1943

Pɩnaɣ 1943pɩnaɣ 1943 ñɩŋga kɛ palʋlʋʋ Yeesu Krɩstʋ yɔ. Pɩnzɩ mɩnɩŋ nɛɛlɛ taa lɛ, pɩnaɣ 1943 kɛŋna 43 ñɩŋga. Kɛwɛ pɩnzɩ 19421944 hɛkʋ taa.

Pɩnaɣ ŋga ka-taa kɛ lakasɩ sɔsɔsɩ sɩnɛ yɔ sɩlaba :

1942

Pɩnaɣ 1942 kɛ pɩnaɣ 1942 ñɩŋga kɛ palʋlʋʋ Yeesu Krɩstʋ yɔ. Pɩnzɩ mɩnɩŋ nɛɛlɛ taa lɛ, pɩnaɣ 1942 kɛŋna 42 ñɩŋga. Kɛwɛ pɩnzɩ 1941 nɛ 1943 hɛkʋ taa.

1944

Pɩnaɣ '1944 kɛ pɩnaɣ 1944 ñɩŋga kɛ palʋlʋʋ Yeesu Krɩstʋ yɔ. Pɩnzɩ mɩnɩŋ nɛɛlɛ taa lɛ, pɩnaɣ 1944 kɛŋna 44 ñɩŋga. Kɛwɛ pɩnzɩ 1943 nɛ 1945 hɛkʋ taa.

Akira Kurosawa

Akira Kurosawa (黒澤 明, Kurosawa Akira), ɛɛkɛ kɛlɛm kɛlɛm naa tʊmɩyɛ laɖʊ, ɛkɛ lɩzɩyʊ, tanaŋ yaa amʊza laɖʊ, palʊla-ɩ Tokiyo tɛtʊ taa lakɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 23 pɩnaɣ 1910 nɛ ɛsɩ Tokyo tɛtʊ taa peeɖe salaŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 6 pɩnaɣ 1998 alɩwaatʊ taa. Ɛ-nɛ Yasujirō Ozu nɛ Kenji Mizoguchi, ɛɛkɛ sinimaɣ naa tʊmɩyɛ labɩya taa waɖʊ sɔsɔ nɔyʊ kɛ wɛɛ ana a-tɛ alɩwaatʊ taa. Pɩnzɩ 57 taka taa mbʊ yɔ ɛpɩza ɛla kɛlɛm kɛlɛm naa 30 tʊmɩyɛ.

Akira Kurosawa paza ɛ-tʊmɩyɛ ɛzɩ sɩnɩyʊ nɛ tanaŋ laɖʊ pɩnaɣ 1936. Pɩnaɣ 1943, kedeŋga kpeekpe you sɔsɔʊ alɩwaatʊ taa, ɛla ɛ-tɛ kajalaɣ kɛlɛm kɛlɛm (Sugata Sanshiro). Lutozo ŋgʊ lɩɩ pɩnaɣ 1948 nɛ pasam-kʊ kpem nɛ ɛ-hɩɖɛ kʊyɩ ɛsɔta. Kɛlɛm kɛlɛm ŋgʊ lɩzɩyʊ Toshirō Mifune paɣzɩna nɛ ɛlɩzɩ lalaa papa kpɛndɩ 16 ɛ-nɛ Kurosawa.

Ɛ-nɛ Rashōmon, weyi nɛ palɩzɩ kajalaɣ ñɩŋgʊ Tokyo kɩyɛɛna fenaɣ taa pɩnaɣ 1950 alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ, Akira Kurosawa mʊ pɩnaɣ 1951 tɔɔyʊʊ sika ñɩŋgʊ Venise Mostra tɛtʊ taa, kɩhɛyɩɣ ŋgʊ panɩ kʊ-tɔm Eerɔpʊ tɛtʊ taa nɛ Amerika nɛ hayɩ kiŋ ajɛyɛ taa. Kɛlɛm kɛlɛm ŋgʊ kɩ-tɛ samtʊ ɛyaa sakɩyɛ cɔlɔ nɛ takayasɩ mayaa cɔlɔ tʊlɩ nɔnɔsɩ Japɔŋ sinema tʊmɩyɛ laɖa Wɩsɩ Ɖɩɖɩyɛ ajɛyɛ taa nɛ piyele nɛ patɩlɩ-wɛ paa ɛjɛɖɛ ndɩ lɛ ɖɩ-taa. Kpaɣna pɩnaɣ 1950 nɛ ŋtalɩ 1960 hɛkʊ taa mbʊ yɔ Akira Kurosawa lakaɣ kɛlɛm kɛlɛm paa pɩnaɣ ŋga. Pa-taa kɔyɔ Fezuu labʊ (生きる, Ikiru pɩnaɣ 1952), Samouraïs waa lʊbɛ (七人の侍, Shichinin no samurai) pɩnaɣ, Yojimbo (用心棒, Yōjimbō) pɩnaɣ 1961.

Palʊla Akira pɩnaɣ 1910 kɛ Ōmori kooka taa (Shinagawa hɔɔlʊʊ nakʊyʊ) Tokiyo tɛtʊ taa. Ɛ-caa Isamu, palʊla ɛlɛ samouraïs liɖe taa kɛ Akita egeetiye taa, ɛɛkɛ sukuli hɔɔlʊʊ kɩlɛlʊʊ taa sɔɔjana hoɖe tʊmɩyɛ wɩlʊʊ ñʊʊ tʊ, ŋgʊ e-ɖoo ñaakɛ Osaka liɖe naɖɩyɛ taa tadɩyɛ laɖaa tʊ. Ɛɛkɛ tɩnʊʊ pɩɣa kɛ piyaa lʊbɛ taa. Pa-taa naalɛ katɛma paɣlʊʊ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ palʊla-ɩ yɔ nɛ ɛ-kɔɔ nɔyʊ ñatɩsɩbʊ pɩnzɩ pazɩ wayɩ yem. Kurosawa paɣlɩ ɛ-ɖalaa natozo nɛ ɛ-kɔɔna hɛkʊ taa kɛnɛ.

