Kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ

Kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ, pɩsa nɛ palɩzɩ ɖɩ-tɔbʊʊ lɛ pañɩkɩɣ niiye tɔmpee naatozo yɔɔ, kajalaɣ lɛ samaɣ wɛtʊ, naalɛ tɛ lɛ ɛyaa caɣyɛ nɛ nabutozo tɛ lɛ paɣtʊ lɩzɩɣ tɛ.

Ɖɩkpaɣ kʊyʊm kʊyʊm kɔyɔ kajalaɣ tɛ lɛ samaɣ wɛtʊ, kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ kɛ ɛyaa sakɩyɛ tɛ wɛtʊ tɔm kɛ ɛjaɖɛ kʊyʊmɖɩyɛ naɖɩyɛ taa nɛ ɖɩwɛna ɖɩ-kewiyaɣ paɣtʊ. Tɔmpiye nɖɩ paatɛma-ɖɩ katʊʊ kajalaɣ Fransɩɩ tɔmpee lɩzɩyaa tɔm kpou pɩnaɣ 1696 wɛɛ taa, nɛ pɔtɔŋ se ɛyaa nabayɛ komina kɛ wiyaʊ pɩɣa nakayɛ paɣtʊ tɛ.

Ɖɩkpaɣ samaɣ ŋga kɛ-tɛ caɣyɛ wɛtʊ taa kɔyɔ, pɩkɛ wɛtʊ ndʊ samaɣ ŋga kɛwɛna nɛ ɖama, patɩŋɩɣna ɖama nɛ pawzɩɣ-wɛ yɔ. Kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ pɩzɩɣ pɩwɩlɩɣ se ɛyaa nabayɛ mba panɩna ɖama se paɖʊ ɖama paɣtʊ nɛ pɩtɩŋɩɣ-tʊ yɔ. Paɣtʊ kpaɣʊʊ hɔɔlʊʊ taa lɛ, ɛjaɖɛ taa ɛyaa wɛna kewiyitu ndɩ ndɩ nɛ patayɩ-sɩ ɖama nɛ pɩkɛ-wɛ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ pɔcɔŋna tɩ-yɔɔ se pawazɩ paa anɩ nɛ samaɣ ŋga ka-maɣmaɣ nɛ pɩɖɛna-wɛ nɛ ɛsɩndaa.

Kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ lɩna latɛŋ kʊnʊŋ taa status, ɖɩlɩna lakaɣ stare nɛ pʊ-tɔbʊʊ kajalaɣ se yiɣyiɣ sɩŋʊʊ, nabʊlɛ nɩɣ taa lɛ ɖɩ-tɔbʊʊ caɣyɛ. Tɔmpiye nɖɩ ɖɩlɩ Erɔpʊ ajɛyɛ taa ɖooo kpaɣɖɩŋ hiu nɛ kagbanzɩ nɛ 16 nɛ 18 wɛɛ taa, ŋgʊ tɔmpiye kʊyʊnɖɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩ-tɔbʊʊ ɖɔɖɔ se ɛyʊ wɛtʊ samaɣ taa. Hannah Arendt cɔlɔ lɛ ɖɩlɩna latɛŋ kʊnʊŋ taa mbilim status rei publicae (tɔmpiye tɔmpiye nɩɣ taa pɩkɛ pɩyʊ wɛtʊ ɛjaɖɛ taa) nɛ pɩwɩlɩ ɖɔɖɔ se pɩkɛ kewiyaɣ yaa komina wɛtʊ.

Ajɛyɛ ñʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊ tɔm ɖɩzʊʊ (Décolonisation)

Ajɛyɛ ñʊʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊʊ tɔm ɖɩzʊʊ, pɩkɛ ɛsakuliye tɔm kpɛlɛkʊʊ mbʊ palaba Ampiiri pacaɣ ma-ñʊʊŋ yɔɔ waa tɛ kɛ ajɛyɛ ɖoŋ ñɩna wena akɔma nɛ acaɣa lɛɛna yɔɔ yɔ a-ɛsɩnda. Maɣzɩm mbʊ pɩtɩna nɛ ajɛyɛ pacaɣa ma-ñʊʊŋ yɔɔ waa hiɣ tɩyɔɔ wɛʊ tɛ sooci. Pɩpaɣzɩna caɣ pɩnaɣ 1775 Amerika ɛjɛɖɛ taa, ɛlɛ, kedeŋga kpeekpe you naalɛ ŋgʊ wayi tɔm ŋgʊ kʊñɔɔ. Kpɛɖɛɣɛ mbʊ lɛ, tɩ-tɩwalɩ kedeŋga kpeekpe taa pɩkpɛndɩna kajalaɣ ajɛyɛ lɩʊʊ tɛ ɖɔʊ kpaɣ kpaɣɖʊ 20 alɩwaatʊ taa. ONU maɣmaɣ ha waɖɛ takayaɣ se paɖɩzɩ tɔm ndʊ.

Tɩyɔɔ wɛʊ you Etaazuunii ɛjaɖɛ taa wɛ ɛzɩ kajalaɣ laɣsɩ nzɩ sɩtɩna ñʊʊ yɔɔ caɣʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ ɖɩzʊʊ yɔ, kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Amerika ɛyaa kʊɖʊma mba pañɩŋga siŋ se peseɣti tɩyɔɔ wɛʊ tɔm ajɛyɛ wena Erɔpʊ caɣ a-yɔɔ yɔ a-taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Ɛsɩpañɔɔlɩ ñna taa. Tovenim taa lɛ, Etaazuunii ɛjaɖɛ hiɣ tɩyɔɔ wɛʊ pɩtɩŋna yoŋ sɔsɔŋ nɩɩyɛ pa nɛ tɛtʊ ñʊʊŋ yɔɔ caɣyaa, pɩtɛkɛ pɛ-ɛjaɖɛ taa ɛyaa poyouna. Pɩlabʊ mbʊ lɛ, pɩfɛyʊʊ tɛtʊ tɩnaa yɔɔ nɛ ɖɔɖɔ lɛ pakʊ-wɛ, pɔtɔyɩtʊ-wɛ, ɛyaa mba lɛ, Erɔpʊ mba nɛ pehiɣ ɖoŋ siŋ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ pɛ-ɛyaa lɩna Erɔpʊ nɛ pɔkɔɔ pɔsɔzɩ pɔ-yɔɔ yɔ.

Ñʊʊ yɔɔ caɣʊ tɔmpiye tʊmɩyɛ labɩnaʊ tatʊzɩ camɩyɛ pʊtɔbʊ se ɖiyiduu yaa ɖɩfɛyɩ nɩɣʊ. Cɩnɛ lɛ ɖɩnɩɣ ɖɩ-tɔbʊʊ se ɛjaɖɛ ɖoŋ ñɩnɖɛ ndɩ ɖiyeba-ɖɩ, ɛlɛ ɖɩtalɩzɩ ɖɩ-nesi ɖɩ-nɛyɔ ɖɩ-tɔm taa, yaa ɖitikizi ɖɩ-nɛyɔ. Tɩyɔɔ wɛʊ mbʊ Amerika ajɛyɛ nʊʊŋ yɔɔ caɣa mʊwa yɔ, siɣe taa lɛ, pɩkɛ-wɛ ɖoŋ lɩmaɣza wena papɩzɩ nɛ pacaɣa ajɛyɛ lɛɛna yɔɔ yɔ. Pɩpɩsɩ-wɛ yoŋ Wɩsɩ Ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa kiŋ pa-nɛ Ɛsɩpanɔɔlɩ ɛyaa nɛ Fransɩɩ ɛyaa. Mbʊ pɩtɩna nɛ pɔtɔyɩtɩ ajɛyɛ tɛtʊ taa ɛyaa.

Kajalaɣ kedeŋga kpeekpe you alɩwaatʊ taa, Kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ taa tɛ arabɩ politiki ŋgʊ kɩɩwɛ ɖooo hooho Egipiti ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ, wala pɩtɩŋna kɩ-ɛyaa nabɛyɛ yɔɔ ɛzɩ Lawrence se pɩsa nɛ arabɩ ajɛyɛ lʊbɩna ottomanɩ Ampiiri. Lidau pazʊtʊ ndʊ palaba arabɩ ɛyaa yɔ palaba-tʊ ɖɔɖɔ Yuɖa ɛyaa nɛ Kurde ɛyaa se pɩsa nɛ pacamɩ koyondu Turki tʊ.

Pɩlɩna you ŋgʊ kʊyɔɔ lɛ, politiki ŋgʊ kiyele nɛ pɩtalɩ Sykes-Picot tɔm yɔɔ nɛ Khan Mayssaloun tɛ ɖama kpaʊ nɛ pɩɖɩzɩ arabɩ ajɛyɛ kpɛndʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɛ piyele patʊlɩ ajɛyɛ kɩfana Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ Cɔlɔ Kpam taa. Ajɛyɛ ana yɔ Siiri nɛ Irakɩ nɛ Transjordani wena acaɣa pazɩ ajɛyɛ kɩkpɛndʊʊ nesi tɛɛ yɔ nɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ ɖɩwɛ Palesitini nesi tɛ nɛ palabɩ-ɖɩ Yuda ajɛyɛ mɩzaɣ yɔ pɩtɩŋna wiyaʊ pɩɣa Faycal tɔm yɔɔ, ɛnʊ weyi arabɩ ajɛyɛ ñʊʊ tʊ weyi ɛlʊbɩna Turki ɛyaa yɔ.

Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing, palʊla-ɩ mɩsɩkʊm fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 23 pɩnaɣ 1912 kɛ Lɔndrɩ tɛtʊ taa. Ɛyʊ ɛnɛyɔ ɛsɩ mɩsɩkʊm fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 7 pɩnaɣ 1954 kɛ Wilmslow. Ɛɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyʊ nɛ mɛɛsaɣ tɛ maʊ tʊ kɛ Pritaniki tɛtʊ taa, ɛnʊ tɩna anasayɩ ñɩɣtʊ tʊma tɩlɩyɛ tɛ kiɖe.

Ɛyʊ ɛ-tɛ laɣsɩ yeba se pasɩ Church lɩmaɣza tam yɔɔ, weyi ɛyɔka lɛɣtʊ tɔmpiye taa mbʊ ɛzɩ papɩzɩ pakpaɣ-ɖɩ nɛ palabɩnɛ akɔnta yɔ. You sɔsɔʊ wayɩ lɛ, ɛnʊ lɛɣna labʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ anasaayɩ ñɩɣyʊʊ ŋgʊ ɖɩyaɣ se ɔɔrɩdɩnatɛɛrɩ yɔ kʊyɔ kajalaɣ ɖeɖe nɛ eseɣti ndɔnjɔlɩyɛ tɔmʊʊ ŋgʊ kʊyɔ se ɛzɩ papɩzɩ polu lɛɣtʊ, yes pakpakʊʊ Turing lɩmaɣza. E-fezuu caɣʊ tobi ŋgʊ wayɩ lɛ, ɛsɔɔlɩ ɛzɩma pɛkpɛlɛkɩ pɩɣa pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ kɛ-tɛ paɣlʊʊ nɛ Turing matʊ.

