pañɩŋgʊʊ naalɩm ŋnɩɩ cɛkaɣ haɖaʊ tɛ. Pɩdʊʊ naalɩm yaa pɩdʊʊ nakʊyʊʊ yaa fɩnɛgɩrɩ pɔsɔzʊʊ se pɩpɩzɩ pikii nɛ pɩpɩsɩ naalɩm kiɖoŋkuum nɛ naalɩm cikpem. Waagasɩnaa nabɛyɛ wɛna hɔŋgbazayaɣ, potomnaɣ yɔ nɛ pʊtɔma pa-taa kiŋ nɛ ɖɔɖɔ halɩ tɛtɛ ñɩtʊ natʊyʊʊ ndʊ tɩnɛ tɩɩsɛ yɔ pɔtɔkɩ-tʊ ageetaa naaayɛ taa.

Papɩzɩɣ palakɩ waagasɩ pɩlɩnɛ tɩŋ nɩɩyɛ tɛ wɛtʊ cɔlɔ, kpaɣ ɛzɩ tɩŋ tɛ naalɩm ɛzɩ soojaa naalɩm, m num tɛ tɩŋ pee, ɛzɩ kɔtɔmbɔyasɩ yaa tɛtɛɛ pɔɔm ŋgʊ peziiduu nɛ num nɛ yɛɖɛyɛɖɛ waa se pɩwɛ ɛzɩ kpɩnaa tɛ naalɩm waagasɩ. Pɩtɛ waagasɩ kɩlɛzɩnaʊ ñɩŋgʊ ŋgʊ nabʊyʊ taa payaɣ se fomazɩ (fauxmage), pɩkɛ tɔm pee naalɛ patama faux tɔbʊʊ se pɩtɛkɛ nɛ fromage tɔbʊʊ se waagasɩ, se paɖʊʊ tʊkaɣ pɩtɛ lɛ, pɩkɛ paɣtʊ taa waagasɩ yatʊ, nɛ paɖʊʊ pɩtaa wonduu ndɩ ndɩ.

Ɖɔɖɛ

Ɖɔɖɛ wɛɛ nɛ ɖiziye wɛɛ. Tɛtɛ kpɩna : naŋ nɛ kpaŋanzɩ nɛ aɖaɣɖaɣnaa nɛ heŋ nɛ pʋŋ nɛ afanaa pɔɖɔʋ. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se naŋgbanzɩ naanza tɩnaa pɔɖɔʋ. Piyele ɖiziye lɛ, mbʋ pʋwɛna keŋ yɔ, pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se tolotoloonaa nɛ uwanaa nɛ kpaŋkpafɩɩnaa nɛ suŋ nɛ kelema peɖiziɣ.

Ɖɔɖɔ wɛ wazaɣ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ ɛyʋ wezuu caɣʋ tɩŋa taa. Ajɛya wena a-taa palakɩ ɖɔɖɔ pɩkɩlɩɣ yɔ, a-tɔsʋʋ kɩlɩna ɛsɩndaa ɖɛʋ. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se ɖɔɖɔ yekina nɛ ɛjaɖɛ tɔsʋʋ hukuu nɛ pɩkɩlɩɣ.

Ɖɩkpaɣ ɛzɩ kpaŋanzɩ mbʋ yɔ, ɖɩnaɣ se sɩlakɩ sɩɩlʋʋ tʋmɩyɛ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ. Nsɩ sɩɩlɩɣna wondu yuŋ ñɩndʋ. Pɩɩpɔzaa se ɛyʋ ɛhɛyɩ liidiye nɛ lɔɔɖɩyɛ wona-ɩ wondu natʋyʋ nɛ pʋdʋ wɛna kpaŋaɣ kɔyɔ, kowokina-ɩ-tʋ kɛlɛʋ yem. Ɛɛcazɩɣ lɩzɩʋ liidiye wondu wonaʋ mbʋ pʋ-yɔɔ. Kpaŋaɣ nandʋ taa wɛ ñɩm sakɩyɛ, kɔzɩ kɔzɩ kɔ-mɔɔ taa. Kpaŋaɣ mɔɔ kɛ kɔyɩ naɖɩyɛ siŋŋ. Ɛyʋ ɛwɛnɩ niikaɣ kʋdɔŋ kɔyɔ, kpaŋaɣ mɔɔ patɩzɩɣ nɛ ɛñɔʋ pu-yom.