Pʊkɔma nɛ sinema ŋgʊ kɩyɔɔdʊʊ yɔ kɩlɩ lɛ pɩnzɩ 1930 alɩwaatʊ taa mbʊ yɔ lɛ, liidiye kɛtɛɖaɣ kpa Heigo, kʊyʊm ɛnʊ payaɣ mbʊ nɛ pɩkɛ-ɩ kɩjɛyʊ se ɛpɩsɩ ɛ-caa naa cɔlɔ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ese-wɛ. Mɩsɩkʋm fenaɣ taa pɩnaɣ 1933 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, Heigo kʊ ɛ-tɩ nɛ ɛ-halʊ. Fenasɩ naanza wayi ɛzɩ ɛsɩbʊ yɔ lɛ, ɛ-ɖalʊ kajalaɣ tʊ yaa sɔsɔ ñɩnʊ ɖɔɖɔ ñasɩ.

David Hilbert

David Hilbert, palʊla-ɩ pɩnaɣ 1862 kɛ Königsberg nɛ ɛsɩ pɩnaɣ 1943 kɛ Göttingen. Ɛyʊ ɛnʊ ɛɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tʊ yaa lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyʊ kɛ Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa. Pamaɣzʊʊ nabɩyʊ taa se ɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyaa taa kajalaɣ tʊ nɔyʊ kɛ kpaɣɖʊ 20 alɩwaatʊ taa ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ Henri Poincaré yɔ. Ɛyʊ ɛnʊ ɛlɩza lɛɣtʊ lɩmaɣza sakɩyɛ pɩlɩna siŋ lɩzɩɣ tʊmɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ yɔ.

Mbʊ pɩwɩla se ɛkɛ ñʊʊtʊ ɛ-tʊma taa yɔ kɛ pɩnaɣ 1900, kpaɣ ehiɣ tɩlasɩ sakɩyɛ nɛ pɩcamɩ ɛ-tɛ lɛɣtʊ ñɩnɩɣ nɔmɔʊ taa kpaɣɖʊ 20 alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ. Hilbert nɛ e-sukuli piyaa tɩlɩtʊ siŋ sukuli hɔɔlʊʊ taa yaa sukuli tɛ ɛsɩnda ɖɛnaʊ yɔ pɩlɩna koŋ lɛɣtʊ nɔmɔʊ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ kpɛdɛ naa tɔm taa nɛ ɖama maɣzɩnaʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ hɔɔlʊʊ taa.

Ɛmʊwa nɛ ɛɖaŋ piŋ Georg Cantor maɣzɩm pɩlɩna kpɛndɛ lɩmaɣza yɔɔ nɛ kamaɣ fɛyɩ ñʊʊ yɔɔ. Pasɩma-ɩ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ ɛ-tɛ siŋ wɩlɩtʊ lɩmaɣza nɛ cɔlɩɩ lɛɣtʊ kpɛlɛkɩɣ nɛ ɛtɛ ɛɖʊ tʊkaɣ lɛɣtʊ kpɛlɛkɩɣ tʊma nɛ helim taa lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyɛ.

Hilbert laba sukuli kɛ hɛkʊ taa sukuli taa nɛ Königsberg sukuli kɩtɛzɩɣ taa. Tɛtʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa palʊla-ɩ. Peeɖe ɛmʊ ɖɔkɔtɔ naa sɔsaa takayaɣ ɛlɛ, Ferdinand von Lindemann cɔŋa ɛ-yɔɔ. Pɩnaɣ 1885 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, ɛcɛlɛ ɛ-takayaɣ ŋga ɛma yɔ nɛ payaɣ se Über invariante Eigenschaften specieller binärer Formen, insbesondere der Kugelfunctionen. Alɩwaatʊ kʊyʊmtʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa lɛ, Hermann Minkowski laakɣ ɖɔɖɔ sukuli ŋgʊ kɩ-taa. Papɩsɩ tabala siŋ nɛ alɩwaatʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa peeɖe mbʊ yɔ pa-taa paweyi lɛ, ɛ-tɛ lɛɣtʊ tʊmɩyɛ ɖeu ɛzɩ pɩkpaɖɩ lɛlʊ yɔ.

Pɩnaɣ 1886 ŋtalɩ 1895 alɩwaatʊ taa mbʊ yɔ Hilbert pɩsɩ wɩlɩyʊ kɛ Königsberg sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa. Pɩnaɣ 1892 taa ɛkpaɣ halʊ, paya-ɩ se Käthe Jerosch (1864-1945), nɛ pɩsɩŋa lɛ, pɛwɛna pɩɣa eveleɣ paya kaka se Franz. Pɩnaɣ 1895 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, pɩtɩŋna Felix Klein tɔm yɔɔ lɛ, pakpa-ɩ se ɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyaa nɔɔ yɔɔ ɖɛyʊ Göttingen sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa. Alɩwaatʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa mbʊ lɛ, Göttingen pɩsɩ lone ndɩ ɖɩmʊ niye lɛɣtʊ ñɩnɩɣ nɔmɔʊ taa yɔ. Hilbert wɛ peeɖe pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ ɛ-tɛ hɛzɩɣ alɩwaatʊ pɩnaɣ 1930 taa.

Kpaɣ kpaɣɖʊ 20 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, ɛtɔ se pʊtʊmʊna halʊ se ɛwɩlɩ sukulɩ kɛ Prusse sukuli kɛtɛzʊʊ taa. Pʊkɔma ɛzɩ 1910 mbʊ yɔ lɛ, Hilbert seɣti Emmy Noether pana ñaɣʊ, ɛɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tɩlɩyʊ kajalaɣ tʊ, weyi ɛpɔzaɣ se ɛwɩlɩ Göttingen sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa. Pɩsa koyondina tisi lɛ, ɛpɩsɩna se sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ ŋgʊ kɩ-tɛkɛ Turiki ɛyaa tɛ ŋgʊ.

