1916

Pɩnaɣ 1916pɩnaɣ 1916 ñɩŋga kɛ palʋlʋʋ Yeesu Krɩstʋ yɔ. Pɩnzɩ mɩnɩŋ nɛɛlɛ taa lɛ, pɩnaɣ 1916 kɛŋna hiu nɛ loɖo ñɩŋga. Kɛwɛ pɩnzɩ 19151917 hɛkʋ taa.

Pɩnaɣ ŋga ka-taa kɛ lakasɩ sɔsɔsɩ sɩnɛ yɔ sɩlaba :

1915

Pɩnaɣ 1915 kɛ pɩnaɣ 1915 ñɩŋga kɛ palʋlʋʋ Yeesu Krɩstʋ yɔ. Pɩnzɩ mɩnɩŋ nɛɛlɛ taa lɛ, pɩnaɣ 1915 kɛŋna hiu nɛ kagbanzɩ ñɩŋga. Kɛwɛ pɩnzɩ 1914 nɛ 1916 hɛkʋ taa.

1917

Pɩnaɣ 1917 kɛ pɩnaɣ 1917 ñɩŋga kɛ palʋlʋʋ Yeesu Krɩstʋ yɔ. Pɩnzɩ mɩnɩŋ nɛɛlɛ taa lɛ, pɩnaɣ 1917 kɛŋna hiu nɛ lʋbɛ ñɩŋga. Kɛwɛ pɩnzɩ 1916 nɛ 1918 hɛkʋ taa.

Ajɛyɛ kpɛndʊʊ

Ajɛyɛ kpɛndʊʊ

Ajɛyɛ kpɛndʊʊ tɔmpiye, pɩkɛ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩ-paɣtʊ kɛ se pɔcɔna nɛ pana ɛzɩma ɛyaa paa ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ ɖɩ-taa pɩzɩɣ nɛ pɛlɛdɩɣ ɖama taa tadɩyɛ nɔmɔʊ taa, pʊ-tʊʊ tobi taa se ɖama hɛkɩŋ taa sʊʊ, liidiye lɛɛzʊʊ nɛ ɖama, tʊma, ɛyaa tɩtɩŋga taa ɖama sʊʊ, lɛɣtʊ kpɛlɛkʊʊ nɛ ɖama cɔlɔ welesiɣ. Pɩkɛ nɔmɔʊ ɛzɩma pɩtɩŋna nɛ ɛyaa sʊʊ ɖama hɛkɩŋ paa le tʊ yɔ, kpaɣ kɔzɩ kɔzɩ tadɩyɛ tɔm taa, ɛyaa ɖama cɔtɩnaʊ, mbʊ pɩkɛ se paa weyi lɛ ɛ-laŋɩyɛ ɛtaamaa nɛ lɛɛlʊ tɛ ɛjaɖɛ taa wobu, se pɩsa ɖɔɖɔ nɛ pɔcɔna haba yɔɔ ɖɔnaa ɖeɖe ɛyaa nɛ pa-kɩyakɩŋ wondu ɖeɖe.

Fransɩɩ kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ, tɔmpiye nɖɩ palaba-ɖɩ nɛ kajalaɣ ɖeɖe lɛ Pierre Courbertin tʊ kaalɛna-ɖɩ labɩnaʊ tʊmɩyɛ, kɛ Figaro takayɩ hɔɔlaɣ taa ŋga pama-kɛ pɩnaɣ 1904 saŋayɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 13 yɔ, ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ Fransɩɩ tɔm kɛdɩyʊ kaayɔɔdʊʊ yɔ ɛnʊ payaɣ Vincent Capdepuy. Tɩlɩɩ ɖɔɖɔ Paul Otlet takayaɣ nakayɛ taa pɩnaɣ 1916. Tɔmpiye nɖɩ ɖɖi-tɔbʊʊ nɩɣ keekee kɛlɛ mbʊ se ɛyaa ɛsʊʊ ɖama taa paa hɔɔlɩŋ weyi taa paa ajɛyɛ wena lɛ taa kɛ you sɔsɔʊ wayi mbʊ pʊyɔɔ pɩɩwɛ sɔndʊ ɛyaa nɛ lalaa tɛ tɛzʊʊ.

Tɔmpee naalɛ naayɛ anasaayɩ kʊnʊŋ taa kɛlɛ kabɩyɛ taa akɛ kʊyʊm ana kpɛm tɛ nɛ kpeekpe kpɛndʊʊ. Kajalaɣ taa lɛ tɔmɩŋ ɖɩlɩyɛ tʊmɩyɛ tɩnaa cɔlɔ lɛ, ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ kpeekpe tɛ nɩɣ taa lɛ ɛjaɖɛ (palɩzɩɣ tɔmpiye nɖɩ nɛ latɛŋ kʊnʊŋ mundus pʊ-tɔbʊʊ kedeŋga kpeekpe) nɛ globus ɖɩɖɩ tɔbʊʊ se kpeekpe nɩɣ taa) yebina nɛ papɩzɩɣ pɔtɔ se awɛʊʊ yɔ akɛ kʊyʊma anasaayɩ taa kɔyɔ mondialisation nɛ Ɛnglɩsɩ kʊnʊŋ taa kɔyɔ globalization.

Yee tɔmpiye ajɛyɛ kpɛndʊʊ nɖɩ ɖɩkɛ kɩfaɖɛ yɔ, tɔm kɛdʊʊ paɣtʊ taa lɛ ɖɩɩwɛɛ halɩ ɖooo hoho. Ajɛyɛ kpɛndʊʊ tɔmʊʊ, pɩkɛ nɔmɔʊ ŋgʊ kiyeba se ɛyaa ɛsʊʊ ɖama taa nɛ kedeŋa paɣlɩ pɩlɩna tʊma ndɩ ndɩ labɩtʊ taa ɛzɩ tɔm kpoŋ lɩzɩɣ ɖɔɖɔ tɔbɩŋ ndɩ ndɩ yɔ, ɖɩcɔna kɔyɔ tɔm ndʊ tɩɩwɛɛ pileɖa. Pɩnzɩ kaaɖɔ sakɩyɛ sakɩyɛ pɩcɔ papazɩ nɩɣ ɖɩtaŋ wayi wayi wɛɛ anɛ a-taa.

Ajɛyɛ ñʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔm

Ajɛyɛ ñʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔm, pɩkɛ politiki tɔm ndʊ ɛyaa lakaɣ se pɩsa nɛ pɛ-tɛ ampiiri waa paɣlɩ yɔ pʊ-tɔbʊʊ pacakɩ ajɛyɛ lɛɛna yɔɔ nɛ pɛkpɛndɩ nɛ pɩpɩsɩ kewiyaɣ kʊyʊmaɣ ɛjaɖɛ nɛ payaa se ampiiri. John Atkinson Hobson cɔlɔ lɛ, ajɛyɛ ñʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊʊ lɛɛzɩtʊ kpaɣ kpaɣɖʊ 19 tɛmtʊ alɩwaatʊ nɛ kpaɣɖʊ 20 paɣzɩtʊ wɛɛ taa kɛlɛ se lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɖɩ pɩtatasɩ pɩkɛ ampiiri tɔm ɛzɩ pɩɩkɛʊ Pax Romana alɩwaatʊ yɔ.