Kpaɣ kedeŋga kpeekpe you sɔsɔʊ naalɛ ŋgʊ alɩwaatʊ taa, ɛlaba tʊmɩyɛ sakɩyɛ Enigma ñɩɣyʊ ɛlɛ, mbʊ payi ɛlaba yɔ pɩɩwɛ mɛɛsaɣ tɛ nɛ Caama sɔɔjɔnaa lakɩna tʊmɩyɛ. Pɩtɛ wɛtʊ yeki nɛ pɔyɔkɩ mɛɛsaɣ tɛ matʊ, nɛ tɔm kɛdɩyaa sakɩyɛ cɔlɔ lɛ, piyeki nɛ paɖaŋ kpɛndɛ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ ɖoŋ pɩtalɩ ɛzɩ pɩnzɩ naalɛ mbʊ yɔ.

Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ 1952 pɩtɩŋna tɔmʊʊ nakʊyʊ yɔ se ɛsʊʊna abalaa lalaa mbʊ lɛ, pɩñɩŋɩ se pakpa-ɩ nɛ pahʊna-ɩ tɔm. Pɩsa nɛ pataa ɖɩ-ɩ salaka lɛ, etisi se pakpaɣ ɛ-hɩm yaa abalɩtʊ. Pamana Turing e-kuduyuu tɛ Manchester ɛsɩba, paɖʊ-ɩ kɔyɛ kɛ mɩsɩkʊm fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 7 pɩnaɣ 1954 taa.

Alan Turing, palʊla-ɩ Maida Vale, ajɛyɛ ñʊʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊ alɩwaatʊ taa tʊma yɔɔ cɔnɩyʊ nɔyʊ lʊlana-ɩ, paya-ɩ se Julius Mathison Turing ɛ-nɛ ɛ-halʊ Ethel Sarah Turing (Stoney hɔʊ taa palʊla-ɩ). Alan wɛna pɩnaɣ kʊyʊmaɣ mbʊ lɛ, Turing hɔʊ taa ɛgbadɩna ɖɔkɩna-ɩ. E-ɖoo pɩsɩ ɛkɔɔ ɛ-caa cɔlɔ, ɛɛwɛ Ɛndɩ samaɣ tʊmɩyɛ ɖɩlaɖɛ ɖeɖe. Papɩsɩ pɔkɔɔ patɩŋnɛ Kewiyaɣ Ɛjaɖɛ taa alɩwaatʊ ndʊ Julius mʊ hɛzʊʊ takayaɣ yɔ pɩnaɣ 1926 taa.

Ɛ-caanaa wona-ɩ Michael’s Kiɖeɖeu sukuli taa alɩwaatʊ ndʊ ɛwɛna pɩnzɩ loɖo yɔ. E-sukuli ñʊʊ tʊ caŋ ɛtɩlɩ-ɩ se ɛwɛ lɔŋ piŋ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ ɛ-wɩlɩyaa kɛ Marlborough tɛ kɔlɛzɩ taa. Marlborough sukuli taa peeɖe lɛ, tɔmʊʊ nakʊyʊ kɔna-ɩ kaɖɛ pazɩ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ, sukuli ŋgʊ kɩ-taa peeɖe lɛ ɛkatɩ ɛ-tabalaa mba yɔ pakɩlɩ paɣlʊʊ nɛ eyele ɛnaɣ ɛ-tɩ ɛzɩ ɛwɛ eyeke pɛ-hɛkʊʊ taa, ŋgʊ ɛnʊ kɩlɩna-wɛ lɔŋ.

Ampiiri pacaɣ ma-ñʊʊ yɔɔ waa (Empire coloniaux)

Ampiiri pacaɣa ma-ñʊʊ waa, pɩkɛ tɛtʊ ndʊ ajɛyɛ wena awɛ ɖoŋ sɔɔjɛtʊ hɔɔlʊʊ taa amʊwa nɛ pɩpɩsɩ-yɛ a-ñɩm yɔ ɖooo pitihiɣ alɩwaatʊ kedeŋga kpeekpe taa yɔ. Yee naayɛ ɛlaba politiki lɩmaɣza wena se a-sɔɔlɩm taa alɩzɩ a-maɣmaɣ a-tɩ ɛzɩ Japɔŋ kaalabʊ mbʊ Edo alɩwaatʊ taa, pʊwayi lɛ, a-ɖanɩɣ a-maɣmaɣ pazʊʊ tɔm ndʊ ɛzɩ Japɔŋ ŋgʊ Azii ɛjaɖɛ taa kɛ pɩnzɩ 1939-1945 taa, nɛ pɩtɛ walʊʊ sakɩyɛ sakɩyɛ tɩna kedeŋga kpeekpe you naalɛ ŋgʊ pɩnzɩ 1939-1945 alɩwaatʊ taa.

Ajɛyɛ wena awɛ Erɔpʊ nɛ wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ hɔɔlʊʊ taa yɔ lɛ, pɛ-tɛ Ampiiri paɣtʊ takayaɣ lɩna ɖooo Erɔpʊ taa ñɩnɩyɛ nɛ tɩlɩyɛ sɔsɔtʊ alɩwaatʊ pɩtɩŋna lɩm yɔɔ mɛlɛnaa saʊ (ŋnaʊ kɩsasaʊ, hayi wɩlɩyʊ ñɩɣyʊ, tɛtʊ tɛlɛnzɩ laɣsɩ) nɛ malɩfa lubutu.

Hadɛ yɔɔ ɛjaɖɛ ndɩ ɖɩyaɣ se Antaritiki yɔ wɛʊ mbʊ yɔ patacaɣ ɖɩ-ñʊʊ yɔɔ kaʊ, ɛlɛ, pamazɩ se ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ ɖɩ-taa peeɖe lɛɣtʊ kpɛlɛkʊʊ wɛɛ. Ajɛyɛ 25 mbʊ yɔ tɛ lɛɣtʊ ɖoŋ wɛ Ataritiki ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ a-taa peeɖe lɛ, lʊbɛ pɔzʊʊ ajɛyɛ yɔɔ (Ositralii, Zelandɩ Kɩfalʊ, Kewiyaɣ Ɛjaɖɛ, Fransɩɩ, Nɔrɩfɛzɩ, Arzantini nɛ Siili) ɛlɛ, pɩtɛ ñɩŋgɩɣ mbʊ pɩkpa ɖoŋ (mʊlʊm tɔmpiye) pɩtɩŋna Antaritiki nɩnaʊ takayaɣ yɔ. Ajɛyɛ ana a-tɛ komina wɛna tindima ndɩ ndɩ Antaritiki taa nɛ Hadɛ yɔɔ lɩŋgamʊʊ taa ajɛyɛ wena lɩm cɔ-yɛ pɩta yɔ a-taa.

Sɩlavɩ nɛ roumain ajɛyɛ tɔm kɛdɩyaa mba paakɛ kpaɣɖʊ 18 ŋtalɩ 19 ŋgʊ taa Otirisi Ampiiri taa nɛ pɩtasɩna Otirirsi nɛ Hoŋgiri nɛ ɖenɖe Caama ajɛyɛ kaacaɣ tɛtʊ natʊyʊ ñʊŋ yɔɔ nɛ Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ taa yɔ kiŋ kaamaɣza ɛzɩ pɩɩkɛ Ampiiri pacaɣ ma-ñʊʊ yɔɔ tɛ ŋgʊ (ŋgʊ Lénine yawaɣ se samaɣ salaka tɛ ɛyaa pɩnaɣ 1918 alɩwaatʊ taa. Mbʊ ɖɔɖɔ Woodrow Wilson ñɩɣ niye nɛ ɛtɔŋ se pɔyɔkɩ-kʊ pɩlɩna ɛ-tɛ hiu nɛ nanza paɣtʊ yɔɔ paɣtʊ hiu ndʊ yɔɔ pɩnaɣ 1918). Lɩmaɣzɩyɛ ndɩ ɖɩkɔna ŋtɔnjɔlɩyɛ siŋ tɔm kɛdɩyaa sakɩyɛ hɛkʊ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Caama ñɩma nɛ Otirisi ñɩma, mba papa mazɩ se pɩɩkɛ Habsbourg Ampiiri walɩna pɩtɩŋna ajɛyɛ tɛ ɖama taa sʊʊ.

Bernhard Riemann

Georg Friedrich Bernahard Riemann, palʊla-ɩ salaŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 17 pɩnaɣ 1826 kɛ Breslenz tɛtʊ taa, Caama ɛjaɖɛ. Ɛsɩ hasɩyaɖɛ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 20 pɩnaɣ 1866 kɛ Selasca ɛjaɖɛ taa, pɩkɛ egeetiye cikpeɖe naɖɩyɛ Verbania kooka taa kɛ Itaalii ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛyʊ ɛɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyʊ Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Palʊla-ɩ Breselenz, pɩkɛ haɖaa kooka nakɛyɛ Hanover kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ taa kɛ nɔɔnɔɔ tɛ Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa. Riemann kɛ pɩɣa naalɛ ŋga kɛ pɩyaa loɖo taa. Ɛ-caa, Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, ɛɛkɛ Luther ninɖiyu yaa pastɔɣɔ, ɛlaba ɖɔɖɔ napoléon tɛ yoŋ. E-ɖoo Charlotte Ebell, ɛlɛ ñasɩba lɔŋ pʊcɔ e-pipaa paɣlɩ. Bernhard kaawɛ pɩɣa ŋñɩɩ mbʊ yɔ, ɛ-ñʊʊ taa katɛma wɛʊ lɛɣtʊ lɔŋ. Ɛlɛ ɛyʊ ɛnʊyɔ ɛɛwɛ hɛmmm nɛ ɛsɔɔlʊʊ yɔɔdʊʊ ɛyaa taa mbʊ lɛ, pɩpɩsɩ-ɩ kʊdɔŋ ɛ-ñʊʊ taa.

Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ 1840 taa lɛ, Bernhard wolo Hanover ɛcaɣ e-neze cɔlɔ nɛ ewoki Lyceum (kɔlɛzɩ sukuli). E-neze sɩba pɩnaɣ 1842 wayi lɛ, ewolo Lunebourg se pɩsa ɛpɩzɩ ɛla ɛ-kɔlɛzɩ sukuli. Ɛkɔma ɛtalɩ hɛkʊ taa sukuli kɩlɛlʊʊ ɖamɩŋ taa lɛ, ɛkpɛlɛkɩ sakɩyɛ Ɛsɔ tɔm takayaɣ, ɛlɛ, ɛkɩlɩ sɔɔlʊʊ lɛɣtʊ tɔm nɛ halɩ ɛsɔɔlɩ se ɛtakɩ nɛ ɛwɩlɩ takayaɣ ŋga ka-taa tɔm kiɖe nɛ lɛɣtʊ lɔŋ yɔ. Pɩɖɩzɩ ɛ-wɩlɩyaa se papɩzɩ panɩɩ ɛ-lɔŋ tɔbʊʊ nɛ pocosi-i.

Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ 1846 taa lɛ, ɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 19 kɛlɛ, pɩtɩŋna e-liɖe liidiye yɔɔ lɛ, ɛpazɩ kpɛlɛkʊʊ lɔnsɩnɖɛ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ Ɛsɔ tɔm kpɛlɛkʊʊ camɩyɛ se pɩha-ɩ waɖɛ nɛ ɛpɩsɩ pastɔɣɔ yaa Ɛsɔ tɔm heyiyu nɛ ɛkapɩzɩ nɛ ɛha liidiye ɛ-ñɩma.

Pɩnaɣ 1847 taa lɛ, ɛ-caa hayi nɔmɔʊ se ɛpazɩ kpɛlɛkʊʊ lɛɣtʊ tʊmɩyɛ. Kajalaɣ lɛ, ɛla Göttingen sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa ɖenɖe ɛkata Carl Friedrich Gauss yɔɔ, pʊwayɩ lɛ, ɛla Berlin sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa ɖɔɖɔ ɖenɖe ɛkata wɩlɩyaa lalaa ɛzɩ Jacobi nɛ Steiner nɛ Dirichlet. Ehiɣa se ɛpɩsɩ wɩlɩyʊ kɛ Göttingen sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa pɩnaɣ 1857 taa lɛ, ɛɖanɩɣ kpaʊ Dirichlet lɩmaɣza alɩwaatʊ ɛlɛ ñasɩba yɔ. Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ 1862 lɛ, ɛkpaɣ halʊ nɛ paya ɛlɛ se Elise Koch. Bernhard sɩbɩna kpezi wɩlaɣ kʊɖɔŋ mbʊ lɛ, ɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 39 kɛ Selasca tɛtʊ taa nɛ pepime-ɩ Biganzolo sɩɖaa naŋ yɔɔ kɛ Verbania tɛtʊ taa.

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß (Caama kʊnʊŋ taa pɔyɔɔdʊʊ se gaʊs, matʊ paɣtʊ taa lɛ, pama se Gauss nɛ Fransɩɩ kʊnʊŋ taa, Itaalii kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ, Carolus Fridericus Gauss). Palʊla-ɩ ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 30 pɩnaɣ 1777 kɛ Brunswick nɛ ɛsɩ lɛlaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 23 pɩnaɣ 1855 kɛ Göttingen. Ɛyʊ ɛɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyʊ, nɛ tɩyɩnzɩ yɔɔ kpɛlɛkʊʊ niye mʊyʊ nɛ ɖɔɖɔ tomnasɩ ɖɔnɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ kɛ Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛkɔna lɔŋ lɩmaɣza sakɩyɛ hɔɔlɩŋ ɛnʊ ɛ-niitozo ɛ-taa. Pɛsɛyɩ-ɩ hɩɖɛ se lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyaa wiyaʊ nɛ pɔtɔ se ɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyaa taa niye mʊyʊ kɛ pɛ-tɛ alɩwaatʊ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyaa tɩŋa taa.

Gauss kaakɛnɛ Göttingen losuu tʊmɩyɛ ɖɩlaɖɛ nɔɔ ɖɛyʊ ɛlɛ, ɛta lakɩ tʊmɩyɛ ɛzɩ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyʊ wɩlɩyʊ. Ɖɩcɔna nɛ ɖɩnaɣ kɔyɔ ɛtaasɔɔlɩ wɩlɩɣ tʊmɩyɛ kpoyi ɛlɛ, eseɣtaɣ e-sukuli piyaa sakɩyɛ nɛ halɩ pa-taa sakɩyɛ kɔɔ papɩsɩ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyaa siŋ kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Gotthold Eisenstein nɛ Bernhard Riemann. Gauss, palʊla-ɩ keeke Brunswich-Wolfenbüttel, kɛ kʊñɔŋ cejewiye naɖɩyɛ taa. E-doo kaakɛ kɩsɩŋɩlɩɣ nɛ ɛtapɩzɩɣ ɛɖɔkɩ ɛ-lʊlʊʊ evemiye. Ɛlɛ, ɛpɩza ɛtɔzɩ se palʊla-ɩ cɩla nakʊyʊ wiye, kɩyakɩŋ lutozo pʊcɔ patɔɔ Yeesu Krɩstʊ tɛ ɛsɔda kpaʊ kazandʊ ndʊ pɔtɔkɩ-tʊ Pasɩka wayi kɩyakʊ 40 ŋgʊ wiye yɔ.

Pɩnaɣ 1792 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ Brunswick cɔna nɛ ɛna se ɛwɛ lɔŋ piŋ mbʊ lɛ, ɛhayɩ liidiye kɩhɛyɛ naɖɩyɛ se pɩsɩna-ɩ nɛ ɛla e-sukuli. Kɛlɛ pɩha-ɩ ɖoŋ nɛ ɛɖɛɛ Carolo-Wilhelmina Brunswick lɛɣtʊ sukuli kɛtɛzʊʊ taa kɛ kpaɣ pɩnzɩ 1792 nɛ 1795 hɛkʊ taa. Peeɖe ɛkpɛlɛka nakaŋ yɔɔ kpɛlɛkɩtʊ sukuli.

Pɩnaɣ 1804 taa kɛ ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 12 alɩwaatʊ palɩza-ɩ se ɛkɛ Royal Society ŋgbɛyɛ taa ɛyʊ. Aloma fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 9 pɩnaɣ 1805 taa ɛɖɔkɩ ɛ-tɛ kajalaɣ nesi ɖɔkʊ ɛ-nɛ ɛ-halʊ Johanna Osthoff. Mbʊ lɛ, ɛñɩnɩɣ ehiɣ nɛ ɛwɛ ɛ-tɩyɔɔ kɛlɛ pɩkɔma pɩnaɣ 1807 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, pakpa-ɩ se ɛkɛ tɩyɩnzɩ yɔɔ kpɛlɛkʊʊ wɩlɩyʊ nɛ losuu tʊmɩyɛ ɖɩlaɖɛ ñʊʊ tʊ kɛ Göttingen tɛtʊ taa.

Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ pɩsɩ lɛ, ɛtasɩ halʊ kpaʊ nɛ ɛlɛ paya se Minna Waldeck (kɩyɛɛna fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 4 pɩnaɣ 1810 alɩwaatʊ taa). Pɩnaɣ kʊyʊmaɣ ŋga ka-taa lɛ, ɛ-halʊ naalɛ tʊ sɩ. Ɛ-pɛlɔ Thèrèse kpaɣ mɩzaɣ yɔɔ sʊʊtʊ nɛ ɛcɔŋna ɛ-caa yɔɔ pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ ɛlɛ ñɩɩza kedeŋga yɔ. Pɩkɔma lɛlaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 23 pɩnaɣ 1855 taa lɛ, ɛsɩ Göttingen tɛtʊ taa kɛ Hanover kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Pepimi-ɩ Albani sɩɖaa naŋ yɔɔ.

Charles 2 le Chauve

Charles 2 tʊ pɛɖɛyɩ-ɩ se ñʊʊ haza haza tʊ yaa ñʊʊ sakɩŋ tʊ, palʊla-ɩ mɩsɩkʊm fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 13 pɩnaɣ 823 kɛ Francfort-sur-le-Main tɛtʊ taa Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛyʊ ɛsɩ aloma fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 6 pɩnaɣ 877 Avrieux (Savoie). Ɛyʊ ɛnɛyɔ ɛɛkɛ Charlemagne sɛyɩ nɔyʊ mba pɛtɛyɩ Ampiiri pɩnaɣ 843 alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ. Ɛnʊ kɛnɛ Aquitaine wiyaʊ kpaɣ ɖooo ɛ-caa kewiyaɣ alɩwwatʊ Louis, Fransɩɩ wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ hɔɔlʊʊ taa wiyaʊ pɩnzɩ 843 ŋtalɩ 877 nɛ papamɩ-ɩ kewiyaɣ hulaɣ sɔsɔ Wɩsɩ Ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa kiŋ pɩnaɣ 875.

Pɩnaɣ 867 tɛ paɣzɩyɛ alɩwaatʊ taa, Charles pɩsɩ ɛyaa kpeekpe tɛ fada kɛ Denis kiɖeɖeu taa. Agoza fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 5 pɩnaɣ 877, kɩyakʊ ŋgʊ papa Jean 8 Maari Kiɖeɖeu Ɛsɔ sɛtʊ ŋgbɛyɛ tɩna nɖɩ ɖɩkaɣ kɛʊ Corneille Kiɖeɖeu fada kɛ Compiègne yɔ, ɛhʊ ɛ-ñʊʊ koloŋgolo se pɩwɩlɩ se etisa piŋ Ɛsɔ yɔɔ, ŋgʊ ɛyaa mba pɛ-tɛ lɛ, Ɛsɔ sɛtʊ kpaŋ taa lɛ, pɩfɛyɩ se wiyaʊ nɔyʊ ɛhʊ ɛ-ñʊʊ mbʊ, ɛlɛ eyeba tandʊʊ cɔm cɔm.

Ɛkɛ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ Louis pɔtɔdɩyɛ nayʊ Ɛsɔ paɣtʊ yɔɔ ɖaŋɩyʊ piŋ pɩɣa ɛ-nɛ ɛ-halʊ kɩlɛlɩyʊ Judith Bavière ñɩnʊ, pakpa-ɩ nɛ pɛcɛlɛ tɔm wɩlɩyʊ sɔsɔ nɔyʊ Walafrid Strabon (808 cɔlɔ ŋtalɩ 809-849), ɛkɛ mʊwanɩ Reichenau mʊwanɩ waa kpaŋ taa kɛ Alémanie. Pɩnzɩ nakʊ wɛɛ taa Strabon ɖɔkɩ sukuli wɩlʊʊ evebupɩɣa kanɛyɔ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ɛɛwɛna lidau piŋ pɩɣa kɛnɛ kɔyɔ.

Pɩnaɣ 837, Aix Ɛsɔ kuduyuu tɛ kedizaɣ ɖɩlaɖɛ wɛɛ, ɛ-caa kpeɣi-ɩ ajɛyɛ wena aañɔtɩna-wɛ nɛ awɛ Frise nɛ Seine taa yɔ. Pɩnaɣ 838, ɛmʊ ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ ɖɩkpɛndɩna Maine nɛ egeetiye nɖɩ ɖɩɩwɛ Seine nɛ Loire pɛ-hɛkʊ taa yɔ. Pɩnaɣ 838 agoza fenaɣ kɩyakɩŋ 28 yaa 30, Worms kedizaɣ ɖeɖe, Louis pʊtɔdɩyɛ nayʊ cɛlɛ-ɩ Fransɩɩ wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa hɔɔlʊʊ ŋgʊ kɩwɛ Meuse nɛ Seine pɛ-hɛkʊ taa yɔ, Bourgogne wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ nɛ hadɛ yɔɔ kiŋ, Provence nɛ Neustrie nɛ Bretagne nɛ Aquitaine kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ nɛ Gascogne nɛ Septimanie.