Ɖɩkpaɣ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ naŋ ɖɔʋ hɔɔlʋʋ taa mbʋ yɔ, ɖɩnaɣ ɛ-wazaɣ ɛyʋ wezuu caɣʋ taa. Naŋ nɩɩyɛ hayɩɣ. Ɛyʋ tapɩzɩɣ se ɛhayɩ nɛ pɩtalɩ ɖenɖe yɔ, yee ɛwɛna naŋ kɩhayɩŋ kɔyɔ, ɛhayɩɣ pɩcɛzɩ ɖenɖe ɛɛɖʋwa se ɛhayɩɣ nɛ pɩtalɩ yɔ. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se ɛ-naŋ yeki nɛ ɛ-tɔsʋʋ huu nɛ pɩkɩlɩ. Pañazɩɣ ɖɔɖɔ naŋ hɩlɩm nɛ palakɩna tɔɔnasɩ ndɩ ndɩ. Pɔñɔʋ-pʋ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ lɛŋ. Pɔñɔʋ nʋ naalɩm nɛ lɛŋ yɔ, pɩkɔŋna ɛyʋ tomnaɣ taa alaafɩyɛ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ. Yee pahaɣ pɩɣa afolom nakɛyɩ nɔ naalɩm ɖoŋ ɖoŋ kɔyɔ, ka-paɣlɩka nɛ piya lɛɛsɩ paɣlaka pɩɩtaŋ. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se kapaɣlɩɣ lɔŋ lɔŋ nɛ pɩkɩlɩ piya lɛɛsɩ. Pɩtɛ ɖɔɖɔ lɛ kekpeɣtiɣ camɩyɛ, kʋdɔmɩŋ ɛɛcɛyɩɣ-kɛ ɖoŋ ɖoŋ.

Nɔ tɔnʋʋ wɛ ɖɔɖɔ wazaɣ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ. Pɔhɔɔʋ-kʋ nɛ anasaayɩ ñɩɣyʋʋ nakʋyʋ nɛ kɩkpɩzɩ camɩyɛ nɛ palakɩna-kʋ nɛ tʋma ndɩ ndɩ. Nɔ tɔnʋʋ kɩkpɩzʋʋ palakɩna naataŋgbala ndɩ ndɩ. Nɔ nandʋ wɛ wazaɣ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ ɛyʋ tɔɔnasɩ tɔɔʋ taa. Tɩwɛna ñɩm ndɩ ndɩ. Ɛyʋ ɛtɔkɩ nɔ nandʋ ɖoŋ ɖoŋ kɔyɔ, ɛwɛ alaafɩyɛ camɩyɛ.

Ɖɩcɔna heŋ nɛ pʋŋ pɔ-hɔɔlʋʋ taa kɔyɔ, ɖɩnaɣ se paba wɛna ɖɔɖɔ wazaɣ siŋŋ ɛyʋ wezuu caɣʋ taa. Heŋ nɛ pʋŋ pakɩlɩɣ labɩnaʋ tʋmɩyɛ kabɩyɛ sɔnzɩ ndɩ ndɩ nʋmɔʋ taa. Pʋŋ tɔnɩŋ ɖɔɖɔ pɔhɔɔʋ nɛ papaŋna so ndɩ ndɩ. Pʋŋ nɛ heŋ pa-nandʋ taa wɛ ɖɔɖɔ ñɩm nabʋyʋ sakɩyɛ.

Afanaa ɖɔɖɔ kɔŋna ñɩm pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ. Ɛyʋ pɩzɩɣ ɛɖɔɔ afanaa halɩ ɛkɔɔ ɛma ɖɩɣa nɛ pe-liidiya.

Ɖɔɖɔ wɛ wazaɣ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ ɛyʋ wezuu caɣʋ tɩŋa taa. Ɛyʋ ɛɖɔʋ ɖɔɖɔ camɩyɛ siŋŋ kɔyɔ, anasaayɩ huɖe ɛɛtazɩɣ-ɩ wɛnaʋ kɩjɛyʋʋ. Ŋgʋ anasaayɩ huɖe kʋʋna tɛtʋ mʋzʋŋ. Nɖɩ kɔŋna-ɖʋ kʋdɔmɩŋ ndɩ ndɩ ɖɔ-tɔɔnasɩ tɔɔʋ nʋmɔʋ taa. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se anasaayɩ huɖe kʋʋ tɔɔnasɩ nzɩ ɖɩhayɩɣ-sɩ nɛ kʋ yɔ sɩ-taa ñɩm sakɩyɛ.