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre kɛ Fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa tʋ. Ɛkɛ abalʋ weyi ɛwɛ lɔŋ nɛ lɛɣtʋ siŋŋ yɔ. Palʋla ɖajaa ɛnʋ mɩsɩkʋm fenaɣ taa, kɩyakʋ nɛɛlɛ nɛ kʋɖʋmʋʋ (21) n̄ɩŋgʋ wiye, pɩnaɣ 1905 n̄ɩŋga taa.

Palʋla-ɩ Paarii tɛtʋ taa. Paarii tɛtʋ kɛna Fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ tɛtʋ sɔsɔtʋ. Ɛ-pɩjatʋ taa ɛɛkɛ pɩɣa ŋga kɛwɛ ndɩ kpem nɛ piya lɛɛsɩ yɔ. Ɛkɔma ɛpaɣlɩ mbʋ yɔ, ɛ-lakasɩ taa wɛ ɛzɩ kpaaŋ tʋ yɔ. Ɛ-lɩmaɣza wɛ cukaŋ lim lim. Ɖajaa Sartre sɩba agoza fenaɣ taa, kɩyakʋ hiu nɛ kagbanzɩ (15) n̄ɩŋgʋ wiye, pɩnaɣ 1980 n̄ɩŋga taa.

Ɛsɩkaɣ lɛ, ɛkawɛna pɩnzɩ hiŋ lutozo nɛ kagbaanzɩ (85). Fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa ɛsɩba. Ɖajaa sɔsɔ Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre kɛna Filozofii tʋmɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʋʋ laɖʋ sɔsɔ nɔɔyʋ Fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Filozofii tʋmɩyɛ laɖʋ payaɣ size filozɔɔfʋ. Filozɔɔfʋ kɛ lɔnsɩnɖɛ tʋ sɔsɔ weyi ɛ-tʋmɩyɛ kɛlɛ size, ɛn̄ɩnɩ ɛyʋ yɔɔ lɩmaɣza yaa ɛyʋ yɔɔ lɔnzɩnɖɛ kpɛlɛkʋʋ yɔ. Ɖajaa sɔsɔ Jean-Paul Sartre kɛ filozɔɔfʋ tʋmɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʋʋ laɖʋ.

Ɖajaa Jean-Paul Sartre kɛ ɖɔɖɔ takayasɩ mayʋ sɔsɔ nɔɔyʋ. Fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa filozɔɔfʋ ɛnɛ, ɛcɛla ɛ-tɛ mbilim e-wezuu caɣʋʋ taa lɩmaɣzɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʋʋ tʋmɩyɛ ɖɩlaɖɛ. Filizoofii lɛɣtʋ piliŋ pɩlɩʋ ŋgʋ payaɣ se, ɛkɩsistansiyaliizism (existentialiste) yɔ, kɩ-taa ɛlakaɣ tʋmɩyɛ. Filozɔɔfʋ ɛnɛ, ɛma takayasɩ sakɩyɛ. Sɩ-taa nasɩyɛ kɔyɔ :

L'Être et le Néant (1943)

L'existentialisme est un humanisme (1946)

Critique de la raison dialectique (1960)nɛ nouvelles (Le Mur), nɛ romans (La Nausée, Les chemins de la liberté), nɛ lɩmaɣza canaŋ takayasɩ sɩnɛ : Les Mouches, nɛ Huis clos, nɛ La putain respectueuse, nɛ Le Diable et le Bon Dieu, nɛ Les Séquestrés d'Altona.

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, payaɣ e-cejewiye se, "Madiba". Palʋla-ɩ hasɩyaɖɛ fenaɣ kɩyakʋ hiu nɛ lutozo n̄ɩŋʋ wiye, pɩnaɣ 1918 taa Mvezo Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛsɩba saŋayɩŋ fenaɣ kiyakʋ kagbaanzɩ n̄ɩŋʋ wiye, pɩnaɣ 2013 taa Yowanɛɛsɩbuur tɛtʋ taa. Nelson Mandela kɛkɛ Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa politiki laɖʋ nɔɔyʋ. Kajalaɣ caca ŋgʋ pɔtɔ Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa se palɩzɩ ɖɩ-n̄ʋʋdʋ yɔ, ki-ɖeɖe lɛ, tɛyɩtʋ taafɛyɩ ansaayɩnaa nɛ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa pɛ-hɛkʋ taa. Caca ŋgʋʋ pɔtɔɔ nɛ palɩzɩ Nelson Mandela nɛ ɛpɩsɩ ɛjaɖɛ ńɖɩ ɖɩ-n̄ʋʋ tʋ pɩnaɣ 1994 nɛ puwolo pɩsɩɩnɩ pɩnaɣ 1999 n̄ɩŋa. Ɛkɛ ajɛɛ n̄ʋŋ tɩnaa mba palʋba siŋŋ se, tɛyɩtʋ natʋyʋ ɛtaawɛɛ ɛyaa hɛkʋ taa yɔ, pa-taa lɛlʋ. Toovenim lɛ, tokaɣ sɔsɔɔ nakɛyɛ kɛwɛ ansaayɩnaa nɛ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa pɛ-hɛkʋ taa Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ansaayɩnaa takpakaɣa ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa nɛ payaa se pʋyʋ. Tɛyɩtʋ ndʋ tɩɩwɛ ɛyaa hɛkʋ taa mbʋ yɔ, ndʋʋ payaɣ se, apartɛyɩdɩ.