Pɩnaɣ 840 alɩwaatʊ taa pa-caa Louis pɔtɔdɩyɛ nayʊ ɛnʊ ɛsɩba kpa lɛ, piyaa paɣzɩ youp a-taa pe-yeke. Charles kpɛndɩ ɛ-tɩ nɛ Germaniiki Louis, kɛlɛ paha ɛsɛ nɛ Lothaire 1 tʊ, pa-ɖalʊʊ sɔsɔ weyi ɛlɛ maɣzɩ se ɛtɛyɩna-wɛ Ampiiri. Ɛlɛ patɩŋa pɛkpɛdɩ pawa Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, Bourgogne you pɩnaɣ 841.

Pɩnaɣ 843 alɩwaatʊ taa kpa lɛ, kɔkɔɖɛ sʊʊ Charles ñʊʊ koloŋgolo tʊ nɛ Nominoë pɛ-hɛkʊ taa. Pɩnaɣ 845, Ballon you wɛɛ taa lɛ, Nominoë wa Charles ñʊʊ koloŋgolo tʊ. Nɩnaʊ takayaɣ kajalaɣ ŋga wɛ pɛ-hɛkʊ taa pɩnaɣ 846. Nominoë pɩsɩ Bretgne wiyaʊ. Pɛ-hɛkʊ taa you ɖanɩɣ paɣzɩ pɩnaɣ 849 lɛ, Bretgne ɛyaa tɩ ɖɔm pɔyɔɔ nɛ kɩkpaɣ Rennes nɛ Nantes tɛtʊ. Kɩyɛna fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 22 pɩnaɣ 851 taa lɛ, Erispoë wa Charles ɖɔɖɔ Jengland you ɖeɖe.

Guillaume le conquérant

Guillaume wabɩyʊ kɛ Anglɩtɛɛrɩ wiyaʊ nɛ paya-ɩ Guillaume Kajalaɣ tʊ, Normandii ɛyaa tɛ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ papa ya-ɩ se Guillaume 2, patasɩ-ɩ yaʊ ɖɔɖɔ se Bâtard Guillaume, palʊla-ɩ Falaise tɛtʊ taa pɩnaɣ 1027 yaa 1028 nɛ ɛsɩ Rouen salaŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 9 pɩnaɣ 1087, ɛɛkɛ wiyaʊ Anglɩtɛɛrɩ kpaɣ 1066 pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ ɛ-sɩm pɩnaɣ kɛ 1087 nɛ Normandii waa tɛ wiyaʊ pɩnaɣ 1035 pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ ɛ-sɩm ɖɔɖɔ.

Robert Magnifique nɛ Falaise Arlette (Herleva) pɩɣa kɛlɛ, Guillaume pɩsa Normandii ɛjaɖɛ tɛ wiyaʊ lɛ, ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 8, mbʊ lɛ, ɛ-caa kaasɩba. Yoŋ alɩwaatʊ sakɩyɛ wayi kɛ ɛpɩza ɛɖanɩ kpaʊ kewiyaɣ kpaɣ Val-ès-Dunes you wayi kɛ pɩnaɣ 1047 taa. Ɛla halʊ Flandre Mathide kpaɣ pɩnaɣ 1050, nɛ ɛpɩsɩ Normandii ɛjaɖɛ ɛjaɖɛ ɖoŋ nɖɛ, ɛsɔndʊʊ Fransɩɩ wiyaʊ Henri 1 (pɩnaɣ 1031 ŋtalɩ 1060) nɛ Philippe 1 (pɩnaɣ 1060 ŋtalɩ 1108).

Fada Edouard sɩm wayi lɛ, ɛfana kewiyaɣ lɛɛzɩtʊ you nɛ ɛkpa ɛcaɣ Anglɩtɛɛrɩ kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ yɔɔ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ ɛwaba Hastings you yɔ pɩnaɣ 1066. Wabɩtʊ ndʊ tɩpɩsɩ-ɩ ɛjaɖɛ ñʊʊ tʊ weyi paakuluu nɛ-ɩ nɔɔ Eerɔpʊ wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ nɛ pɩkɔna lɛɛzɩtʊ sakɩyɛ Aŋglɩtɛɛrɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa, ɛlɛ pɩtɩŋɛ payi mbʊ yɔ pʊmʊʊ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ Normandie sɔsaa tiba pɛ-ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Pʊwayi lɛ, ɛpaɣzɩ labʊ yoŋ nɛ e-koyondina sakɩyɛ, paa Aŋglɩtɛɛrɩ taa peeɖe maɣmaɣ yaa (kʊyɩnɩyaa mba paawɛ Edgar Atheling wayi yɔ, Danois ɛyaa nɛ Ecɔsɩ ɛyaa) yaa ɛjaɖɛ mba (Foulque Réchin kɩpaɣlʊ, Flandre kɩpaɣlʊ Robert 1, kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Fransɩɩ Philippe 1). Ɛyʊ ɛnɛyɔ ɛsɩ Rouen tɛtʊ taa pɩnaɣ 1087 alɩwaatʊ taa ndʊ ɛɖʊ Mante kabʊɣa taa, ewoba you nɛ Philippe 1kɛ Vexin tɛtʊ taa. Pepimi-ɩ Abbaye ɛzɩ Caen ɛyaa yɔ.

Robert Magnifique pɩsa Normand tɛ wiyaʊ pɩnaɣ 1027 kɩyɛɛna fenaɣ kɩyakʊ, alɩwaatʊ ndʊ ɛ-ɖalʊ sɔsɔ Richard 3 tʊ sɩba yɔ, mbʊ lɛ, ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 20 yeke. Ɛnɛ ɛnʊyɔ ɛlɛzɩ pa-caa Richard 2 tʊ lone taa, ɛlɛ sɩba puwoba ɛzɩ pɩnaɣ kʊɖʊmaɣ mbʊ yɔ. Richard 3 tʊ tɛ tuda sɩm waza Robert, weyi pahuna-ɩ tɔm pɩtɩŋna takayasɩ maya yɔɔ se ɛnʊ ɖʊna kɔyɛ ɛ-ɖalʊ. Richard yele evebupɩɣa nakayɛ kalɩmpaɣnɩ ñɩŋa, Nicola koposɩna kewiyaɣ ɖɩɣa.

Justinien

Justinien Kajalaɣ tʊ yaa Justinien Sɔsɔ (latɛŋ kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ, Imperator Caesar Flavius Petrus Justinianus Sabbatius Augustus, Krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ, Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός), palʊla-ɩ 482 cɔlɔ mbʊ yɔ Tauresium tɛtʊ taa, pʊñɩtɩna Justinana Prima Illyrie cɔlɔ kpam. Ɛsɩ kamɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 15 pɩnaɣ 565 Constantinople.

Ɛɛkɛ Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ ɛjaɖɛ taa Room wiyaʊ sɔsɔ. Ɛcaɣ kewiyaɣ kpelaɣ pɩnaɣ 527 pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ ɛ-sɩm alɩwaatʊ. Ɛkɛ kɩbɩnjaazɩ kɩɖɩnaʊ taa ɛyaa taa ɛyʊ nɔyʊ. kpaɣ kewiyaɣ hɔɔlʊʊ taa nɛ Ampiiri kamasɩ tuzuu nɛ Ɛsɔ sɛtʊ politiki ɛlaba tʊma wena yɔ pɩfɛyɩ yɔɔdʊʊ.

Ɛwɛ camɩyɛ hɛɛɛ, mbʊ lɛ, ɛpɩzɩ kewiyaɣ kpelaɣ tɔm pɩtɩŋna e-kpele weyi maɣmaɣ kaakɛ nɛ wiyaʊ Justin kajalaɣ tʊ, weyi ɛɛkɛ lɔŋ tasɩya taa lɔŋ tasɩyʊ sɔsɔ pʊcɔ ɛkɔɔ ɛlɛzɩ-ɩ yɔ. Yee e-kewiyaɣ kpelaɣ kpaʊ ɛlaba you kɔyɔ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ pɩɩwɛɛ se ɛhaɣ ɛsɛ nɛ Nika ɛyaa tɛ kʊyɩnaʊ nɛ kewiyaɣ kpelaɣ, nɛ ɛsɩɩ e-kiwiyaɣ ɖoŋ ɖɛfɛɛ ɖɛfɛɛ Ampiiri taa, ŋgʊ ɖooo kɩwɛʊ yɔ kɩɩkɛ Room ñɩŋʊ yɔ, pɩlɩna Ampiiri tɛ ɖanɩɣ pɩsʊʊ tambɔɣ yɔɔ.

Papɩzɩɣ pɛtɛyɩ-ɩ Justinien kewiyitu alɩwaatʊ tɔm nabʊlɛ taa yaa hɔɔlɩŋ naalɛ taa. Kpaɣnɛ pɩnaɣ 527 ŋtalɩ 540, wabɩtʊ na keelee, tɩwɛɛ kɛlɛʊ nɛ tɩcaɣ yuŋ. Ŋgʊ pʊwayɩ lɛ e-kewiyaɣ hɔɔlʊʊ naalɛ ŋgʊ kaawɛ paɖɩyɩtʊ.

Paakpa Ampiiri kɩ-kamasɩ siŋ nɛ yoŋ labʊ kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Itaalii ñɩŋʊ tɔlɩ. Yee Ampiiri ɛtakpa kɩ-tɩ yɔ lɩmaɣza ɖanɩɣ pɩsʊʊ hɔɔlɩŋ ɛnʊ ɛtɩŋa ɛ-taa nɛ ɛ-sɩm wayi Wɩsɩ Ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa Room Ampiiri talɩ kɩ-ɖoŋ ɖeɖe tɛtʊ lɩmaɣza taa.

Justinien kewiyitu sɩmtʊ lɩna kiɖe tɛɛ tɔm takayasɩ sakɩyɛ cɔlɔ. Lɛɛtʊna lɩna Justinien cɔlɔ kɔzɩ kɔzɩ ɛjaɖɛ paɣtʊ takayasɩ nzɩ ɛlaba kpaɣ ɖooo e-kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ taa nɛ sɩtʊsʊʊ mʊntʊsʊʊ ɛzɩma ɛlaba e-kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ yɔ. Pʊcɔ lɛ, ɖama kewiyaɣ mʊʊ takayasɩ maya yaa tɔm cɔlɩya kaama e-kewiyaɣ tɔm. Césarée Procope ñɩndʊ ñɛwɛ poliŋ nɛ ntʊyɔna. Ɛ-tʊma takayasɩ ñɩkʊʊ niiye yoŋ weyi Justinien kaalaba e-kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ taa. Yoŋ ɛ-taa kɔyɔ Perse you nɛ Vandales you nɛ Goth you.