Marx lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɩnaa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Rudolf Hilferding, Rosa Luxemburg, nɛ Lénine ɛ nɛ ɛ-takayaɣ ŋga ɛmaa nɛ ɛtɔŋ ka-taa se lalaa ñʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊʊ, pɩkɛ menɖeke ma-ñɩm ɖoŋ alɩwaatʊ (pɩnaɣ 1916), ɛɖanɩɣ kpaɣʊʊ Hobson tɔm nɛ eyele nɛ tɩtɔyɩ ɛyaa tɩŋa cɔlɔ. Marx lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɩnaa cɔlɔ lɛ, lalaa ñʊŋ caɣʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔm kɛ alɩwatʊ ndʊ menɖeke ma-ñɩm tɩnaa kpa ɖoŋ piŋ yɔ, nɛ ɖɩcɔna kɔyɔ tɔsʊʊ huuu lɩmaɣza yeke koŋ yɔɔ pamazɩɣ pɩtɛkɛ politiki tɔm.

Lalaa ñʊŋ yɔɔ caɣʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔm ñɔza mɩzasɩ yasʊʊ tɔm ndʊ Caama ɛjaɖɛ ɛyaa kaalaba yɔ. Pɩtɩŋna Versaille tɛ ɖama nɩnaʊ tɔm yɔɔ lɛ Ositralii mʊ Kinee Kifalʊʊ tɛtʊ Caama mba nesi tɛɛ nɛ pɩtasɩna Bougainville lɩm hɛkʊ taa tɛtʊ nɛ pɩkɛ ajɛyɛ kɩkpɛndʊʊ tindimiye C nɖɛ.

Versaille tɛ ɖama nɩnaʊ yebina nɛ Afrika nɛ Hadɛ yɔɔ ɛjaɖɛ mʊ ajɛyɛ kɩkpɛndʊʊ takayaɣ ŋga kɛkɛ pɩlʊʊ kɛ Afrika nɛ Hadɛ Wɩsɩ Ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa. Waɖɛ takayaɣ ŋga se ɛcɔna ajɛyɛ yɔɔ halɩ nɛ Namibii ɛjaɖɛ nɖɩ ɖɩkaɣ ñɔʊʊ yɔ yɔɔ kpazɩ ɖoŋ piŋ Afrika nɛ Hadɛ yɔɔ ɛjaɖɛ kɛ Afrika nɛ hadɛ yɔɔ kiŋ ajɛyɛ pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ pɩnaɣ 1990. Zelande kɩfalʊʊ mʊ waɖɛ takayaɣ C ŋga kɛ ajɛyɛ kɩkpɛndʊʊ ŋgbɛyɛ cɔlɔ pɩlɩna Caama Samoa ɛyaa yɔɔ.

Charles de Foucauld

Palʊla Charles Eugène de Foucauld de Pontbriand kɛ salaŋ fenaɣ 1858 kɛ fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa kɛ ɖoŋiye nɖɩ payaɣ-ɖɩ se Strasbourg yɔ nɛ ɛsɩ saŋayɩŋ fenaɣ kacalaɣ wiye pɩnaɣ 1916 kɛ Alizeerii ɛjaɖɛ taa ɖenɖe payaɣ se Sahara Kañɩnbʊsaɣ yɔ.

Ɛɛkɛna Fransɩɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa sɔɔja sɔsɔ nɔɔyʊ nɛ pɩwayɩ lɛ eyele sɔɔjɛtʊ ndʊ nɛ ɛpɩsɩ keteŋa yɔ kilimiyʊ yem nɛ ɛnɩnɩɣ keteŋa yɔɔ ndʊ tɩlakɩ lakɩntaa yaa tɛtʊ yɔɔ yɔ. Pɩtasɩɩna mbʊ yeke; ɛɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɛsɔ sɛyʊ weyi ɛkaza ɛ-tɩ kɩjaʊ eyeke nɛ ɛtɩmʊ wɩsɩ nɛ ɖoo yɔ nɛ kʊnʊmɩŋ ndɩ ndɩ ñɩnɩyʊ.

Ɛsɩba saŋayɩŋ fenaɣ kacalaɣ wiye pɩnaɣ 1916 kɛ Alizeerii ɛjaɖɛ taa ɖenɖe payaɣ se Sahara yɔ nɛ kamɩŋ fenaɣ 13 pɩnaɣ 2005 kɛ Papa kpa-ɩ kiɖeɖeu. Mbʊ pasɩŋna-ɩ nɛ ɛ-kɩlɛmʊʊ yɔ lɛ toko yuulee ŋgʊ esuu yɔ nɛ toko ŋgʊ pɛñɛyɩ kɩ-yɔɔ kɛ Yesu laŋɩyɛ kiɖeɖeu kɛ kɩ-laŋgɩyɛ taa; ɛtaŋ e-toko ŋgʊ kɩtɩnaɣ taa kɛ tɔnɛ tambaɖɛ nɛ ɖɩ-yɔɔ nɛ Maria kiɖeɖeu lɩyʊʊ.

Pɩnaɣ 1886 taa, Charles woba Pari tɛtʊ taa nɛ ɛla kuduyuu nakʊyʊ kɛ haya. Kuduyuu ŋgʊ kɛwɛ ɛ-ɖɛtʊ Maria Bondy ɖɩɣa cɔlɔ spam. Ɛsɔɔla takayasɩ ndɩ ndɩ kalɩɣ nɛ koraŋɖɔɖɔ. Ɛwɛ peeɖe mbʊ lɛ, ɛ-ɖɛtʊ ɛnʊ ɛha-ɩ Bossuet takayaɣ nakayɩ. Ka-taa kɛ ɛkalaa nɛ e-wezu caɣ lɛɛzɩ nɛ eyele yɛɖɛ yɛɖɛ labʊ. Ɛwɛʊ Maarɔkɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ, e-wezuu caɣ lɛɣza, mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ɛcɔna ɛzɩma makɩŋ kpakɩɣ pa-tɩ nɛ pɛcɛlɩɣ Ala nɛ wɩsɩ nɛ ɖoo pɛwɛ ciŋgilinaa taa yɔ, pɩlaba-ɩ tʊmɩyɛ. Pɩɩkɔma alɩwaatʊ natʊyʊ lɛ, e-tisim wɛɛ nɛ pitiki nɛ pitiki.

Ɛlɛ e-ɖɛtʊ Maria wɛɛ nɛ ɛcɛyʊ se ɛɖɔkɩ kpam. Mbʊ pɩlaba ɖɔɖɔ. Pɩkɔma lɛ ɛpaɣzɩ cɔɔcɩ wobu kɛ kpaaŋ nakʊyʊ taa, Augustin kiɖeɖeu taa, nɛ peeɖe lɛ, Abbé Huvelin lizaɣna mɩsa tɛ kilau. Aloma fenaɣ 30 pɩnaɣ 1886 lɛ, Foucauld ɖʊ ɛ-ñʊʊtaa se ɛkatɩ Huvelin. Pɩla mbʊ nɛ ɛna-ɩ pɔyɔɔtɩtʊ taa lɛ, Foucauld heyi-ɩ se ɛsɔɔla se ɛpɩsɩ ɛ-laŋniyɛ. Peeɖe ɛlɛ se pɩwɛ se eheyi ɛ-kɩwɛɛkɩm taa pʊcɔ. Ɛla mbʊ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ ɛmʊ Yesu tomnaɣ nɛ ɛ-calɩm. Kpaagba mbʊ lɛ e-tisu tɛzɩ ɖoŋ kpaʊ. Fenasɩ hiu nɛ litoozo wayɩ lɛ, ɛsɔɔlɩ se ɛsʊʊ fadanaa sukuli taa ɛlɛ ɛmaɣmaɣ se ɛtamʊna se elizi kɩlaʊ keleiizaɣ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ɛkɛ kɩwɛɛkɩm laɖʊ.