Nelson Mandela sʋ ŋgbɛyɛ nɖɩ payaɣ se, "Congrès National Africain" (ANC) yɔ ɖɩ-taa pɩnaɣ 1943 taa. Ɛsʋ ɖɩ-taa se, pɩsa nɛ ɛlʋbɩna tɛyɩtʋ ndʋ tɩwɛ ansaayɩnaa nɛ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa pɛ-hɛkʋ taa yɔ. Ŋcɔna Afrɩka nɛ haɖɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ, ansaayɩnaa tɔɖɔɔ patalɩ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa, ɛlɛ, ḿba ɖʋna tɛyɩtʋ pa nɛ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa pɛ-hɛkʋ taa nɛ ponuutuu-wɛ siŋŋ. Ɛkɔma ɛpɩsɩ tɔmhʋyʋ lɛ, ɛwɛɛ mba palʋkɩ se, ɛyaa ɛtaatɩŋɩɣna heluhelu lakasɩ yɔɔ se, pekisi tɛyɩtʋ paɣtʋ yɔɔ ɖɔm yɔ, pa-taa. Ɛyaa hɛkʋ taa tɛyɩtʋ paɣtʋ ńdʋ, ŋgbɛyɛ nɖɩ payaɣ se, "Partie nationale" yɔ, ɖi-kewiyaɣ ɖʋna-tʋ kpaɣna pɩnaɣ 1948 taa. Pekizaa se pataatasɩ ANC ŋgbɛyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩlʋkɩ se tɛyɩtʋ natʋyʋ ɛtaawɛ ɛyaa hɛkʋ taa yɔ ɖɩ-taŋ nɩʋ pɩnaɣ 1960 taa. Mbʋ labɩna nɛ lʋɖɛ nɖɩ palʋkaɣ se tɛyɩtʋ natʋyʋ ɛtaawɛɛ ansaayɩnaa nɛ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa pɛ-hɛkʋ taa yɔ, ɖɩtawazɩ pʋyʋ. Ɛlɛ, Mandela ɖaɣnɩ ŋgbɛyɛ ńɖɩ ɖʋʋ pɩnaɣ 1961 taa nɛ ɛkɛ ɖɩ-n̄ʋʋ tʋ. Ŋgbɛyɛ ńɖɩ, ɖɩ-taa n̄ɩma lʋbɩna paɣtʋ ɖoŋ n̄ɩndʋ ndʋ komina nɛ sɔɔjanaa paɖʋwa yɔ siŋŋ, halɩ pakʋyʋʋ tɩ-yɔɔ nɛ kɩn̄azʋʋ. Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ tɛ polisinaa kpa-ɩ pɩnaɣ 1962 taa. Ɛlɛ, ŋgbɛyɛ nɖɩ payaɣ se, "CIA" yɔ, ńɖɩ yebina nɛ pakpa-ɩ. Pahʋ ɛ-tɔm "Rivonia" tɛtʋ taa nɛ pɩtɛ lɛ, paɖʋ-ɩ salaka. Pɩkpaɣnɩ mbʋ yɔ lɛ, Mandela pɩsɩ mba palʋkɩ se, ɛyaa kɩsɛmaa nɛ kʋhʋlʋmaa nɛ kɩkpɛdaa nɛ sʋtʋ lɩm n̄ɩma pɛwɛɛ kɩmaŋ, tɛyɩtʋ natʋyʋ ɛtaawɛɛ yɔ, pa-kɩlɛmʋʋ. Peeye kedeŋa kpeekpe ajɛɛ sɩna-ɩ ɛ-lʋɖɛ ńɖɩ ɖɩ-lʋbʋ yɔɔ nɛ pɩkɩlɩɣ kɩlʋʋ yɔɔ.

Ɛcaɣ salaka taa pɩnzɩ nɛɛlɛ nɛ lʋbɛ mpilim nɛ ɛtɔɔ kʋn̄ɔŋ siŋŋ. Ɛ-lʋɖɛ nɖɩ ɛlʋkaɣ yɔ, ɖɩ-yɔɔ lɛ, ekizaa se, ɛɛlɩɣ salaka taa yee, patanɩɩna-ɩ kɔyɔ. Kɔlaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʋ hiu nɛ kʋɖʋmʋʋ wiye, pɩnaɣ 1990 taa patɔla-ɩ nɛ peyebi-i. Ɛ-lɩmaɣza wena ɛwɛna ɖooo ɛ-pɩcatʋ nɛ ɛkɔɔ ɛpaɣlɩ yɔ, a-yɔɔ lɛ, etisi se ɛ nɛ ɛjaɖɩ ńɖɩ ɖɩ-n̄ʋʋdʋ, Ɖajaa Frederik de Klerk tɛ komina pacaɣ pɔyɔɔdɩ nɛ peceyi. Paha ɛ nɛ n̄ʋʋdʋ Frederik de Klerk ɛnʋ Laŋhɛyɛ yɔɔ kandɩyaa samtʋ nima pɩnaɣ 1993 taa, mbʋ pʋyɔɔ yɔ, ɛ nɛ ɩ panɩnɩ ɖama ɖɛfɛɛ yem nɛ tɛyɩtʋ ndʋ tɩɩwɛ ansaayɩnaa nɛ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa pɛ-hɛkʋ taa yɔ tɩsɩɩ tɩnaɣ. Peeye papazɩ sɩʋ loma kaɖasɩm Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ kɩfɑɖɛ tikiɖe.

Kewiyaɣ ŋga keɖiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ ńɖɩ se pʋcɔ pɔtɔ caca nɛ palɩzɩ ɛjaɖɛ n̄ʋʋdʋ yɔ, pʋkɔna-kɛ kaɖɛ siŋŋ. Peeye ɛ nɛ n̄ʋʋdʋ de Klerk palʋba se, you ɛtaalɩɩ aparɩtɛɛdɩ taa n̄ɩma nɛ ANC nɛ "Inkhata" pa-aŋgba pɛ-hɛkʋ taa. Suluu cejewiye taa n̄ɩma wɛna "Inkhata" ŋgbɛyɛ taa sakɩyɛ. Pɩnaɣ 1994 n̄ɩŋa taa pɔtɔ caca nɛ palɩzɩ Nelson Mandela nɛ ɛkɛ kajalaɣ ɛyʋ kɩkpɛdʋ weyi ɛkɛ Afríka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ n̄ʋʋdʋ yɔ. Ɛlʋba siŋŋ se, ceyuu nɛ ɖama nɩnaʋ pɛwɛɛ ansaayɩnaa nɛ ɛyaa kɩkpɛdaa pɛ-hɛkʋ taa. Ɛlʋba se, ɛyaa ɛwɛɛ kɩmaŋ tɔzʋʋ nʋmɔʋ taa. Ɛlɛ, kʋdɔŋ sɔsɔʋ ŋgʋ patanada kɩ-hayʋʋ nɛ payaɣ-kʋ se, siidaa yɔ, ɛtɔcɔna ki-ɖeɖe, ŋgʋ kɩsa miŋ siŋŋ Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛkpaɣ kpelaɣ nɛ pɩsɩɩnɩ pɩnzɩ nzɩ pʋpɔzʋʋ se, ɛyʋ ɛla Afrɩka nɛ hadɛ kiŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ lɛ, eyele-kɛ nɛ ɛlɩzɩ e-nesi politiki tɔm taa. Ɛlɛ, ɛwɛɛ ɛsɩŋna "ANC" ŋgbɛyɛ kaɣlaa nɛ ekiziɣ mbʋ ɖɩlakɩ nɛ pɩɩcɔlʋʋ yɔ.