Kpɛlɩ lɛɛzʊʊ tʊma sɔsɔna (Révolution industrielle)

Tʊma sɔsɔna kpɛlɩ lɛɛzʊʊ, tɔmpiye ndɩ Adolphe Blanqui lɩzɩna-ɖɩ nɛ pʊwayi lɛ, Friedrich Engels nɛ Arnold Toynbee palɩzɩ pawɩlɩ ɖɩ-wazaɣ. Pɩkɛ kpaɣɖʊ 19 alɩwaatʊ taa laɣsɩ ndɩ ndɩ nzɩ sɩyeba nɛ pɩlɛɛzɩ kiɖi yaa kpɛlɩ pɩlɩna ajɛyɛ nɛ ageeta hɔɔlɩŋ cɔlɔ, ɛyaa mba paasɩma se haɖaa nɛ nesi tɛ tʊma tɩnaa yɔ pɩsa tadɩyɛ laɖaa sɔsaa nɛ tʊma laɖaa sɔsaa. Pɩ-tɛ lɛɛzɩtʊ ndʊ, tɩlɩna suluku kpaya wazaɣ yɔɔ kɛ pɩnzɩ 1840 taa nɛ pɩtana yaa putukina ɖɔɖɔ haɖaʊ tʊma nɛ tɔsʊʊ huu tʊma politiki tʊma nɛ ɛyaa nɛ mbʊ pʊcɔ-ɖʊ pɩta kpɛɣɛ yɔ.

Canaʊ tɔm kɛdɩyaa nabɛyɩ etisuu tɔmpiye ndɩ ɖɩ-tɛ lɛɣtʊ wazaɣ yɔ. Werner Sombart cɔlɔ lɛ, (liidiye yeke lakɩna lɩmaɣza tɛ kɩfam pɩnaɣ 1902) kpɛlɩ lɛɛzʊʊ tʊma sɔsɔna kɛ canaʊ pɩyʊ mbʊ pɩpaza Florence yɔɔ kpaɣɖʊ 14 alɩwaatʊ taa pɩkpɛndɩna tɛtʊ taa maŋgɩla waa tɛ ɛsakuliye. Fernand Braudel yeki se ɖɩna kiɖi wɛtʊ ndʊ kpɛlɩ lɛɛzʊʊ pʊnɛ pɩlakɩ yɔ pɩzɩɣ nɛ pɩla kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ kpɛm taa yeke.

Pasɩma kpɛlɩ lɛɛzʊʊ tʊma sɔsɔna nɛ mbʊ yɔ, mbʊ lɛ se paasɩma ɛyaa mba nɛ haɖaʊ tʊma nɛ nesi tɛ tʊma yɔ, papɩsa tadɩyɛ laɖaa sɔsaa nɛ tʊma laɖaa sɔsaa nɛ maɣzɩm tɩŋga kɛ lɛɣtʊ yaa nesi tɛ lɛɣtʊ ñɩnaa nɛ awɛ camɩyɛ cɔlɩɩ. Kpɛlɩ lɛɛzɩtʊ tʊma sɔsɔna (sakɩyɛ taa lɛ,) pɩkɛ tʊma sɔsɔna wɛtʊ ndɩ ndɩ ndʊ tɩwɛ ndɩ ndɩ kɛ ajɛyɛ taa wɛɛ kɩfana taa yɔ, mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ kpɛlɩ lɛɛzɩtʊ lɩna tevenim tibu yɔɔ pɩlɩna alɩwaatʊ nɛ lona cɔlɔ yaa ajɛyɛ cɔlɔ.

Lona yaa ajɛyɛ wena a-taa pɛlɛ pazɩɣ tʊma ana yɔ ana yɔ Grande-Bretagne kpaɣɖʊ 18 alɩwaatʊ tɛmtʊ taa. Pʊwayɩ Pɛlɩzɩkɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ Fransɩɩ nɛ hayi kiŋ nɛ Suwisi kpaɣɖʊ 19 paɣzʊʊ cɔlɔ. Pɩkɛ kajalaɣ hɔɔlʊʊ ajɛyɛ. Caama nɛ Etaazuunii paɣzɩ tʊma sɔsɔna ana alabʊ kpaɣna 19 hɛkʊ taa, Japɔŋ ɛjaɖɛ kpaɣna pɩnaɣ 1868 nɛ Ruusi kɛ kpaɣɖʊ 19 tɛmtʊ taa. Ajɛyɛ ana akɛ hɔɔlʊʊ naalɛ ŋgʊ ñɩna.

Kpaɣna hɛkʊ nɛ hɛkʊ alɩwaatʊ tɛmtʊ ŋwolo ŋtalɩ kpaɣɖʊ 18, ɛyaa ɖɔʊʊ kaawɛ sakɩyɛ nɛ pɛkɛ haɖaa yeke. Ɛlɛ lona nayɛ taawɛ pɩta ɛzɩ Flanfre, haɖaʊ taakɩlɩ cɛyʊʊ peɖe hayim sɔsɔm tɩna kaatɩna tɛtʊ. Hayim yebuu pɩnzɩ naalɛ yaa natozo kaakɛ-wɛ paɣtʊ nɛ pɛkpɛndaɣ pahayɩɣ nɔɔ kʊɖʊmaɣ, pata cɔzɩ hayɩm naa kolonzi nɛ pɩzɩwanaɣ nɛ wonduu yɛlɩɣ paa le.

Krɛkɩ kɩbɩnʊʊ kʊnʊŋ

Krɛkɩ kɩbɩnʊʊ caanaʊ tɔm kɛna Krɛsɩ kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ kɩɩwɛ kpaɖʊ naakʊ nɛ ntalɩ kpaɖʊ naanza pʊcɔ palʊlɩ Yeesu-Chrɩstʊ.

Kiɖe tɛɛ lɛ, yɔɔdasɩɩ kɔɖɔ sakɩyɛ, nɛ pekpeelɩ-sɩ lona naanza. Arcadochypriote nɛ Wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa (Occidental) nɛ éolien nɛ ionien-attikii waa. Krɛsɩ kʊnʊŋ yɔɔdaɣ fɛyɩna tɔbʊʊ nɩʊ sɔsɔʊ nakʊyʊ pacaɣ se pɔyɔɔdʊʊ-kʊ lɛ pɩkɩtɩ nɛ wɛ ageeda taa kʊnʊmɩŋ kɩbɩŋ yɔɔ. Tɔm kɛdʊ taa lɛ, Krɛsɩ kɩbɩnɩʊ lɩzɩʊ Attikii, kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ ionien-attikii mba yɔɔdʊʊ yɔɔ, kɩkɛ Atɛnɩ kɩbɩnɩʊ kʊŋʊŋ.

Kɩkɛ kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ kɩ-taa pamana sakɩyɛ krɛsɩ yɔɔlɩɩ masɩ. Helllénistikii alʊwaatʊ taa nɛ Hellénofɔnɩ ɛyaa tɛ ɖama siduu yele nɛ koinè pɩsɩ ɖama tɛ kʊnʊŋ. Koinɛ ŋgʊ kɩlɩna yɔɔdasɩ sakɩyɛ taa, ionien-attikii agbela taa nɛ kɩcaɣ nɛ kʊkʊʊ woɖe yɔ woɖe yɔ kʊnʊŋ lɛɛŋ tɛ labɩnaʊ. Kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ kɩbɩsɩ canaʊ lingua franca, nɛ kɩnɛ Latɛnɩ pe-heluu ɖama.

Koinè pɩsɩ pʊwayi kewiyaɣ kʊnʊŋ wɩsɩ ɖʊɖʊyɛ Romanɩ awiyaa caa kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ nɛ pʊcɔ kɩ-huu nɛ kɩyele se Krɛsɩ sɔnɔ ŋgʊ ɛwɛ. Ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ Ɛndɩ-Erɔpʊ kʊnʊmɩŋ kɩbɩŋ lɛɛŋ yɔɔ, Krɛsɩ tɔmpe pɩsɩʊ kʊya ɛsɔtaa.

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman, ɛyʊ ɛnɛyɔ ɛkɛ Amerika ɛjaɖɛ taa tɔsʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ tʊ nɔɔyʊ. Palʊla-ɩ Hasɩyaɖɛ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 31 pɩnaɣ 1912 kɛ Niyuu Yɔrɩkɩ tɛtʊ taa nɛ ɛsɩ Kamɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 16 pɩnaɣ 2006 kɛ San Francisco. Ɛɛkɛ ɛyʊ ɛ-tɛ tɔsʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ labʊ alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, ɛ-hɩɖɛ kʊyaa kpaɣɖʊ 20 wɛɛ taa yɔ. Ɛmʊ Sʊyɛdɩ liidiye koozaɣ pɩtɩŋna tɔsʊʊ tɩlɩyɛ yɔ tɛ kɩhɛyʊʊ pɩlɩna Alfred Nobel cɔlɔ pɩnaɣ 1976 pɩlɩna ɛ-tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɛlaba nɛ ɛwɩlɩ ɛzɩma tɔʊ pɔza yɔ nɛ liidiye tɔm yɔ. Ɛyʊ ɛnʊ ɛkɛ tɩ yɔɔ wɛʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ yɔɔ kandɩyʊ. Ɛnʊ tʊlɩna Chicagot sukuli.

Ɛ-tʊma naalɛ naayɛ paza pɩkɛdɩna ɛyaa siŋ. Kajalaɣ lɛ, yeke koŋ ñɩm lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɛ tɩ yɔɔ wɛʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɖɩ posusa ɖɩ-tɔm pɩnaɣ 1962 nɛ pʊwayɩ lɛ, ɛ-tʊma lɛɛna wena paawɩlɩ-yɛ kɛlɛm kɛlɛm yɔɔ ɛɛlabɩyɛ pɩnaɣ 1980 nɛ paya-yɛ se Free to Choose (pʊ-tɔbʊʊ se ŋsɔɔla ŋlɩzɩ). Yeke ñɩm lɩmaɣza nɛ tɩ yɔɔ wɛʊ lɩmaɣza takayaɣ taa lɛ, ɛlɩzɩ tɔbʊʊ se ɛzɩma paɖaŋga komina se kɩtaa ɖʊ kʊ-nɔɔ taɖɩyɛ tɔsʊʊ nɔmɔʊ taa yɔ, yeke koŋ pɩzɩɣna nɛ pɩsɩna patalɩ tɩ yɔɔ wɛʊ politiki lɩmaɣza nɛ tɔsʊʊ huu tɛ lɩmaɣza. Pʊwayɩ lɛ, nsɔɔla ŋlɩzɩ takayaɣ taa lɛ, ɛwɩlɩ ɛzɩma tɩ yɔɔ wɛʊ tɔsʊʊ huu wiza tɔsɩŋ huu lɛɛŋ wɛtʊ naa ndɩ ndɩ yɔ.