Kɩyɛna fenaɣ 19 pɩnaɣ 1888 taa kɛ ewoba trappe cistercienne de Fontgombault nɛ peeɖe muwaaninaa fezu caɣʊ kɛtɩna-ɩ sɩŋŋŋ nɛ ɛhɔzɩ ɛ-sɔɔjatʊ wondu ɛsɩɩ nɛ ɛpɩsɩ ɛsɔ lɩm ɖʊyʊ. Pɩnaɣ ŋga kataa Henry Huvelin sɔzɩ-ɩ lɔŋ se ewolo kpalaʊ kiɖeɖeu ɖonɛ kɛ Rom nɛ ɛla fenasɩ 4. Ɛla mbʊ nɛ saŋayɩŋ fenaɣ 15 lɛ ɛtalɩ Yerusalɛm, ewolo Nazarɛtɩ kɔlaɣ fenaɣ 10 pɩnaɣ 1889. Pɩla mbʊ nɛ ɛwɛɛ ɛkalɩɣ takayasɩ kiɖeɖesi ɛzɩ Thérèse d-Avila ñɩnzɩ yɔ; sɩ-taa tɔm nɛ evaŋilimnaa tɛzɩna e-tisim kpazɩɣ ɖoŋ nɛ ɛkpaɣ lɩmazɩyɛ se ɛsʊ Trappe de Notre-Dame des Neiges.

Georg Friedrich Haendel

Georg Friedrich Händel kɛ wendu lɩzɩyʋ nɛ minziki maɖʋ sɔsɔ nɔɔyʋ. Ɛkɛ Caama tʋ nɛ ɛpɩsɩ ɩŋglɩsɩ tʋ. Palʋla-ɩ kɩyakʋ nɛɛlɛ nɛ nadozo (23) n̄ɩŋgʋ wiye lɛlaɣ fenaɣ taa, pɩnaɣ 1685 ɩŋga taa Halle tɛtʋ taa.

Ɛsɩba kɩyakʋ hiu nɛ naanza (14) ñɩŋgʋ n̄ɩŋgʋ wiye, ɖomaɣ fenaɣ taa, pɩnaɣ 1759 ñɩŋga taa Westminster tɛtʋ taa. Ɖajaa Haendel ɛnɛ, ɛmakɩ minziki ŋgʋ payaɣ se parɔkɩ yɔ pɩdɩɩfɛyɩ.

Ɖajaa Jean Sébastien Bach minziiki waa ɛkɩlɩɣ mabʋ. Saxe tɛtʋ taa ɖajaa Georg Friedrich Händel caɣa nɛ ɛkɔɔ ɛpaɣlɩ. Pʋ-tɔbʋʋ se peeɖe ɛkpɛlɛkɩ minziki mabʋ. Ɛcaɣ ɖɔɖɔ Hambourg tɛtʋ taa alɩwaatʋ natʋyʋ cabɩ.

Ɖajaa Georg Friedrich Händel kʋyɩSaxe tɛtʋ taa lɛ, ewolo ɛcaɣ Itaalii ɛjaɖɛ taa. Peeɖe ɛlaba nʋmɔʋ ɖɔm tʋmɩyɛ sakɩyɛ. Ɛcaɣ Itaalii ɛjaɖɛ taa pɩnzɩ naadozo. Pʋwayɩ lɛ, ewolo Hanovre tɛtʋ taa. Hanovre tɛtʋ taa ɛkʋyɩnaa nɛ ɛɖɛɛ ɛcaɣ kam Aŋgletɛɛrɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Ɖajaa Georg Friedrich Haendel cɛyɩ ɛ-tɩ kpem nɛ, ɛ-tʋma labʋ taa payɩ lɛ, eyozi ajɛɛ sʋsɔnaa naayɩ tɛ sɔnzɩ minziki wɩlɩtʋ sʋsɔtʋ. Ajɛɛ ana yɔ : Itaalii ɛjaɖɛ nɛ Caama n̄ɩnɖɛ nɛ Aŋgletɛɛrɩ ɛjaɖɛ nɛ pɩtasɩna Fransɩ n̄ɩnɖɛ.

Ɖajaa Georg Friedrich Händel Haendel makɩ minziki ŋgʋ payaɣ se Orɩgɩ yɔ. Ɛmakɩ ɖɔɖɔ minziki ŋgʋ payaɣ se klavɛsɛɛ yɔ. Ɛkpaɣ pɩnzɩ hiŋ niidozo nɛ kagbanzɩ (35) mbʋ yɔ nɛ ɛkpɛlɛkɩ mbʋ payaɣ se opera yɔ pɩ-labʋ Itaalii ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Pʋwayɩ lɛ, ɛlɩzɩ mbʋ payaɣ se oratoriyo waa yɔ. Ɛmʋ oratoriyo waa lɩzʋʋ nimiye sɔsɔyɛ Aŋgletɛɛrɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa. Peeɖe ɛpɩsɩ minziki waa ndɩ ndɩ mabʋ wɩlɩyaa taa wɩlɩyʋ sɔsɔ nɔɔyʋ Aŋgletɛɛrɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Hirohito

Hirohito yaa Hiro-Hito (裕仁)palʊla-ɩ ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 29 pɩnaɣ 1901 Tokiyo tɛtʊ nɛ ɛsɩ kɔlaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 7 pɩnaɣ 1980 tɛtʊ kʊyʊmtʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa. Hirohito kaakɛ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ Japɔŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa kpaɣ saŋayɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 25 pɩnaɣ 1926 pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ ɛ-sɩm evemiye. Pasɩma ɛ-hɩɖɛ nɛ palakɩ-ɖɩ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ taa ajɛyɛ taa, Japɔŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa lɛ, ɖooo ɛ-sɩm nɛ ɛ-hɩɖɛ se Soowa Tenno kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ, (昭和天皇,Soowa wiyaʊ sɔsɔ).

Ɛkɛ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ nɔɔyʊ pɩɣa ɛlɛ payaɣ se Taishō nɛ ɛjaɖɛ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ halʊ Teimei, wiyaʊ piya Yasuhito Chichibu, Nobuhito Takamatsu nɛ Takahito Mikasa kɔɔʊ, ɛkɛ shintō sɔnzɩ paɣtʊ taa 124 wiyaʊ sɔsɔ. E-kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ kɩlɩna ɖalʊʊ Japɔŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa (ɛlaba pɩnzɩ 62), nɛ payaɣ wɛɛ ana se Soowa wɛɛ (昭和) peeɖe ɛlɩzɩ ɛ-sɩm wayi hɩɖɛ. Ɛkaɣ kɛʊ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ ɖooo pɩnzɩ nasɩyɛ sakɩyɛ alɩwaatʊ nɛ e-ɖoo kʊlʊlʊ ñaakɛ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ weyi ɛlɛza-ɩ halʊ weyi kewiyaɣ sɩma-ɩ yɔ.

Ɛzɩ sɔnzɩ pɔzʊʊ yɔ, pamʊ-ɩ ɛ-caa naa cɔlɔ nɛ peyebi-i ɛ nɛ ɛ-ɖalʊ cikpeluu Yasuhito (Chichbu weyi ɛkaɣ kɛʊ wiyaʊ pɩɣa yɔ) kɛ sɔɔja mamʊ hɛzʊʊ tʊ nɔyʊ cɔlɔ, ɛlɛ payaɣ se Kawamura Sumiyoshi ɛnɛ ɛ-halʊ. Paɖʊyɩ-ɩ pɩya sukuli taa kewiyaɣ ɖɩɣa ŋga kaawɛ Akasaka pɩkɔɔ pɩtalɩ pɩnaɣ 1908. Pʊwayi lɛ, powona-ɩ abalɩbiya sukuli Gakushūin (pɩkɛ sukuli ŋgʊ Kazoku piyaa ɖeke pawɩlɩɣ kɩ-taa yɔ) pɩnaɣ 1908 ŋtalɩ 1914 (nɛ ɛ-wɩlɩyʊ kaakɛ sɔdʊʊ sɔɔja Maresuke Nogi.