Ɛkɔma lɛ, ɛsʋʋ aŋgba sakɩyɛ wena alʋkɩna kʋn̄ɔŋdʋtʋ nɛ siidaa kʋdɔŋ yɔ a-taa. Mbʋʋ pɩlaba nɛ ɛkɔɔ ɛpɩsɩ kedeŋa kpeekpe tɛ n̄ɩm sɔsɔm. Ɛyʋ waɖɛ yɔɔ kandayʋʋ nʋmɔʋ taa lɛ, ɛkɛ weyi kpedeŋa kpeekpe welesiɣna siŋŋ yɔ. Ɛ-yɔɔ ɛyaa kʋhʋlʋmaa nɛ kɩsɛmaa nɛ kɩkpɛdaa nɛ sʋtʋ lɩm n̄ɩma pɛkpɛndaa pacaɣ ɛjaɖɩ ńɖɩ ɖɩ-taa. Ɛ-yɔɔ ɖɔɖɔ loma kaɖasɩm lɩ ɖɩ-taa. Pakpaɣ-ɩ se, ɛnʋʋ lɛ ɛjaɖɛ ńɖɩ ɖɩ-caa. Pɛɖɛyɩ ɛjaɖɛ ńɖɩ se, " kaɣʋʋ ɛjaɖɛ". Paa mbʋʋ yɔ, cɛyɩtʋ kaɖɛ n̄ɩndʋ ndɩ ndɩ wɛ ɖɩ-taa. Mulum wɛ tɔzʋʋ nʋmɔʋ taa nɛ ɛyaa kʋyʋʋ komina yɔɔ nɛ helu helu lakasɩ labʋ.

Reich naatozo ŋgʊ (Troisième Reich)

Reich naatozo tɛ ŋgʊ, pɩkɛ tɔmpiye nɖɩ ɖɩwɩlɩɣ se pɩkɛ Caama ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ Adolph Hitler ɖɩyaɣ yɔ kpaɣ pɩnzɩ 1933 ŋtalɩ 1945 taa yɔ. Ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ ɖɩtakizi paɣtʊ mbʊ pɩnaɣ 1933 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, tɔmpiye Reich wɛɛ mbʊ nɛ ɖɩkɛ Caama ɛjaɖɛ kewiyaɣ hɩɖɛ, kɛ kewiyaɣ nɛ politiki takayasɩ kpeekpe taa nzɩ Caama ɛjaɖɛ ma pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ pɩnaɣ 1945 taa yɔ. Paa ɖoye, kpaɣna tɩyɔɔ wɛʊ takayaɣ pɩnaɣ 1943, tɔmpiye Grossdeutsches Reich sakɩyɛ kewiyaɣ ŋga ka-taa kaakɩlɩ sɔɔlʊʊ.

Adolf Hitler kaakɛna ɛjaɖɛ nɛ samaɣ yɔɔ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tʊma laɖaa ŋgbɛɣɛ nʊʊ tʊ Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei Caama kʊnʊŋ taa kɛlɛ, ɖɔɖɔ payaɣ se NSDAP). Tɔmpiye ɛjaɖɛ nɛ samaɣ yɔɔ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ kɛ kɛlɛʊ taa Hitler nɛ e-kewiyaɣ tɛ politiki lɩmaɣza wena palaba yɔ nɛ peɖiyuu nɛ ɛjaɖɛ yɔ. Palɩzɩ ɛ-hɩɖɛ ɛ-lɩmaɣza takayaɣ taa nɛ pɩpɩ ŋgbɛɣɛ hɩɖɛ.

Pɩtɛ kewiyaɣ ŋga kaɖala katalɩ pɩnzɩ hiu nɛ naalɛ, kpaɣna Hitler ɛzɩ ɛjaɖɛ kewiyaɣ ñʊʊ tʊ kɔlaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 30 pɩnaɣ 1933 alɩwaatʊ ndʊ pagba Reich agoza fenaɣ pɩnaɣ 1945 taa, pʊwayɩ lɛ, pagba Karl Dönitz kewiyaɣ kpaagba ŋga.

Fʊlɩsɩ Ɛjaɖɛ nɛ kpaŋgɩyɛ kewiyaɣ, nɛ kɛtɛ kɛkɛ cɛjɛyɛ kewiyaɣ yeke koŋ mbʊ lɛ, Adolf Hitler ɖiyaɣna-kɛ, natozo kewiyaɣ ŋga ɖɩyaɣ se Reich natozo ŋgʊ, ŋgʊ tɩna kedeŋga kpeekpe you naalɛ ŋgʊ Erɔpʊ ɛjaɖɛ taa, alɩwaatʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa pʊkɔna yoŋ sɔsɔŋ nɛ kɩdɛkɛdɩm sakɩyɛ, Yuda ɛyaa ɖɩzɩtʊ (soowa) nɛ Tsigane waa Erɔpʊ taa. Pakʊʊ ɖɔɖɔ kalakasɩ yaa ɛyaa ajama.