Ɛ-lɩmaɣza ana awalɩ wobu yɔɔ wobu yɔɔ nɛ pɔkɔɔ palakɩ-yɛ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ politiki ageeta ndɩ ndɩ taa kpaɣ nɛ pɩnzɩ 1980 alɩwaatʊ taa nɛ putukina hɔɔlɩŋ ndɩ ndɩ sakɩyɛ ɖɔɖɔ Amerika ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛ-lɩmaɣza pɩlɩna liidiye yɔɔ, kɩhɛyʊʊ paɣtʊ, ɛyʊ tɛ ñɩm tɛ pɩsʊʊ nɛ paɣtʊ lɛzʊʊ yaa pɩsʊʊ kɔna maɣzɩm kpaagba kɛ politiki tɔsɩŋ ajɛyɛ sakɩyɛ taa kedeŋga kpeekpe taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Ronald Reagan Etazuunii, Margaret Thatcher Kewiyaɣ Ɛjaɖɛ taa, Augusto Pinochet kɛ Silii ɛjaɖɛ taa, Mart Laar Estonie ɛjaɖɛ taa, Davíð Oddsson Isilandɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ Brian Mulroney Kanadaa ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Milton Friedman, palʊla-ɩ Brooklyn (New York) Yuda caɣyaa liɖe naɖɩyɛ taa, palɩna Transcarpathie taa, Hɔŋirii hɔɔlʊʊ nakʊyʊ (nɔɔnɔɔ Ukurɛnɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa). Ɛkɛ kɔɔnaɣ pɩɣa kɛ Sarah Ethel Landau nɛ Jenő Saul Friedman, patɩŋɛ mbʊ yɔ pɩkɛ tadɩyɛ laɖaa yeke. Friedman kaawɛna pɩnaɣ kʊyʊmaɣ lɛ, ɛ-hɔʊ kʊya nɛ kiwolo Rahway, New Jersey taa, ɖenɖe ɛpaɣlʊʊ yɔ. Ɛ-caa sɩba lɛ, ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 15. Ɛkɛ sukuli pɩɣa lɔŋ ŋga mbʊ lɛ, ɛtɛzɩ e-sukuli labʊ Rahway sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa pɩnaɣ 1928, mbʊ lɛ ɛtɔkaɣ ɛ-tɛ lʊlʊʊ yɔɔ tɔzʊʊ kazandʊ 16 ndʊ kɛlɛ.

Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, sɔsɔ von Bismarck, palʊla-ɩ Schönhausen tɛtʊ taa ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 1 pɩnaɣ 1815 nɛ ɛsɩ hasɩyaɖɛ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 30 pɩnaɣ 1898 Friedrichsruh, ɛkɛ Prusse ɛjaɖɛ taa ɛyʊ sɔsɔ nɔyʊ nɛ Caama. Peyeba se ɛkɛ cɛjɛ Bismark pɩnaɣ 1865, nɛ pʊwayɩ ɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ Bismark-Schönhausen awimpɩɣa pɩnaɣ 1871 nɛ wiyaʊ kɛ Lauenburg pɩnaɣ 1890.

Ɛkɛ cenje taa Prusse Kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ taa ɛjaɖɛ ñʊʊ tʊ nɛ ɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɛjaɖɛ samaɣ lɩm ɖʊyʊ pɩnaɣ 1862 ŋtalɩ 1890, ɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ Caama nɛ Hayi ajɛyɛ kɩkpɛndʊʊ tɔm hʊya ñʊʊ tʊ pɩnaɣ 1867 ŋtalɩ 1871, pʊcɔ ɛsʊ kajalaɣ tɔm hʊya tʊmɩyɛ ɖeɖe Caama Ampiiri kɩfalʊ taa pɩnaɣ 1871, tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩ-taa ɛwɛɛ pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ pɩnaɣ 1890, ɛlɛ ɛɖɔka ɛjaɖɛ samaɣ lɩm ɖʊyʊ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ ɛjaɖɛ ñʊʊ tʊ tʊmɩyɛ mbʊ Prusse tɛtʊ taa. Ɛlaba tʊmɩyɛ siŋ Caama ɛjaɖɛ kpɛndʊʊ alɩwaatʊ taa.

Ɛ-tʊmɩyɛ paɣzɩtʊ alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, Bismarck la ɛ-tɩ hɩɖɛ naɖɩyɛ nɛ ɛkandɩɣ Junkers waa ñɩm yɔɔ, pɩkɛ Prusse tɛtʊ natʊyʊ ndʊ ɛ-maɣmaɣ ɛɛwɛ tɩ-taa yɔ ɖooo politiki labʊ alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ. Pakpa-ɩ Prusse ɛjaɖɛ samaɣ lɩm ɖʊyʊ tɛtʊ ndʊ tɩ-ñʊʊ tʊ pɩnaɣ 1862. Prusse ɛjaɖɛ paɣtʊ maʊ taa lɛ ɛlʊbɩna tɩ yɔɔ wɛʊ tɩna se ɛha ɖoŋ wiyaʊ kʊyʊm kewiyitu lɩmaɣza.

Palʊla Otto von Bismarck ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 1 pɩnaɣ 1815 Schönhausen. Ɛ-caa kɔyɔ Ferdinand von Bismarck, ɛlɛ kaakɛ sɔɔja sɔsɔ nɛ ɛwɛna tɛtʊ Prusse ɛjaɖɛ taa. E-ɖoo kɔyɔ Wilhelmine Mencken ɛlɛ kaakɛ politiki abalʊ nɔyʊ pɛlɔ. Ɛ-cɔzɔ kaakɛ Jean-Jacques Rousseau tɔm yɔɔ tisiyu yaa ɛgbaɣtʊ. Otto kaawɛna ɖalʊ kʊyʊm Bernhard (pɩnzɩ 1810-1893) nɛ kɔʊ kʊyʊm Malwina (pɩnzɩ 1827-1908).

Pɩnaɣ 1816, ɛ-ñɩma kʊyɩ pɛɖɛɛ nɛ Kniephof Poméranie nɛ wɩsɩ ɖɩlɩyɛ taa kiŋ, ɛlɛ petikizi pɛ-tɛtʊ ndʊ paawɛna-tʊ Schönhausen yɔ. Otto la ɛ-pɩjatʊ peeɖe. E-ɖoo sɩm wayi pɩnaɣ 1839 lɛ, Bismarck kpaɣ ɛ-ñɩma tɛtʊ Kniephof. Ɛpɩsɩ haɖʊ, ɛ-nɛ ɛ-ɖalʊ Bernhard weyi ɛkɩlɩ-ɩ nɛ pɩnzɩ kagbanzɩ yɔ pahayɩ Kniephof, Külz nɛ Jarchlin tɛtʊ Poméranie wɩsɩ ɖɩlɩyɛ taa, Naugard kantɔɔ taa. Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ 1841 lɛ palɩzɩ Berbhard se ɛkɛ Nauguard egeetiye lɔŋ tasɩya ñʊʊ tʊ, mbʊ tɩna nɛ pɛtɛyɩ pazɩ tɛtʊ, Bernhard cɔŋnɩna Jarchlin tɛtʊ yɔɔ nɛ Otto cɔŋna Külz nɛ Kniephof tɛtʊ yɔɔ. Pa-caa sɩba pɩnaɣ 1845 taa lɛ, Otto ɖanɩɣ kpaɣʊ cɛjɛtʊ ɖɩɣa taa Schönhaussen, Stendal kantɔɔ taa.

Pɩtɩŋna Moritz von Blanchenburg yɔɔ, pɩkɛ ɛtabalʊ nɔyʊ weyi ɛkatɩ-ɩ Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster, Bismarck ɖʊ tabalɩyɛ ɛ-nɛ pɔtɔdɩyɛ tʊ Adolf von Thadden-Trieglaff. Ɛnɛ ɛnʊ ɛ-ɖaŋ kɛlɛ Marie Blanckenburg, Moritz pɛlɔ. Paa Marie nɛ Otto pɔsɔɔlɩ ɖama kɔyɔ, Marie tɔsɔɔlɩ se ɛyɔdɩ ɛ-tɛ nesi ɖɔkʊ ɖʊnaʊ tɔm. Kɛlɛ ɛwalɩ Trieglaff aloma fenaɣ taa pɩnaɣ 1844. Nesi ɖɔkʊʊ sɔnzɩ wiye lɛ ɛsɩɩ ɛtabalʊ Johanna von Puttkamer Bismarck cɔlɔ.

Otto nɛ Johanna pakpaɣ pawalɩ ɖama nɛ palʊlɩ piyaa naatozo. Marie (1848-1926), ɛlɛ walɩ Kuno zu Rantzau, Herbert (1849-1904), ɛlɛ kpaɣ halʊ Marguerite von Hoyos nɛ Wilhelm (1852-1901) ɛlɛ kpaɣ halʊ Sibylle von Arnim-Kröchlendorff.

Saladin

Saladin yaa Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf (arabɩɩ kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ صلاح الدين يوسف) yaa Selahedînê Eyûbî (kurde kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ, سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی) palʊla-ɩ Tikrit tɛtʊ taa pɩnaɣ 1138 nɛ ɛsɩ Tamasɩ tɛtʊ taa lakɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 4 pɩnaɣ 1193. Ɛɛkɛ kajalaɣ ɛyʊ weyi eɖiya ayoubide kewiyaɣ kɩɖɛzaɣ ŋga kaawɛ Egipiti pɩnaɣ 1169 ŋtalɩ pɩnaɣ 1250 nɛ Sirii ɛjaɖɛ taa pɩnzɩ 1174 ŋtalɩ 1260. Ɛ-maɣmaɣ ediyi Egipiti pɩnaɣ 1169 ŋtalɩ 1193, Tamasɩ pɩnaɣ 1174 ŋtalɩ 1193 nɛ Alep pɩnaɣ 1183 ŋtalɩ 1193. Ɛ-hɩɖɛ an-Nāsir tɔbʊʊ se weyi ɛmʊʊ wabɩtʊ Ɛsɔ cɔlɔ yɔ nɛ Saladin tɔbʊʊ se Tisuu yɔɔ siɣsiɣ wɛtʊ.

Yûsuf, Ayyûb pɩɣa, palʊla-ɩ Tikrit Tigre yɔɔ ɛ-tɛ nɛ Kurde nɛ tɩmʊʊ liɖe kɔyɔ nɛ Dvin, Arménie kɩbɩnʊʊ. Patɩ lʊla-ɩ kpa lɛ, ɛ-ñɩma kʊyɩ Tikrit nɛ pɛɖɛɛ Zengi, atabeg Mossoul. Ɛyʊ ɛnɛyɔ ɛlɛ kpa-ɩ se ɛkɛ Baalbek komina ñʊʊ tʊ nɛ Shirkuh (Saladin ekpele) sɔɔja sɔsɔ ɛ-sɔɔjana taa.