Wiyaʊ sɔsɔ Meiji sɩm pɩnaɣ 1912 hasɩyaɖɛ kɩyakʊ 30 yeba nɛ papamɩ-ɩ kewiyaɣ hulaɣ. Paɣtʊ yɔɔ tɛ yaa keɣlee pasɩ-ɩ se ɛkɛ wiyaʊ pɩɣa peyebina-m kewiyaɣ kamɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 2 pɩnaɣ 1916. Pɩkɔma pɩnaɣ 1921 wɛɛ taa lɛ, ɛla lɩmaɣza naayɛ mbʊ se ewoki nɔmɔʊ kɩɖaɣlʊʊ nakʊyʊ pɩtalɩɣ ɛzɩ fenasɩ loɖo mbʊ yɔ Eerɔpʋ ɛjaɖɛ taa, kajalaɣ pɩlɩna Ampiiri nipon wiyaʊ pɩɣa cɔlɔ, ewokaɣ Kewiyaɣ Kɩkpɛndaɣ ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ Fransɩɩ nɛ Itaalii nɛ papa kewiyitu ajɛyɛ taa nɛ Peyibaa nɛ Pɛliziki ajɛyɛ taa. Ɛkɔma nɛ ɛ-nʊmɔʊ lɛ, ɛpɩsɩ wiyaʊ ɛɛwɛʊ nɛ weyi ɛhʊʊ tɔm yɔ tʊmɩyɛ tʊ Japɔŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa kamɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 29 pɩnaɣ 1921 pɩlɩna ɛ-caa tɔnʊʊ taa alaafɩya kɩɩtalɩɣ yɔɔ, fiteenim taa kʊdɔŋ nakʊyʊ, kɩɩkpa-ɩ ɛ-pɩjatʊ taa pɩtɩŋna canɩɩ canɩɩ kʊdɔŋ yɔɔ.

Kɔlaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 26 pɩnaɣ 1924 ɛkpaɣ halʊ, wiyaʊ pɛlɔ kuni Nagako (ɖooo ɛ-sɩm alɩwaatʊ mbʊ yɔ paya-ɩ se wiyaʊsɔsɔ halʊ Kōjun), ɛ-tɛ liɖe cikpeɖe naɖɩyɛ taa (王家, Ōke) kewiyaɣ ɖɩɣa nakɛyɛ taa, ɛnɛ-ɩ paaɖanɩɣ ɖama ɖooo mɩsɩkʊm fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 19 pɩnaɣ 1921, ŋgʊ ɖɩɣa taa tʊma yɔɔ cɔnɩyaa nɛ tʊma laɖaa sakɩyɛ taa taawɛɛ leleŋ.

Taishō sɩm wayi pɩnaɣ 1926 saŋayɩŋ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 25 lɛ, Hirohito mʊ e-kewiyitu kpelaɣ, nɛ wɛɛ kɩfana paɣzɩ kpaagba. Soowa (laŋhɛzɩyɛ wabɩtʊ). Japɔŋ ɛjaɖɛ tʊmɩyɛ labʊ taa lɛ, pɔtɔŋ se wiyaʊ sɔsɔ ɛnʊ ɛtaafɛyɩna hɩɖɛ e-kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ taa nɛ paya-ɩ nɛ hɩɖɛ ɖɩnɛ Kinjō Tennō yaa ɖɔɖɔ se nɔɔnɔɔ wiyaʊ sɔsɔ. Pɩkpaɣʊ nɛ mbʊ yɔ patɩlɩ hɩɖɛ nɖɩ paka-ɩ yaʊ ɛ-sɩm wayi yɔ, mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ wɛɛ ana atʊʊzɩna e-kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ Shōwa Tennō (昭和天皇) pʊtɔbʊʊ se Soowa wiyaʊ sɔsɔ.

Kedeŋa yɔɔ kajalaɣ you

Kajalaɣ you ŋgʋ, kɩlɩ Erɔpʊ tɛtʋ taa sɔɔjanaa hɛkʋ taa. Ɛlɛ, kʋkɔma kɩtaɣna kedeŋa kpeekpe ajɛɛ. Kɩlɩ pɩnaɣ 1914 nɛ kɩwolo kɩsɩɩ tɩnaɣ pɩnaɣ 1918. Ɛlɛ, ɛyʋ ɛcɔna yɔ, ɛnaɣ se kɩtɛtɛ kpataa ajɛɛ naayɛ hɛkʋ taa, kɩwɛ tɛndɛŋa tɛɛ mbʋ a-hɛkʋ taa nɛ puwolo pɩsɩɩna pɩnaɣ 1923 taa. Pʋ-yɔɔ palaba kedizaɣ sɔsaɣ nakɛyɛ Lausanna tɛtʋ taa hasɩyaɖɛ fenaɣ kɩyakʋ nɛɛlɛ nɛ naanza n̄ɩŋgʋ, pɩnaɣ 1923 taa nɛ pan̄ɩɣ takayɩsɩ taa nesi nɛ pɩwɩlɩ se you tɛma ajɛɛ ana a-hɛkʋ taa.

You ŋgʋ kɩkɛ pʋyʋ sɔsɔm mbʋ pɩlaba waaɣ nɛɛlɛ n̄ɩŋga taa yɔ. Ɖooo yɔ, patana kɩ-ɖaɣʋ kaʋ. Kɩnaŋa pɩtɩŋɛ naŋa naŋa. Sɔɔjanaa yona-kʋ siŋŋ. Ɛyaa sakɩyɛ sɩba nɛ wondu sakɩyɛ wɛɛkɩ. Sɔɔjanaa ɛzɩ miiliyɔɔwaa 60 yɔ nɛ pɩɖɛɛ pʋ-yɔɔ labana you ŋ́gʋ.

You ŋgʋ kɩ-ɖɩlaɖɛ ɛyaa ɛzɩ miiliyɔɔwaa nakʋ mbʋ yɔ sɩba nɛ pʋkʋ ɛyaa ɛzɩ miiliyɔɔwaa nɛɛlɛ mbʋ yɔ. Ɛzaɣtʋ tɔm lɛɛtʋ ndɩ ndɩ laba ɖɔɖɔ you ŋgʋ kɩ-ɖɩlaɖɛ : paɖɩzɩ Aarɩmeenii n̄ɩma pɩnaɣ 1915 nɛ puwolo pɩsɩɩna pɩnaɣ 1916 n̄ɩŋga taa. Poyo ɖɔɖɔ kajalaɣ you lɩŋgamʋʋ sɔsɔʋ ŋgʋ payaɣ se "Atlantique" yɔ kɩ-taa pɩnaɣ 1917 taa. Pɩnaɣ ŋga ka-taa ɖɔɖɔ Ruusii ɛjaɖɛ taa n̄ɩma kʋyɩ pɛ-ɛjaɖɛ kewiyaɣ yɔɔ nɛ pɔɖɔɔnɩ ka-taa n̄ɩma nɛ ɖoŋ nɛ sɔsɔ Lénine kpaɣ kpelaɣ nɛ eyele nɛ Rueeii ɛjaɖɛ pɩsɩ Komiinism ɛjaɖɛ. Kʋdɔŋ sɔsɔʋ nakʋyʋ n̄alɩɩ pɩnaɣ 1918 taa nɛ pakʋm-kʋ hɩɖɛ se "Grippe espagnole". Kʋdɔŋ ŋgʋ kʋkʋ ɛyaa ɛzɩ miiliyɔɔwaa niidozo mbʋ yɔ nɛ pɩɖɛɛ pʋ-yɔɔ. Pɩtɩŋa payɩ mbʋ piyeba nɛ ɛyaa tɩŋa tɛzɩ liu lɔʋ kpem, pitiba paa anɩ ɛ-nandʋ taa yem yɔɔɔ. Ɛyaa mba paawɛ alɩwaatʋ ndʋ tɩ-taa yɔ, pɔtɔsɔɔ you ŋgʋ kʋ-tɔm kaʋ pɩkɔɔ pɩsɩɩna pa-sɩm wiye. You ŋgʋ kiyeba nɛ lɛɣzʋʋ sɔsɔm sakɩyɛ lɩɩ ajɛɛ kominanaa taa.