Sɔndʊʊ kpaɣ ɖoŋ nɛ pɩkaɣ. Kpɩtaŋ naalɛ wayi lɛ, Göring yele nɛ pakpa kpɛnɖɛ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɩnaa tɛ ɛyaa 10000. Ɛyaa padaa peeɖe lɛ, Ernest Thälmann, KPD ñʊʊ tʊ lakɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ naatozo ŋgʊ wiye. Ɖomaɣ fenaɣ taa, salaka tɩna talɩ ɛyaa 30000. Kpaɣ pɩnzɩ 1933 nɛ 1939 hɛkʊ taa mbʊ yɔ patalɩ ɛyaa 150000 ŋtalɩ 200000 salaka kuduyuŋ taa. Pakʊ ɛyaa ɛzɩ 7000 nɛ 9000 mbʊ yɔ. Ɛyaa sakɩyɛ sakɩyɛ seɣ Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Satyajit Ray

Satyajit Ray (mɩsɩkʊm fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 2 pɩnaɣ 1921 ŋtalɩ ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 23 pɩnaɣ 1992). Ɛyʊ ɛnɛyɔ takayasɩ mayʊ nɛ hendu mayʊ bengali Ɛndɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Palʊla-ɩ Kalkuta koboyaɣ ɖɩɣa nakɛyɛ taa, ɛ-caa kɛ takayasɩ mayʊ nɛ ɖɔɖɔ keɣsɩ takayasɩ mayʊ bengali (Sukumar Ray), S. Ray la sukuli Presidency college nɛ pʊcɔ ɛsʊʊ Visva-Bharati, sukuli kɩtɛzʊʊ taa, ŋgʊ Rabindranath Tagore kaatʊla Santiniketan tɛtʊ taa yɔ.

Cejewiye kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ wɩlɩɣ se Satyajit Ray talɩɣ ɛzɩ kpaɖɩŋ hiu mbʊ yɔ. Upendrakishore Raychowdhury, Ray cɔzɔ kaakɛ takayasɩ mayʊ nɛ takayasɩ taa kɛlɛmɩŋ lɩzɩyʊ, ɛkɛ ɛyʊ yɔɔ lɩmaɣza kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ tʊ ɛkɛ takayasɩ lɩzɩyʊ nɛ tɩyɩnzɩ yɔɔ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ tʊ. Ɛɛkɛ awiya taa wiyaʊ nɔyʊ Brahmo Samaj tɛtʊ taa, pɩɩkɛ Krɩstʊ ñɩma tɛ Ɛsɔ sɛtʊ ŋgbɛyɛ nɛ ɛyaa mba palʊba lɛzɩtʊ kɔɔ kpaɣɖʊ 19 alɩwaatʊ taa kɛ Bengale yɔ.

Ray, palʊla-ɩ Kalikuta, Sukumar nɛ Suprabha Ray palʊlana-ɩ. Ɛ-caa sɩba lɛ, ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ ɛzɩ natozo mbʊ yɔ nɛ hɔʊ cɛyɩ kɩ-tɩ mbʊ pazɩ Suprabha kaawɛna yɔ. Pʊwayɩ lɛ, Ray la tɔsʊʊ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ Presidency Cɔlɛgɩ sukuli taa kɛ Kalikuta tɛtʊ taa, paa ɛ-liu sɔɔlɩm ewokina-ɩ nɛ nesi tɛɛ keɖeɣa tʊma yɔɔ kɔyɔ. Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ 194à alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, e-ɖoo seɣti-ɩ se ɛla sukuli kɛ Visva-Bharati sukuli ŋgʊ Rabindrabath Tagore kaatʊla Santiniketan tɛtʊ taa yɔ. Ray etisi se ɛɖɛɛ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ hɔɔlʊʊ taa lɛ, ɛsɔɔlɩ Kalikuta tɛtʊ nɛ hɔɔlʊʊ lɛɛkʊ lɛ, ɛ-pɩjatʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ lɛɛɖɛ yɔ se ɛnʊ wɛ lɔŋ camɩyɛ ɛ-ñʊʊ taa kɛ Santiniketan tɛtʊ taa.

Ray kʊyɩ Santiniketan pɩnaɣ 1943, nɛ pʊcɔ ɛtɛzɩ e-sukuli tʊmɩyɛ pɩnzɩ kɩgbanzɩ taa nɛ ɛpɩsɩ Kalitkuta ɖenɖe pamʊ-ɩ tʊmɩyɛ takayasɩ kɩsʊsasɩ tʊmɩyɛ naɖɩyɛ taa Piritaniiki tɛtʊ taa, D.J.Keymer. Pamʊ-ɩ tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɛzɩ junior visualiser (pʊtɔbʊʊ se lɩzɩyʊ cikpelu) nɛ pɛhɛyɩ-ɩ liidiye nɖɩ payaɣ roupii yɔ kɛ roupii naa 80 fenaɣ sɩkɩ lɛ.

Nɛ ɛzɩma nesi tɛ keɖeɣa tʊmɩyɛ kɛdɩna Ray pɩtɩɩfɛyɩ mbʊ nɛ ɖɔɖɔ sakɩyɛ taa palakaɣ-ɩ camɩyɛ mbʊ lɛ, pʊkɔna kɔkɔɖɛ naɖɩyɛ Piritaniiki ɛyaa nɛ Ɛndɩ ɛyaa hɛkʊ taa (pɛhɛyaɣ kajalaɣ ñɩma ɖeu), nɛ Ray tɔŋ se pɩjama pɛ-kɩyakʊ laɖaa sakɩyɛ. Pʊkɔma ɛzɩ pɩnzɩ 1943 taa lɛ, pamʊ Ray tʊmɩyɛ Signet Press tʊmɩyɛ taa, pɩɩkɛ takayasɩ lɩzʊʊ ɖɩɣa kɩfala nakayɛ ŋga D.K. Gupta kaatʊla yɔ.