Aloma fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 16 pɩnaɣ 1169, Franc sɔɔjana pɔnɔɔ ɖɛyʊ kɔyɔ Amaury 1 Jeruzalem ñɩnʊ kʊyɩ Ascalon nɛ ɛtalɩ Egipiti aloma fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 25 nɛ ɛtalɩna Byzantin mɛlɛna nɛ ɛdʊ mbʊ payɩ palakɩna you yɔ Damiette ɛsɩnda. Saladin maɣzɩ nɛ ɛtɔŋ se Kɛɛrɩ tɛtʊ tɔñɔɔzɩta tɩ-tɩ nɛ sɔndʊ kpaɣ-ɩ se ɛɛkʊyɩ tɛtʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa nɛ ɛɖɛɛ you nɛ Damiette. Etiyina sɔɔjana nabɛyɛ nɛ pɔnɔɔ ɖɛyaa kɔyɔ e-ekpele Sihab al-Din Mahmoud nɛ e-kouu Taqi al-Din Omar.

Pɩkɔma pɩnaɣ 1174 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ taa politiki tɔm saa mɩŋ nɛ pɩkɛdɩna Saladin. Jerusalem taa lɛ, wiyaʊ Amaury 1 sɩ nɛ eyele kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ nɛ pɩɣa cikpelaɣ nakɛyɛ, Baudoun 4 ɛlɛ ñɛkɛ canaɣ. Kewiyaɣ pʊnʊyʊ Miles Plancy tʊ ñaakpakʊʊ paɣtʊ kɩbandʊ Egipiti yɔɔ kɛlɛ kewiyaɣ kʊyɩna-ɩ. Alep taa lɛ, Nur ad-Din ñeyebina kewiyaɣ nɛ pɩɣa As-Salih Ismail al-Malik, ɛlɛ Nur ad-Din tɛtʊ taa sɔɔjana agʊla kandʊʊ kewiyaɣ pɩnʊyʊtʊ yɔɔ, nɛ kouu nɔɔyʊ palɩzɩ ɛlɛ kewiyaɣ taa nɛ ɛlɛ ñakʊyʊ nɛ wɛ.

Pɩkɔma pɩnaɣ 1176 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, Saladin kpaɣ halʊ Ismat al-Dîn, ɛlɛ kaakɛ Damas Unur pɛlɔ nɛ ɛkɛ Nûr al-Dîn lelu politiki nesi ɖɔkʊʊ nasɩyɛ taa. Ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ pɩtalɩ ɛzɩ 40 mbʊ yɔ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ɛɛtɛma walʊʊ Nûr al-Dîn pɩnaɣ 1147 nɛ ɛtapɩzɩ ɛtasɩ lʊlʊʊ pɩɣa nɛ Saladin. Ɛlɛ, paa mbʊ ɛnɛyʊ ɛɛsɔɔla-ɩ piŋ ɛzɩ ɛ-takayasɩ kɩmamasɩ nzɩ etiyana-ɩ yɔ sɩ-tʊzʊʊ yɔ, ŋgʊ pɩɩwɩɣa-ɩ Harrân tɛtʊ taa, nɛ ɖɔkɔtɔ naa la lɩmaɣza ɛzɩma paapɩzɩ nɛ peheyi-ɩ ɛ-halʊ sɩm tɔm yɔ (Ismat kaatɛma sɩbʊ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ pɩwɩɣa Saladin yɔ, nɛ peteheyi-ɩ pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ fenasɩ naalɛ wayi pɩcɔ peyele ɛnɩɩ-tʊ).

Sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ

Sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ, Krekɩ taa lɛ, νεο ελληνική γλώσσα / (neo)ellinikí glóssaa yaa yem se νέα ελληνικά / (néa) elliniká. Grɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ kɩ-kɛ ɛyaa miliiyɔɔ waa hiu nɛ kɩgbanzɩ tɛ lʊlʊʊ taa kʊnʊŋ, nɛ miliiyɔɔ waa 10,7 wɛ Krɛsɩ. Kɩ-kɛ Krɛsɩ nɛ Sipri ajɛya taa kewiyaɣ kʊnʊŋ. Krɛsɩ wɛna kʊnʊmɩŋ cɩkpeŋ nɩyɛ nɛ ɖɩnaɣ ɛlɛ Albanie nɛ Turki ajɛyɛ taa.

Kɩwɛ Krɛsɩ kʊnʊŋ pɩlɩŋga taa Ɛndɩ-Erɔpʊ kʊnʊmɩŋ cejewiye taa. Sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ lɩna koinè taa. Kɩ-maɣmaɣ kɩlɩna Krɛkɩ kɩbɩnɩʊ taa.

Ɖooo lɔŋ taa lɛ, ɛyaa nabɛyɛ yɔɔdɔɔ Krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ Siirii nɛ Libaŋ ajɛyɛ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Krɩstʊ mba tɛ pʊcɔ pɩnaɣ 1960. Kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ kɩ-ɖɩma ajɛyɛ ana ada mbʊ pʊyɔ ɛsakuliye liwa. Sukuli wɩlɩtʊ ndɩ ndɩ wiziuu nɛ pɩñɩkʊʊ nice Arabɩɩ kʊnʊŋ yɔɔ. Pɩkɛ yʊsʊ lakayaɣ Fransɩɩ waɖɛ haʊ Siirii ɛjaɖɛ taa wayi nɛ Libaŋ pɩnaɣ 1943 pɩnɛ yem yem Arabɩ mba kɔmtʊ pɩnzi 1950 nɛ 1960.

Krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ tɛ ɖɛzɩ kaawɛ Krɛsɩ ɛsɔ kɩlaʊ siuu siuu ŋgʊ taa. Egipiti taa pʊcɔ pɩnaɣ 1956 lɛ, Alexandrii egetiye taa ɛyaa sakɩyɛ nabɛyɛ nɩwaɣ Krɛkɩ tɔm. Tɛtʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa peɖe lɛ, kɩ-kɛ kʊnʊŋ naanza ŋgʊ Arabɩ nɛ Fransɩɩ nɛ Englɛsɩ nɛ Italii kʊnʊmɩŋ wayi. Ɖeeɖe nɛ sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ ñima mba pɛwɛ peɖe yɔ pɛkɛ tadɩyɛ tɩna nɛ manzʊmalɩ waa.

Kpagba taa lɛ, ɖɩnaɣ Krɛkɩ ɛyaa kpaɖaŋ sakɩyɛ mɩza paale nɛ ɖɩkatʊwɛ Niyuu Yɔrɩkɩ nɛ Chicago nɛ Sanfransiskoo nɛ Melbourne nɛ Fransɩɩ nɛ Caama nɛ kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ kpam ajɛyɛ taa.

Tii

Tii kɛ sɔzɩŋ sʊlʊm mbʊ palaba-pʊ nɛ tii tɩŋ hatʊ yɔ. Pɩkɛ cɔkɔyɛ ndɩ ɖɩ-hatʊ wɛ kpɩzɩŋ yɔ nɛ ɖɩlɩna Azii ɛjaɖɛ taa. Papɩzɩɣ pɔñɔɔ-kʊ nɛ miŋ yaa niikaɣ. Kɩ-taa wɛ epikalokatesiini nɛ kalatɩ nɛ tiiyaniini nɛ kɔfɩ nɛ tii tɛ nɩm. Pɔsɔɔlɩ-kʊ kɩ-leleŋ yɔ nɛ mbʊ kɩwɛ wazaɣ siŋ kɛ ɖoŋ hɔɔlʊʊ taa nɛ ɖɔɖɔ alaafɩya hɔɔlʊʊ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ tɩŋ hatʊ sɛmɩŋ tɛ tii.

Tii tɛ lɛ Yunnan pʊŋ taa ɖenɖe paasɩma-kʊ ɖooo canaʊ taa yɔ. Kɩyɛlɩ wɩsɩ ɖooo hayɩ kiŋ taa pʊcɔ kɩtalɩ Erɔpʊ ajɛyaa taa kpaɣɖʊ 16 alɩwaatʊ taa pɩtɩŋna Pɔrɩtɩkɛ taɖɩyɛ laɖaa yɔ. Britaniiki mba paazɩ-kʊ hayʊ Ɛɛndɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa kpaɣɖʊ 19 alɩwaatʊ taa ŋgʊ Fransɩɩ mba nɛ-paɣzɩɣ-kʊ hayʊ Indosiini ɛjaɖɛ nɛ Neeyerɩlandɛ waa nɛ-hayʊ-kʊ Indosiini ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Tii walɩɣ kedeŋga kpeekpe taa kpem nɛ kɩpɩsɩ sɔnɔɔ sʊlʊm mbʊ pakɩlɩɣ-pʊ paale kɛ lɩm wayɩ. Tii naa mba pɔɖɔɔ piŋ ɛjaɖɛ pɩlɩna tɛtʊ cɔlɔ nɛ kɩ-hayɩyaa cɔlɔ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ ɛzɩma pahayʊʊ-kʊ yɔ nɛ ɛzɩma pakpakʊʊ-kʊ hayɩm taa lɛ, pɔjɔŋna kʊ-yɔɔ yɔ. Nɛ pɩtɛ wɛtʊ ndʊ tɩyeba se ɖɩwɛna tii naa sakɩyɛ sɛmɩŋ ndɩ ndɩ taa. Kpɛdɩŋ pindim nɛ tɩŋ hatʊ sɛmɩŋ nɛ caʊʊ sɛmɩŋ nɛ kʊhʊlʊmɩŋ ŋgʊ wɛtʊ lɛɛtʊ yeki se patɩlɩ kɩ-leeleŋ nɛ kɩ-maɣmaɣ kɩwɛtʊ.

Tii ŋgʊ kɩ-tɛ tɩzʊʊ wɛna wɛtʊ ndɩ ndɩ ɖɔɖɔ. Nabʊyʊ taa paɖʊʊ naalɩm nɛ pesidi nɛ sikiri Kewiyaɣ Ɛjaɖɛ taa. Patɩzɩ pɩ-leɖi nɛ pozoki yɛɖɛ yɛɖɛ waa kɛ Moŋgolii ɛjaɖɛ taa. Magrɛbɩ ajɛyaa taa lɛ palakɩ-kʊ nɛ mantɩɩ (menthe) tɩŋ, mbʊ ɖɔɖɔ palakɩ-kʊ Afrika Wɩsɩ Ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa. Ɛɛndɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa lɛ, patɩzɩɣ nɛ paɖʊʊ yɛɖɛ yɛɖɛ waa nɛ naalɩm nɛ patɩzʊʊ-kʊ tii ñanzɩ cikpesi taa.

Tii tɩŋ (Camellia sinensis) kɛ cɔkɔyɛ ndɩ ɖɩlɩna Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ taa ɖooo hayi kiŋ taa yɔ kɛ tii tɩmʊʊ liɖe taa. Tii ŋgʊ lɛ, kɩwɛ tɔm nabutozo taa ɛjaɖɛ yɔɔ cɩna Camellia sinensis assamica (Asam) nɛ Camellia sinensis sinensis (Yunnan) nɛ Camellia sinensis cambodiensis. Ajɛya wena akɩlɩɣ-kʊ hayʊʊ yɔ a-na yɔ, Siini nɛ Ɛɛndɩ nɛ Sriilanka nɛ Fɩyɛtɩnaam nɛ Tayɩwanɩ nɛ Japɔŋ nɛ Nepaalɩ nɛ Tuurkii nɛ Keniya nɛ Tanzani. Ɖɩtɔɔzʊʊ se Sriilanka nɛ Tayɩwanɩ tii mbʊ yɔ pɛpɛɖɩɣ-kʊ nɛ canaʊ hɩla nɛ payaɣ se Ceylan et Formose.