Kɩcɩyɩ ajɛɛ naayɛ hɔɔlɩ ndɩ ndɩ. Ajɛɛ ana yɔ "Austro-hongrois nɛ Russe nɛ Ottaman pa-ajɛɛ. Mbʋ payaɣaɣ se "Empire allemand" yɔ, pɩtatasɩ wɛʋ. Caama ɛjaɖɛ tatasɩ walʋʋ ɛzɩ ɖooo lɛ. Paɖaɣnɩ lɩzʋʋ Erɔɔpʋ nɛ "Proche-Orient" pɛ-tɛtʋ aŋjaʋnaa kɩfama. Komiinism yaa Temokraasii lɛɣzɩ "Monaarɩsii. Ɖooo mbʋ yɔ, kedeŋa kpeekpe taafɛyɩna ŋgbɛyɛ naɖɩyɛ kpɛm. Kajalaɣ you lɩna nɛ kɩ-wayɩ kɛ ajɛɛ laba lɩmaɣzɛ se paɖʋ kedeŋa kpeekpe ŋgbɛyɛ naɖɩyɛ nɛ ɖɩkandɩɣ ɖɩlʋ laŋhɛyɛ yɔɔ. Ŋgbɛyɛ nɖɩ payaɣ se "Société des Nations (SDN).

Mbʋ piyeba nɛ you ŋgʋ kɩlɩɩ yɔ, pʋtɔɖɔɔ, pʋwɛ mamatʋka tɩyɛ. Mɩsɩ kʋm fenaɣ kɩyakʋ 28, pɩnaɣ 1914 n̄ɩŋga taa Bosnie ɛjaɖɛ taa tʋ, ɛwɛ Serbe tɛtʋ taa, payaɣ-ɩ se Gavrilo Princip. Evebu ɛnɛ, ɛkʋ François-Ferdinand nɛ ɛlɛ halʋ. Ŋgʋ abalʋ ɛnɛ ɛkaɣna "austro-hongrois ɛjaɖɛ kpelaɣ kpaɣʋ ɖɩɖɩ n̄ʋʋdʋ sɩm wayɩ. Peeye Caama ɛjaɖɛ seɣti Autriche-Hongrie ɛjaɖɛ se ɖitaasu tɔm ndʋ. Se ɖɩkʋyɩ Serbe tɛtʋ yɔɔ. Pʋ-yɔɔ ajɛɛ ɖoŋ n̄ɩna ndɩ ndɩ paɣzɩ ɖʋʋ taabalɩyɛ nɛ ɖama. Naayɛ n̄atɩnɩɣ Autriche-Hongrie ɛjaɖɛ yɔɔ nɛ lɛlaa n̄atɩnɩ Bosnie n̄ɩnɖɛ yɔɔ. Mbʋʋ pɩlaba nɛ you kɔɔ kɩlɩɩ ajɛɛ ana a-hɛkʋ taa. Ŋgʋ ajɛɛ ana a-taa sakɩyɛ kɛwɛ tɛtʋ ndɩ ndɩ ajɛɛ n̄ʋŋ yɔɔ. Pʋ-yɔɔ you ŋgʋ kɩkɔma kɩtaɣna kedeŋa kpeekpe.

Kolaɣ (Arche)

Kolaɣ kɛ wonu ŋgʋ kɩwɛ matʋ sɔsɔtʋ tɩyɛ yɔ, nɛ, kɛwɛ konɖaŋ kɛ tɔʋ tɩyɛ. Tɔʋ kɛ ɖaʋ kikotuu nakʋyʋn ŋgʋ patama kʋ nimiye cenje taa hayuu nɛ hadɛ yɔ. Nimiye nɖɩ ɖɩ-yɔɔ paɖʋ tɔʋ n̄ɩmɩyɛ nɛ pɔhɔŋ nɛ peyelee lɛ n̄ɩɣyɛ n̄alɩ fɩɩŋ nɛ ɖɩɖɛ ɛzɩ,pɔlɔʋ kaʋ yɔ.

Kolaɣ kɛna matʋ sɔsɔtʋ hɔɔlʋʋ taa kɛ, pɩyʋ keem. Kolaɣ huu lɩna ajɛɛ sakɩyɛ taa. Ajɛɛ wena a-taa kolaɣ tʋmɩyɛ ɖɔɔ siŋŋ nɛ kolasɩ ɖɔɔ yɔ hɩla yɔ : Mésopotamie tɛ ɛjaɖɛ, nɛ Assyrie tɛ n̄ɩnɖɛ, nɛ Egipiti ɛjaɖɛ nɛ pɩtasɩna Étrurie n̄ɩnɖɛ.

Kajalaɣ taa lɛ, kondolokonaa tɛɛ palakaɣna kolaɣ ŋga. Pɩkɔɔ lɛ, papazɩ kɛ labɩnaʋ ɖɔɖɔ kɛ kuduyuŋ nɔnɔsɩ ɖʋʋ ɖeɖe, nɛ futuɖu ɛzɩ payaʋ size mɔndoɖe yɔ hɔɔlʋʋ taa ɖɔɖɔ. Kolaɣ pɩsa lɛɛlɛɛ yɔ alɩwaatʋ tʋnɛ tɩ-taa kɛ lɛɣtʋ fefere wazaɣ n̄ɩndʋ siŋŋ.

Kolaɣ sɩʋna siŋŋ kɛ kuduyuŋ matʋ hɔɔlʋʋ taa. Ɛzɩ-ɩ payaɣʋ kpaŋ yɔ. Kuduyuŋ matʋ kɩfatʋ lɛɛtʋ wɛɛ ɖɔɖɔ. Pʋtɔpɔzɩ size, piyidi ɖʋ tɔʋ (arc) nɛ mbʋ payaɣna fransɩ kʋnʋŋ taa size "voûte" yɔ. Tɔʋ haɣ nʋmɔʋ kɛ nɔnɔsɩ nɛ mɔndola nɛ "voûte" n̄azɩna nɛ pɔlɔkɩ cɔɔcɩnaa nɛ kpamɩŋ nɛ kuduyuŋ sɔsɔŋ lɛɛŋ sakɩyɛ.