Sergueï Rachmaninov

Sergueï Vassilievitch Rachmaninov kɛna weyi eluki wendu yaa ɛmaɣ-tʊ yɔ, ɛsɔɔla piyano mabʊ ɖɔɖɔ kamaɣ fɛyɩ nɛ ɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ soo maɖa ɖɩcaɣyɛ taa lɛ, ɛkɛ sɔsɔ nɔɔyʊ. Eluba yaa ɛma wendu ndʊ yɔ tɩkɛna ñʊʊda maɣzɩm takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ wendu ndʊ tɩ-taa tɔm pee lɩna ɛwɩlɩya Frédéric Chopin, Tchaïkovski nɛ Rimski-Korsakov pɔ-cɔlɔ. Sergueï Vassilievitch Rachmaninov caa kɛ payaɣ se Arkadievitch Rachmaninov (1841–1916), nɛ ɛkɛ sɔɔja sɔsɔ Rusi ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Eɖoo kɔyɔ Lyubov (Lioubov) Petrovna Butakova (1853–1929), nɛ sɔɔja sɔsɔ, Seneral nɔɔyʊ lʊɩna-ɩ. Palʊla Sergueï Rachmaninov kɛ ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ kacalaɣ ŋgʊ wiye pɩnaɣ 1873 kɛ Rusi ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ ɛsɩ lakɩŋ fenaɣ 28 wiye pɩnaɣ 1943 Kalifɔrnii, Etazunii taa ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 69. Pɩnzɩ naanza taa kɛ Anna Ornazkaïa kpaɣ ɛ-tɩ pilim nɛ ɛpaɣzɩ piyano mabʊ wɩlʊ Sergueï Rachmaninov. Pɩɩwɛɛ se powona Sergueï Rachmaninov nɛ ɛ-ɖalʊ sɔsɔ Vladmir kɛ mba paɖaŋgʊ wiyau yɔɔ yɔ ɛlɛ liidiya fɛyɩ.

Ɛzɩma ɖama nɩnaʊ taawɛɛ ɛñɩma cɔlɔ lɛ, Vassili nɛ Lioubov Rachmaninov pacɩɩ ɖama. Piyebina nɛ piya wɛɛ po-ɖoo nɛ pe-neze Sofia Boutakova (1823-1904), weyi pɛɖɛyʊ-ɩ se babouchka yɔ pɔ-cɔlɔ. Mbʊ yebina nɛ pe-neze ɛnʊ ewokina ɛzɛyɩ Sergueï Rachmaninov kɛ Cathédrale Sainte-Sophie de Novgorod ɖenɖe ɛsɔ wendu teya teu nɛ wendu teu sʊʊ e-ciyam camɩyɛ siŋŋŋ yɔ.

Eluba wendu ndʊ yɔ tɩɖɔɔ kamaɣ fɛyɩ. Ɛwɛ Etazunii tɛtʊ taa lɛ kedeŋga kpeekpe you naalɛ ñɩŋgʊ paɣza nɛ pɩwɛ-ɩ kaɖɛ se ɛpɩsɩ Erɔpʊ taa kɛ ɛpɛlɔ Tatiana cɔlɔ,weyi ɛwɛ Fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ. Piyebina nɛ pɩnaɣ 1941 ɛlu ɛ-tɛ kpaagbaa wendu nɛ ɛyaa-tʊ se les Danses symphoniques yaa wengalasɩ payɛ. Wendu tʊnɛ tɩ-taa lɛ ɛyɔɔda ɛyʊ wezu caɣʊ tɔm: tanadɛɛ, wɩsɩ taa nɛ ɖanɣ. Pɩla mbʊ lɛ, ɛtɛzɩ yabʊ ɖaɣ kɛ Etazunii peeɖe nɛ ɛwɛɛna peeɖe ɛjaɖɛ takayaɣ.Pɩnzɩ 1042 nɛ 1943 taa kɛ pɩcɛɣɖɛ kʊdɔŋ kpa e-hiliu nɛ lakɩŋ fenaɣ 28 wiye pɩnaɣ 1943 lɛ, etisi fezu, ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 69.

Sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ

Sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ, Krekɩ taa lɛ, νεο ελληνική γλώσσα / (neo)ellinikí glóssaa yaa yem se νέα ελληνικά / (néa) elliniká. Grɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ kɩ-kɛ ɛyaa miliiyɔɔ waa hiu nɛ kɩgbanzɩ tɛ lʊlʊʊ taa kʊnʊŋ, nɛ miliiyɔɔ waa 10,7 wɛ Krɛsɩ. Kɩ-kɛ Krɛsɩ nɛ Sipri ajɛya taa kewiyaɣ kʊnʊŋ. Krɛsɩ wɛna kʊnʊmɩŋ cɩkpeŋ nɩyɛ nɛ ɖɩnaɣ ɛlɛ Albanie nɛ Turki ajɛyɛ taa.

Kɩwɛ Krɛsɩ kʊnʊŋ pɩlɩŋga taa Ɛndɩ-Erɔpʊ kʊnʊmɩŋ cejewiye taa. Sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ lɩna koinè taa. Kɩ-maɣmaɣ kɩlɩna Krɛkɩ kɩbɩnɩʊ taa.

Ɖooo lɔŋ taa lɛ, ɛyaa nabɛyɛ yɔɔdɔɔ Krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ Siirii nɛ Libaŋ ajɛyɛ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Krɩstʊ mba tɛ pʊcɔ pɩnaɣ 1960. Kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ kɩ-ɖɩma ajɛyɛ ana ada mbʊ pʊyɔ ɛsakuliye liwa. Sukuli wɩlɩtʊ ndɩ ndɩ wiziuu nɛ pɩñɩkʊʊ nice Arabɩɩ kʊnʊŋ yɔɔ. Pɩkɛ yʊsʊ lakayaɣ Fransɩɩ waɖɛ haʊ Siirii ɛjaɖɛ taa wayi nɛ Libaŋ pɩnaɣ 1943 pɩnɛ yem yem Arabɩ mba kɔmtʊ pɩnzi 1950 nɛ 1960.

Krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ tɛ ɖɛzɩ kaawɛ Krɛsɩ ɛsɔ kɩlaʊ siuu siuu ŋgʊ taa. Egipiti taa pʊcɔ pɩnaɣ 1956 lɛ, Alexandrii egetiye taa ɛyaa sakɩyɛ nabɛyɛ nɩwaɣ Krɛkɩ tɔm. Tɛtʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa peɖe lɛ, kɩ-kɛ kʊnʊŋ naanza ŋgʊ Arabɩ nɛ Fransɩɩ nɛ Englɛsɩ nɛ Italii kʊnʊmɩŋ wayi. Ɖeeɖe nɛ sɔnɔ Krɛkɩ ñima mba pɛwɛ peɖe yɔ pɛkɛ tadɩyɛ tɩna nɛ manzʊmalɩ waa.