Winston Churchill

Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill kɛ Angletɛɖɩ tʊ. Palʊlɩ-ɩ efemiye niidozo wiye kamɩŋ fenaɣ taa kɛ pɩnaɣ 1874 taa kɛ ɛjaɖɛ ñʊʊ tʊ ɖaɣ taa kɛ Blenheim. Ɛsɩba kɔlaɣ fenaɣ taa kɛ evemiye nɛɛlɛ wiye kɛ pɩnaɣ 1965 taa. Ɛ-kɛkɛ Ɩŋgilisi ɛjaɖɛ tʋ.

Churchill kakɛ kaanaɣ minisi kɛ kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ payaɣ ɖɔɖɔ se Aŋgɩlɩtɛɛrɩ yɔ ɖɩ-taa kɛ pɩnaɣ 1940 pɩkɔ pɩ-sɩnaɣ 1945 pʊtɔbʊ se waaɣ mbilim. Ɛwaza kaɖɔ siŋ kɛ you naalɛ ñɩŋgʊ taa. Ɛkɛ mañɩ mañɩ tʊ weyi patɩlɛ-ɩ nɛ ɛlakasɩ ndɩ ndɩ. Ɛkɛ ɛyʊ weyi ɛkɛ ɛya ɛsɩndaa camɩyɛ yɔɔdɩyʊ yɔ nɛ samaɣ sakɩyɛ welesanɛ-ɩ. Mbʊ yebinaɣ nɛ ɛpɩsɩ politiki ɛyʊ susɔ kɛ waasɩ mɩnɩŋ nɛɛlɛ. Ɛtaawɛnaɣ ñɩm tɩ yɔ ɖeke tɛ, ehikaɣ ɛ-ñɩm kɛ ɛ-soŋaɣ nɔɔ taa. Ɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ takayasɩ taa mayʊ, nɛ ɖɔɖɔ lɩzʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ laɖʊ susɔ. Alɩwaatʊ ɖoŋ ñɩndʊ taa lɛ, lɩzʊ hɛzʊ na ɛhɔyɛ. Ɛ-caa kɛlɛ Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill nɛ ɛ-ɖoo payawaɣ se Lady Randolph Churchill. Ɛ-caɣ wayɩ kɛ halɩkpayɛ hɔlʊ taa, ɛ-kpakaɣ halʊ lɛ, ɛwɛnaɣ pɩnsɩ niidozo nɛ naanaza mbɩ yɔ. Ɛ-halʊ hɩɖɛ lɛ Clementine.

Alɩwaatʊ ndʊ ɛgbaɣ tʊ nɛ ɛcɛlɛ ɛtɩ paɣtʊ lɩzɩɣ tʊmɩyɛ yɔ, pɩfɛyɩ peleyi nɛ tʊ ɛtɛ politiki labʊ hɔlʊ taa. Pʊɖɔnaɣ pɩnsɩ ɛsɩ hiŋ loɖo mbɩ yɔ,nɛ ɛtɔɣ minisi kewitʊ ɛsɩ pɩnsɩ niidozo mbɩ yɔ. Pʋcɔ ɛjaɖɛ tɛ kajalaɣ you pazɩɣ lɛ, ɛlabaɣ tʊmaɣ wena yɔ anaɣ yɔ : ɛɛkɛ tadɩyɛ minisi, takayasɩ mayʊ Home Office, nɛ kɔɔnɔɔ Lɔrd kɛ ɛwadɩyɛ yɔ magɩla wa tomnaɣ (Lord de l’Amirauté) kɛ komina kɔjɔʊ tɛ kɛ d’Herbert Henry Asquith tɛ yɔ. Pʋyɔɔ yɔ, ekewobaɣ kajalaɣ samaɣ paɣtʊ ɖɩlɩsɩyɛ kɛ ɛ-ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛcaa ɛ-tʊma nɔɔ mbʊ, pɩkɔ pɩtalɩ ɛjaɖɛ ŋgilisi ɛjaɖɛ tɛ ñʊʊ sɩkɩyɛ. Ɛsamaɣ nɛ kewiyaɣ taa tɔm hʊyaɣ lɩsaɣ nɛ pawɩlɩ se ɛcɔlɔ pɩlɩnaɣ nɛ pawaɣ pɛ-ɛjaɖɛ. Pʋyɔɔ palɩsayɩ komina taa. Pʋcɔ nɛ ɛjaɖɛ you naalɛ ñɩŋgʊ lɩʊ lɛ, Churchill tɛ politiki ŋgbɛ kɩfaɖɛ yɔ nɔkɔyʊ maʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɩŋgɩɣ, nɛ pʋcɔ ɛ-pɩsɩɣ kpɛɣlɛ kpɛɣlɛ wɛʊ ñʊʊ sɩɖɛ aleeya ɖɩɖɔyɛ. Ɛwaza tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ taa kakɛ leeleŋ ɖʊʊ yaa yɔɔyɔ pɩsʊʊ.

Ɛjaɖɛ you susɔʊ naalɛ ŋgʊ lɩ-caɣ lɛ, Churchill ɖanɩ pɩsɩɣ minisi. Alɩwaatʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa lɛ, susɔ Neville Chamberlain ka-seɣ kpelaɣ ŋgaɣ kɔyɔ kɛlɛ. Efemiye hiu agoza fenaɣ taa pɩnaɣ 1940 taa lɛ ɛ-pɩsaɣ ŋilisi ɛjaɖɛ tɛ kajalaɣ minisi.

Ɛyʊ waɖɛ

Ɛyʊ waɖɛ kɛ ɛyʊ yɔɔ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɛ tɔm yaa tɔm hʊʊ tɛ ɖoŋ yaa politiki tɛ tɔm pɩlɩna ɛyʊ weyi ɛwɛna kedeŋna taa waɖɛ ndɩ ɖɩfɛyɩ se pokuudi-ɖɩ yɔ, paa pɩkɛ waɖɛ ndɩ ɖɩwɛ ɖeʊ paɣtʊ taa yaa wɛtʊ naa ndɩ ndɩ ɛzɩ kʊnʊmɩŋ yaa ɛjaɖɛ tʊ tɛ tɔm yaa Ɛsɔ kɩlaʊ tɛ maɣzɩm.

Pɩtɩŋna lɩmaɣza a-naa a-yɔɔ lɛ, paa ɛyʊ weyi, ɛyʊ ɛzɩ weyi ɛwɛ ɛ-tɩyɔɔ kɛ samaɣ taa yɔ ɛwɛna ɛ-tɛ waɖɛ. Waɖɛ ndɩ ɖɩwɛ ɛ-maɣmaɣ ɛ-cɔlɔ nɛ pɩkɛ-ɩ pɩyʊʊ kiɖeɖem nɛ pɩha ɛ-sɛɛ nɛ samaɣ nɛ kewiyaɣ tɛ ɖoŋ. Ɛyʊ tɛ ndɩ pasɩma-ɖɩ paa ɛjaɖɛ ndɩ lɛ ɖɩ-taa nɛ ɖɩwɛ kɩmaŋ paa hɔɔlʊʊ ŋgʊ lɛ kɩ-taa nɛ pɩtasʊʊ wɛtʊ ndɩ ndɩ taa ɛzɩ sɔsɔtʊ yaa canaʊ tɔm taa ɛzɩ tindime naɖɩyɛ taa ɛyaa yaa ɛyaa nabɛyɛ yaa tisuu tɛ ɛyaa nabɛyɛ yaa ɛyaa nabɛyɛ yem ko mba pamazɩɣ se ɛyaa mba pakaadʊʊ lalaa yɔ palɩzɩɣ-wɛ ɛyaa taa yɔ.

Waɖɛ ndɩ ɖɩkɛ ɛyʊ pɩyʊʊ yɔ pasɩma-ɖɩ paa ɛsɛkuliye ɛjaɖɛ ndɩ ɖɩ-taa kɛ paɣtʊ takayasɩ taa yaa ajɛyɛ hɛkʊʊ taa nesi tabalɩyɛ aŋgbaa taa se pɩpɩzɩɣ nɛ pɩhaɣ ñamtʊ pɩkpɛdɩna ejaɖɛ maɣmaɣ. Waɖɛ tɛ ñɔʊ nɛ ɖɩ-tɛ wazaɣ kɛ pɩyʊʊ weyi ɛ-yɔɔ ndɔnjɔlɩyɛ paɣla siŋ ɛyʊ yɔɔ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɛ tɩlɩyɛ tɛ politiki nɔmɔʊ hɔɔlʊʊ taa yɔ.

Pɛrɩsɩ pamaɣzaɣ se kɩkɛ ɛyʊ waɖɛ ɖɩlɩyɛ kɛ kpaɣɖʊ lʊbɛ alɩwaatʊ taa pʊcɔ palʊlɩɣ Yeesu-Krɩstʊ Cyrus sɔsɔ tʊ kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ taa. Babylone you alɩwaatʊ wayɩ pɩnaɣ -539. Takayaɣ ŋga kawɩlɩɣna alɩwaatʊ ndʊ pʊcɔ pakpaɣ Babylone yɔ nɛ kawalɩwɩɣ keele Cyrus sɔsɔ tʊ tɛ lɩmaɣzaɣ Babylone mba tɛ.

Ɛ-tɛ kewiyitʊ kaalaba ɖeu mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ɛɖʊwaɣ mba padaanɩɣ tɔm yɔ tʊma ɖoŋ ñɩnaa nɛ eyeki nɛ mba pakɛza-wɛ tɛtʊ yɔ papɩsɩɣ pa-ajɛyaa taa nɛ ɛpɩsɩna kɩlaʊ tɛ sɩʊkpelesi nzɩ paawona Babylone se papɩsɩna-zɩ pɛ-tɛ kiɖe tɛ Ɛsɔ sɛtʊ kpaŋ taa. Ɛhaɣ waɖɛ Ɛsɔ sɛtʊ ɛ-tɛ kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Kajalaɣ ɛyʊ waɖɛ tɛ takayaɣ kaakɛ Virginie ɛjaɖɛ tɛ ŋga. Georges Mason manakɛ nɛ Virginie ɖama nɩnaʊ ŋgbɛɛ tisi pɩyɔɔ pɩnaɣ 1776 Mɩsɩkʊm fenaɣ kɩyaakʊ 12 –nɛ payaɣ nɛ Ɛnglɩsɩ taa se Bill of Rights américain.

Kʋnʋmɩŋ lɛɛŋ

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