Kʊnʊmɩŋ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ

Nzʊlɩmɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ yaa kʊnʊmɩŋ kpɛlɛkʊʊ kɛ tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩsɔɔlʊʊ kʊnʊŋ kpɛlɛkʊʊ yɔ. Tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩwɛ ndɩ nɛ nzʋlʋmɩyɛ yɔɔdaɣ paɣtʊ ɖenɖe pɛkɛdʊʊ. Matʊ lɛ tɩkɛ tovonum pɩyʊ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ nzʊlɩmɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ tɩnaa nɛ nzʊlɩmɩyɛ yɔɔdaɣ paɣtʊ tɩnaa cɔna nɛ petisi se ɛɛɛ pɩkɛ mbʊ nɛ pʊcɔ pama. Siɣye taa lɛ, ɖɩnaɣ se nzʊlɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ kɩkɛdɩyɛ kɛ ɖɩ-kpɛlɛkɩya cɔlɔ lɛ pɔyɔɔdʊʊ-ɖɩ ɛzɩ ɖɩwɛʊ yɔ pɩtɛkɛ ɛzɩ mbʊ pɩɩpɔza se ɖɩkɛ yɔ.

Ɖɩhɩɣ aseɣɖe maɣzɩm sakɩyɛ nzʊlɩyɛ yɔɔ kpaɣ ɖooo kɩbɩnjaazɩ alɩwaatʊ pɩtɩŋna ɛyʊ yɔɔ lɩmaɣzatʊmɩyɛ tɩnaa yɔɔ ɛzɩ Platon. Mbʊ lɛ, pʊwɛ se ɖɩɖaŋɩ kpaɣɖʊ 20 alɩwaatʊ nɛ pɩsa nɛ palɩzɩ lɛɣtʊ ndɩ ndɩ kʊnʊmɩŋ yɔɔ kpɛyɛ. Ferdinand de Saussure tʊ kɔna ɛ-tambɔyɛ siŋ yɔɔdaɣ nɛ kʊnʊŋ kɛdɩtʊ hɔɔlʊʊ taa kɔzɩ kɔzɩ nzʊlɩmɩyɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɛlaba pɩnaɣ 1916 nɛ ɖɩpɩsɩ kɩcɔlɩyɛ hɔɔlʊʊ ŋgʊ kɩ-taa nɛ kɩsɩ kʊnʊŋ matʊ wɛtʊ ndʊ tɩwaba kpɛndɛ wɛɛ, alɩwaatʊ ndʊ yoŋ kaawɛ sukuli hɔɔlʊʊ taa yɔ.

Papɩzɩɣ patɩŋna nɔmɔŋ naadozo yɔɔ nɛ pala tʊmɩyɛ nzʊlɩmɩyɛ kɩkɛdɩyɛ yɔɔ. Pɛkpɛlɛkʊʊ wɛɛ kʊyʊma taa yɔɔdaɣ nɛ tɔmɩŋ ɛsɩnda wobu. Wɛɛ kʊyʊma taa yɔɔdaɣ kɛ kʊnʊŋ ŋgʊ pɔyɔɔdaɣ kɩ-tɛ alɩwaatʊ taa yeke, kɩ-tɛ ɛjaɖɛ taa yeke, ŋgʊ tɔmɩŋ tɛ ɛsɩnda wobu lɛ tʊmɩyɛ cɔŋna kɩ-alɩwaatʊ, kɩ-tɛ ɛsɩnda wobu, paɖʊ yɔɔdaɣ yɔɔdɩsɩ lɛɛsɩ taa nɛ pɛkɛdɩɣ lɛzɩtʊ ndʊ kɩlɛzʊɩɣ alɩwaatʊ nʊ tɩ-taa yɔ.

Pɛtɛyɩ nzʊlɩmɩyɛ lɩmaɣza hɔɔlɩŋ ndɩ ndɩ paa hɔɔlʊʊ ŋgʊ kɩwɛ kɩtɩ yɔɔ. Nɔɔ wiluu ñɩɣyʊ wɛɛ, nɔɔ salasɩ kpɛlɛkʊʊ wɛɛ, tɔmɩŋ matʊ kpɛlɛkʊʊ wɛɛ, tɔmɩŋ cɔlʊʊ kpɛlɛkʊʊ, tɔmɩŋ tɔbɩŋ kpɛlɛkʊʊ, tɔmpe kɩfana kpɛlɛkʊʊ, tɔm ɛsɩnda cɔnaʊ tʊmɩyɛ wɛɛ nɛ ɖama ɖʊ yaa kpɛndʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ wɛɛ ɖɔɖɔ.

Max Planck

Palʊla-ɩ Max Karl Ernest Ludwig Planck ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 23 pɩnaɣ 1858 Kiel, Schleswig awiyaa ɖɩɣa taa (ɖenɖe pɩsa ɖeɖe nɛ sɔnɔ Caama yɔ). Ɛyʊ ɛsɩ aloma fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 4 pɩnaɣ 1947 Göttingen, Caama alɩwaatʊ ndʊ pataŋa ɛgbaatɩna liɖe yɔ. Ɛɛkɛ tomnasi ɖɔnɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ laɖʊ Caama ɛjaɖɛ taa. Ɛyʊ ɛnɛ yɔ ɛmʊ pɩlɩna ɛ-tʊmɩyɛ ɖɩnɛ ɖɩ-yɔɔ lɛ, ɛmʊ Nobel liidiye kɩhɛyʊ pɩnaɣ 1918 pɩtɩŋa ɛ-lɩmaɣza quanta hɔɔlʊʊ taa.

Max Planck, palʊlɩ-ɩ ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 23 pɩnaɣ 1858 Kiel tɛtʊ taa Schleswig awiyaa ɖɩɣa taa, e-liɖe taa ɛyaa kaaɖɔ piŋ nɛ pɛwɛɛ ñɩm. Ɛ-cɔzɔnaa kɩbɩma nɛ ɛ-cɔzɔna ɛ-caa naa ñɩma kaakɛ Ɛsɔ tɔm wɩlɩyaa, ɛ-caa maɣmaɣ kaakɛ paɣtʊ wɩlɩyʊ (halɩ ɛdʊ nesi Caama paɣtʊ takayaɣ tɔm ɖɩmayɛ), ŋgʊ e-ɖoo kaakɛ Pasɩtɔɣɔ waa ɖɩɣa taa ɛyʊ. Max Planck laba sukuli hɛkʊ taa hɔɔlʊʊ kajalaɣ ŋgʊ Munich ɖenɖe ɛ-caa wɩlaɣ sukuli yɔ.

Ɛpʊtʊʊ ɛ-taa se ɛsɩŋ se ɛcɛlɛ ɛ-tɩ lɛɣtʊ tʊmɩyɛ naa yaa ɛcɛlɛ ɛ-tɩ miiziki. Pʊkɔma pɩnaɣ 1874 ɛpazɩ tɩlɩyɛ sukuli labʊ nɛ tomnasi ɖɔnɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ kɛ sukuli kɩtɛzɩɣ taa. Ɛmʊ ɛ-tɛ BAC 1 ɛlɛ ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 17 nɛ pɩnzɩ natozo wayi lɛ, ɛtɛzɩ e-sukuli tʊmɩyɛ Perɩlɛɛ ɛ-nɛ Hermann von Helmholtz nɛ Gustav Kirchhoff mba paakɛ ɛwɩlɩyaa yɔ.

Ɛ-nɛ Walther Nernst, Planck ñɔɔzɩ kamɩŋ fenaɣ pɩnaɣ 1911 Bruxelles kajalaɣ ketizaɣ sɔsɔ Solvay, ketizaɣ ŋga kekpeli ñʊŋ tɩna mba paakɛ tomnasi ɖɔnɛ tʊmɩyɛ tɩnaa alɩwaatʊ ndʊ tɩ-taa. Marie Curie maɣmaɣ kaawoba-kɛ ɖɔɖɔ. Wɛɛ kʊyʊma a-na a-taa, ɛha siɣye nɛ Ernest Mach cɔɔlɩ tʊmɩyɛ. Ɛmʊ ɛ-tɛ hɛzʊʊ takayaɣ pɩnaɣ 1927 ɛlɛ ɛtasɩ wɩlɩɣ pʊwayɩ. Pɩnaɣ ŋga ɛmʊ Lorentz ñɩɣlɩm pɔya, liidiye nɖɩ tɔmɩŋ lɩzɩyaa lɛɣtʊ yɔɔ niye mʊya mba pɛkɛ Peyibaa ɛyaa yɔ cɛlɩ naa ɖɩ.