Ɩyɔdɩ

Ɩyɔdɩ kɛ kpɛlɩ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tɛ pʊtʊ weyi ɛ-ñʊʊ mayaɣ kɔyɔ 53 nɛ yʊsaɣ ñɩŋa yɔ I. Ɛ nɛ kɩlɔrɩ waa po-lone ɖoli kʊyʊm. Pʊtʊ ɛnʊ ɛtɔtɔyɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa yem, nɛ ɛkɛ 47 tʊ tɛtʊ pɔɔɖɛ taa. Ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ kɩlɔrɩ wondu lɛɛtʊ yɔ pana-ɩ lɛ ɛwɛ ɛzɩ kɔtɩɩ waa naalɛ yɔ I2 kɛlɛ paya-ɩ se ɩyɔdɩ naalɛ tʊ, ɛkɛ ñɩɣlɩm pɩyʊ caʊʊ, fefeku ñɔsɩ wɛ yuulee cɛzʊʊ sɛmɩŋ.

Ɛ-hɩɖɛ lɩna krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ taa se ἰώδης nɛ pʊ-tɔbʊʊ se yuulee cɛzʊʊ sɛmɩŋ. Gay-Lussac yana-ɩ hɩɖɛ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ kpɛlɩ kpɛlɛkɩyʊ Bernard Courtois lɩ pʊtʊ ɛnʊ ɛ-yɔɔ pɩnaɣ 1811 yɔ pɩtɩŋna ɛlakaɣ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ aɖɔnɖɛlɛɛ lɩm mbʊ palakaɣ-pʊ nɛ kaŋwa siziŋ ɖɔm napoleon yoŋ alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ.

Ɛyʊ yaa tɛtɛ kpɩnɛ hɔɔlʊʊ taa mbʊ yɔ, ɩyɔdɩ ɛkɩlɩ ɖɔʊ yaa kɩtɔɖɔɔ kɔyɔ pɩkɔŋna kʊdɔmɩŋ kaɖɛ ñɩŋ sakɩyɛ. Yee ɩyɔɔdɩ ɛfɛyɩ tomnaɣ taa kɔyɔ ɛyʊ ɛɛpaɣlʊʊ, mbʊ tɩyʊʊna ɖɔɖɔ ɛyʊ liu tɛɛ lakɩɣ koŋgo yɔ. Pɩkɔŋna ɖɔɖɔ ɛyʊ ñʊʊ taa sidiɣ sidiɣ tɔm, tɔm ndʊ panaɣ-tʊ kɔzɩ kɔzɩ ɛyaa mba pɛ-tɛ wɛ pʊŋ ñʊŋ taa yɔ nɛ poposina teŋgiŋ yɔ.

Kiɖe tɛɛ lɛ, ɩyɔdɩ waa naalɛ yeke palaba nɛ pɛpɛdɩɣ. Kalɩsɩ (caliche) Siili ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ somuuri weyi ɛ-taa wɛ ɩyɔdɩ yɔ karasɩm hayɩm naa taa nɛ fefekiŋ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Sapɔŋ nɛ Etaazuunii ajɛyɛ taa. Ɩyɔdɩ kɛ ñɩɣlɩm pʊtʊ weyi ɛ-tɔm wɛ kɩjɛyɩɣ ɛyʊ fezuu labʊ taa yɔ. Ɛyʊ sɔsɔ tɛ mbʊ yɔ evemiye kʊyʊmɖɩyɛ pɩpɔzʊʊ se ɛtalɩ ɛ-taa 150 µg kɔzɩ kɔzɩ halaa hɔsɩ tɩnaa (200 à 290 μg). Ɛ-tʊmɩyɛ koŋ kɛlɛ se ɛla hɔkʊʊ seɣtiyaa, pa-taa kɛlɛ hɔkʊʊ ŋgʊ. Paɖʊ-ɩ ɖɔm kɩtɔɔm taa, nabʊyʊ taa naalɩm taa Ɛnglɩsɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Kʋnʋmɩŋ lɛɛŋ

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