Kpagba taa lɛ, ɖɩnaɣ Krɛkɩ ɛyaa kpaɖaŋ sakɩyɛ mɩza paale nɛ ɖɩkatʊwɛ Niyuu Yɔrɩkɩ nɛ Chicago nɛ Sanfransiskoo nɛ Melbourne nɛ Fransɩɩ nɛ Caama nɛ kewiyaɣ ɛjaɖɛ kpam ajɛyɛ taa.

Wɛɛ kɩfana yaa alɩwaatʊ kɩfatʊ (Renaissance)

Wɛɛ kɩfana yaa lʊlʊʊ kɩfam alɩwaatʊ pɩkɛ alɩwaatʊ kɩfatʊ wɛɛ ndʊ pɛkpɛnda matʊ alɩwaatʊ nɛ lɔnzɩɖɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ pɩlɩna ɛyʊ yɔɔ nɛ canaʊ taa lɛɛtʊ kpɛlɛkʊʊ ndʊ tɩpaɣzɩna Itaali ɖaɣnɩɣ lʊlʊʊ kɩfam alɩwaatʊ yɔ. Ɖɩcɔna nɛ ɖɩnaɣ yɔ ɖaɣnɩɣ lʊlʊʊ alɩwaatʊ hɩɣ pɩtɩ pɩtɩŋna nesi tɛ ñɩlɩ ñɩlɩ wonduu laɖaa tʊma yɔɔ, mba papɩzaɣ nɛ pɔyɔɔdʊʊ nɛ ɛyaa po-wonduu tɔm yɔ.

Pʊcɔ lʊlʊʊ kɩfam alɩwaatʊ natʊyʊ lɩɩ Itaalii tɛtʊ sakɩyɛ taa kpaɣ kpaɣɖʊ 13 ŋtalɩ 14 alɩwaatʊ (Duecento nɛ Trecento) pɩtalɩ kpaɣɖʊ 15 alɩwaatʊ taa ɖɔɖɔ kɛ Itaali hɔlʊʊ sɔsɔʊ taa nɛ Ɛsɩpañɩ taa nɛ ERɔpʊ nɛ Hayi kiŋ hɔɔlɩŋ cikpeŋ nɩɩyɛ taa nɛ Caama ɛzɩ mbʊ ɛyʊ yaɣ se kajalaɣ lʊlʊʊ kɩfam alɩwaatʊ (Quattrocento) nɛ pɩtalɩ Erɔpʊ tɩŋga taa kpaɣɖʊ 16 wɛɛ taa (Cinquecento).

Pɩtɩŋna Jean Delumeau weyi ɛkɛ lʊlʊʊ kɩfam tɛ tɩlɩyʊ niye mʊyʊ yɔ ɛ-yɔɔ lɛ, ɖɩnɩɣ se lʊlʊʊ kɩfam tɔmpiye lɩna Itaali nɛ nesi tɛ ñɩlɩ ñɩlɩ tʊma laɖaa cɔlɔ kpaɣna kpaɣɖʊ 19 wɛɛ taa (Itaalɩ ɛyaa tɔŋ se sɔnɔ se Rinascimento). Tɔmpiyen lʊlʊʊ kɩfam walɩ wobu yɔɔ wobu yɔɔ.

Tɔmpiye lʊlʊʊ kɩfam ndɩ ɖɩkɛ wɛɛ pɩtɛkɛ se matʊ nɛ ñɩlɩ ñɩlɩ wonduu lɛɛzɩɣ kɩfam alɩwaatʊ ndʊ, palaba-tʊ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ kajalaɣ pɩlɩna Jean-Jacques Ampère pɩnaɣ 1840 taa alɩwaatʊ ndʊ ɛkɛdaɣ Fransɩɩ canaʊ matʊ tɔm pʊcɔ kpaɖʊ 12 nɛ pʊwayɩ kɛ Jules Michelet pɩnaɣ 1855 alɩwaatʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa ɛkpaɣ ɛ-tɩ mbilim kpaɣɖʊ 16 taa nɛ ɛyɔɔdʊʊ lʊlʊʊ kɩfam tɔm pɩlɩna Fransɩɩ yɔɔ yɔ. Tɔmpiye ndɩ Suwiisi nesi tɛ ñɩlɩ ñɩlɩ tʊma canaʊ tɔm kɛɖɩyʊ ɖaɣnɩ tɔmʊʊ ŋgʊ kpaɣʊ pɩnaɣ 1860 ɛyʊ ɛnʊ lɛ, Jacob Burckhardt (pɩnzɩ 1818 ŋtalɩ 1897) kɛ ɛ-takayaɣ ŋga ɛma pɩlɩna Itaali ɖaɣnɩɣ lʊlʊʊ kɩfam tɔm yɔɔ yɔ.

Ɛyʊ ɛnʊ ɛ-tɛ tɔm kpɛlɛkʊʊ kɛ kɔlɛzɩ ɖaŋ taa Fransɩɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa pɩnaɣ 1942-1943 alɩwaatʊ taa lɛ, Fransɩɩ canaʊ tɔm kɛdɩyʊ Lucien Febvre wɩlɩɣ se Jules Michelet labɩna tɔmpiye ndɩ tʊmɩyɛ kɛ ɛ-maɣmaɣ ɛ-lɩmazaɣ yɔɔ kɛnɛ. Ɖɩnaɣ kɔyɔ Jules Michelet lakaɣ tʊmɩyɛ wɩyaʊ Louis 14 yɔɔ kɛnɛ ŋgʊ pɩwɛyɩ pɔdɔdɩyɛ nɛ ɛ-halʊʊ tɛ sɩm.

Kʋnʋmɩŋ lɛɛŋ

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