Ɛkpaɣ halʊ Marie Merck (pɩnaɣ 1861 ŋtalɩ 1909), 1887 alɩwaatʊ taa ɛpɩsɩ baaba pʊtɔbʊʊ se ɖɩɣa cɛjɛ pɩnaɣ 1888. Mbʊ lɛ, ewolo ɛwɛɛ Gruewald, Perɩlɛɛ egeetiye naɖɩyɛ taa. Ɛlʊlɩ pɩya naanza, patɩŋɛ pasɩ pʊcɔ ɛnʊ sɩ. Natozo sɩba alɩwaatʊ ndʊ palakaɣ kedeŋga kpeekpe you kajalaɣ ŋgʊ yɔ. Ɛ-pɩɣa kajalaɣ ŋga Karl sɩba Verdun nɔnɔɔ taa pɩnaɣ 1916 nɛ ɖomaa naalɛ pɩnaɣ 1917 ŋtalɩ 1919. Erwin ɛ-pɩɣa tɩnʊʊ ñɩnʊ pakpa-ɩ pɔttɔ-ɩ salaka Fransɩɩ ɛjaɖɛ.

Pɩɣa kanɛ yɔ ŋga caɣna ka-caa cɔlɔ kpam wɛɛ hɛkʊ nɛ hɛkʊ ñɩna taa nɛ ɛmʊ tʊma sɔsɔna ɛ-caa cɔlɔ kɛ Weimar ɛjaɖɛ taa. Pakpa-ɩ pɩnaɣ 1944 se ɛñɩnaɣ kʊʊ Hitler pɩlɩna nɔɔ kʊyʊmaɣ ŋga palaba hasɩyaɖɛ kɩyakʊ 20 pɩnaɣ 1944. Pakpa Erwin nɛ pakʊ-ɩ lɛlaɣ fenaɣ taa pɩnaɣ 1945. Ɛ-halʊ sɩ pɩnaɣ 1909 nɛ ɛɖanɩɣ kpaʊ Marga von Hößlin (pɩnaɣ 1882 ŋtalɩ 1948 alɩwaatʊ taa).

Pasɩtɛkɩ

Pasɩtɛkɩ (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, pɩnaɣ 1916), payaɣ ɖɔɖɔ se melon lɩm, kɔzɩ kɔzɩ Fransɩɩ hɔɔlʊʊ Kanadaa ɛjaɖɛ taa, kɩkɛ ñɩɩyʊʊ tɩŋ, kɩlɩnɛ kukurɩbɩtasɩ tɩmʊʊ lide taa. Kɩ-tɛ Afrika Wɩsɩ ɖɩɖʊyɛ taa kiŋ nɛ pahayʊʊ-kʊ sakɩyɛ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ kɩ-pee paɣlaɣ, a-lozi, a-taa mʊtʊ sɛ cɩɩɩ, pʊwɛ ɖɔɖɔ sʊtʊ lɩm tɩyɛ, pɩwɛ tɩŋ hatʊ sɛmɩŋ, pʊhʊlɩmɩ nɛ pɩtaa pee cɩkpenaa wɛ kpɛdɩŋ yaa sɛmɩŋ. Kɩ-tɛ yatʊ wɩlʊʊ kɩ-maɣmaɣ kɩ-wɛtʊ nɛ kɩpɩɣʊʊ lɛ, kɩ-yuŋ maɣna ɛzɩ kilonaa kɩgbanzɩ nɛ nɛɛlɛ hɛkʊʊ taa mbʊ yɔ.

Pʊwɛ se ɛyʊ ɛɖʊ tʊkaɣ pasɩtɛkɩ ŋgʊ pɔtɔkɩ yɔ nɛ sikiri tɛ pasɩtɛkɩ yaa sitire (citre) ŋgʊ paatɔkɩ kpaagba yɔ. Pasɩtɛ ŋgʊ payaɣ se Courge gigérine yaa Courge barbarine Fransɩ nɛ hadɛ kiŋ taa yɔ. Itaalii ɛjaɖɛ taa lɛ, payaɣ-kʊ se anguria yaa cocomero, Turki ɛjaɖɛ taa lɛ, karpuz, Pɔritigaalɩ nɛ Piresiili ajɛyɛ taa lɛ, melancia, sandia kɛ Ɛsɩpaañɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa, watermelon kɛ Ɛnglɩsɩ ɛjaɖɛ yaa ɖɔɖɔ スイカ (suika) Sapɔŋ ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Réunion ɛjaɖɛ tɛ (Ɛndɩ lɩŋgamʊʊ taa Fransɩ kuduyuu tɛ) paya pasɩtɛkɩ se melon. Pɩtɛ yiiduu mbʊ pɩlɩnɛ mbʊ pʊcɔlɔ yɔ se pɩkɛ kajalaɣ taa kɛlɛ tɩŋ piye ndɩ paɖʊ-ɖɩ lɩm hɛkʊ taa ɛjaɖɛ taa pɩtɩŋnɛ Ɛnglɩsɩ mɛlɛ sayaa cɔlɔ kpaɣɖʊ 19 alɩwaatʊ taa. Pasɩtɛkɩ ŋgʊ payaɣ Ɛnglɩsɩ taa se watermelon, lɩm hɛkʊ taa tɛtʊ yɔ mba taatɩɩsɩnda ɖooo canaʊ alɩwaatʊ taa melon tɩtɩŋga lɛ, pɛkpɛndʊʊ payaɣ se pasɩtɛkɩnaa tɩŋnɛ se melon waa. Pʊwayɩ kpanɛ kpaɣɖʊ nɛɛlɛ alɩwaatʊ taa Fransɩ mba yeba nɛ patɩlɩ melon lɛ, yatʊ Fransɩ melon lɛ, petisiɣ. Paa ɛzɩ sɔnɔ yɔɔdaɣ taa yiiduu mbʊ papɩzaɣ pɔñɔɔzɩ-tʊ sakɩyɛ taa kɔyɔ, papɩzɩɣ paɖɩɩnɛ-tʊ nɩɩɩ ɖɔɖɔ Réunion mba tɔm pee kɩpɩnɛɛ taa.

Sergueï Rachmaninov

Sergueï Vassilievitch Rachmaninov kɛna weyi eluki wendu yaa ɛmaɣ-tʊ yɔ, ɛsɔɔla piyano mabʊ ɖɔɖɔ kamaɣ fɛyɩ nɛ ɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ soo maɖa ɖɩcaɣyɛ taa lɛ, ɛkɛ sɔsɔ nɔɔyʊ. Eluba yaa ɛma wendu ndʊ yɔ tɩkɛna ñʊʊda maɣzɩm takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ ɖɔɖɔ nɛ wendu ndʊ tɩ-taa tɔm pee lɩna ɛwɩlɩya Frédéric Chopin, Tchaïkovski nɛ Rimski-Korsakov pɔ-cɔlɔ. Sergueï Vassilievitch Rachmaninov caa kɛ payaɣ se Arkadievitch Rachmaninov (1841–1916), nɛ ɛkɛ sɔɔja sɔsɔ Rusi ɛjaɖɛ taa.

Eɖoo kɔyɔ Lyubov (Lioubov) Petrovna Butakova (1853–1929), nɛ sɔɔja sɔsɔ, Seneral nɔɔyʊ lʊɩna-ɩ. Palʊla Sergueï Rachmaninov kɛ ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ kacalaɣ ŋgʊ wiye pɩnaɣ 1873 kɛ Rusi ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ ɛsɩ lakɩŋ fenaɣ 28 wiye pɩnaɣ 1943 Kalifɔrnii, Etazunii taa ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 69. Pɩnzɩ naanza taa kɛ Anna Ornazkaïa kpaɣ ɛ-tɩ pilim nɛ ɛpaɣzɩ piyano mabʊ wɩlʊ Sergueï Rachmaninov. Pɩɩwɛɛ se powona Sergueï Rachmaninov nɛ ɛ-ɖalʊ sɔsɔ Vladmir kɛ mba paɖaŋgʊ wiyau yɔɔ yɔ ɛlɛ liidiya fɛyɩ.

Ɛzɩma ɖama nɩnaʊ taawɛɛ ɛñɩma cɔlɔ lɛ, Vassili nɛ Lioubov Rachmaninov pacɩɩ ɖama. Piyebina nɛ piya wɛɛ po-ɖoo nɛ pe-neze Sofia Boutakova (1823-1904), weyi pɛɖɛyʊ-ɩ se babouchka yɔ pɔ-cɔlɔ. Mbʊ yebina nɛ pe-neze ɛnʊ ewokina ɛzɛyɩ Sergueï Rachmaninov kɛ Cathédrale Sainte-Sophie de Novgorod ɖenɖe ɛsɔ wendu teya teu nɛ wendu teu sʊʊ e-ciyam camɩyɛ siŋŋŋ yɔ.

Eluba wendu ndʊ yɔ tɩɖɔɔ kamaɣ fɛyɩ. Ɛwɛ Etazunii tɛtʊ taa lɛ kedeŋga kpeekpe you naalɛ ñɩŋgʊ paɣza nɛ pɩwɛ-ɩ kaɖɛ se ɛpɩsɩ Erɔpʊ taa kɛ ɛpɛlɔ Tatiana cɔlɔ,weyi ɛwɛ Fransɩ ɛjaɖɛ taa yɔ. Piyebina nɛ pɩnaɣ 1941 ɛlu ɛ-tɛ kpaagbaa wendu nɛ ɛyaa-tʊ se les Danses symphoniques yaa wengalasɩ payɛ. Wendu tʊnɛ tɩ-taa lɛ ɛyɔɔda ɛyʊ wezu caɣʊ tɔm: tanadɛɛ, wɩsɩ taa nɛ ɖanɣ. Pɩla mbʊ lɛ, ɛtɛzɩ yabʊ ɖaɣ kɛ Etazunii peeɖe nɛ ɛwɛɛna peeɖe ɛjaɖɛ takayaɣ.Pɩnzɩ 1042 nɛ 1943 taa kɛ pɩcɛɣɖɛ kʊdɔŋ kpa e-hiliu nɛ lakɩŋ fenaɣ 28 wiye pɩnaɣ 1943 lɛ, etisi fezu, ɛɛwɛna pɩnzɩ 69.

Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilitch Oulianov (Rusii kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ, Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов), pɛɖɛyɩ-ɩ se Lénine (Ленин), palʊla-ɩ Simbirsk (nɔɔnɔɔ Oulianovsk) ɖomaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 22 pɩnaɣ 1870 nɛ ɛsɩ Vichnie Gorki (nɔɔnɔɔ Gorki Leninskie) tɛtʊ taa kɔlaɣ fenaɣ kɩyakʊ 21 pɩnaɣ 1924. Ɛɛkɛ caɣyɛ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ lɛɛzɩyʊ tʊ, politiki tɔm mayʊ nɛ Ruusii ɛjaɖɛ ñʊʊ tʊ.

Pɩkɔma pɩnaɣ 1917, tsar kewiyitu yɔka lɛ, bolchevik waa kpaɣ kewiyaɣ Rusii ɛjaɖɛ taa aloma fenaɣ taa kpɛlɩ lɛzɩtʊ alɩwaatʊ taa. Lenine kewiyaɣ kpaɣtʊ tɩna Ruusii soviyetiki ñɔʊ, kajalaɣ politiki lɩmaɣza alɩzɩ kpɛndɛ tɔm yɔ nɛ pʊwayi yɔ palɩzɩ URSS. Lénine nɛ bolcheviks cɛyɩ pa-tɩ pakandɩ pɛ-tɛ politiki lɩmaɣza tɔm yɔɔ yɔ ŋgʊ palɩzɩ pa-tɩ ajɛyɛ hɛkʊ taa nɛ pɛwɛna ɖɔɖɔ ɖama hɛkʊ taa you.

Oulianov cejewiye, Maria Alexandrovna, Ilia Nikolaïevitch nɛ pe-piyaa, Olga, Maria, Alexandre nɛ Dimitri nɛ Anna nɛ Vladimir. Palʊla Vladimir Oulianov Simbirsk, ɖenɖe ɛ-ñɩma kaacaɣ fenasɩ cabɩ yɔ. Ɛcaɣ ɛyaa lɔŋ ñɩma nabɛyɛ hɛkʊ taa. Ɛzɩ Ilia Oulianov (1831 ŋtalɩ 1886) nɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ ɛ-halʊ yɔ Maria Oulianova, palʊla-ɩ Blank liɖe taa pɩnzɩ 1835 ŋtalɩ 1916), pɛ-tɛ wɛ ndɩ ndɩ, papɩtɩɣ palʊlʊʊ tɔm, kɔzɩ Ilia hɔɔlʊʊ taa. Ilia caa, Nikolaï palʊla-ɩ haɖaa nabɛyɛ liɖe taa nɛ Astrakhan kiŋ. Payaɣa ɛ-cɔzɔ naa se Oulyanine nɛ pʊcɔ pʊwayi yɔ pakpaɣ hɩɖɛ se Oulianov.

Cejewiye nɖɩ pʊwɛ ɛzɩ ɖi-lilaa wɛ Nijni Novgorod egeetiye taa. Yee pakpaɣ Oulianov waa ɛzɩ pɩkɛ Ruusii ɛyaa kɔyɔ, Nijni Novgorod wɛʊna kɩkpɛndʊʊ natʊyʊ nɛ pɩwɛɛ ɛzɩ cejewiye ndɩ tchouvache waa yaa mordve waa liɖe kaawɛ ɖɩ-taa. Paasɩŋ Lenine cɛjɛ hɔɔlʊʊ taa neze liɖe keeke. Maria, Lenine kɔɔ kɛlɛ, kaatisa pɔ-cɔzɔ cejewiye kaawɛna tatar calɩm, pe-neze ñaakɛ kamouke yaa kirghize. Maria Oulianova nɛ Moshe Blank cɔzɔ kaakɛ Yuda pɛdɩyaa nabɛyɛ tɛ nɛ palɩna Volhynie kiŋ.

Cɔzɔ sɔsɔ Ilia Nikolaïevitch Oulianov, vassili, ɛɛkɛ haɖʊ weyi ɛtapɩzɩɣ se ekizi ɛ-tɛtʊ yɔ, mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ɛkɛ yom weyi ɛwɛ ɛ-tɩ yɔɔ pʊcɔ lɛɛzɩtʊ pɩnaɣ 1861 talɩ yɔ. Ilia caa lakaɣ ñɛyɩtʊ tʊmɩyɛ Astrakhan, nɛ Ilia maɣmaɣ lakaɣ tɩlɩyɛ sukuli sɔsɔʊ. Ɛmʊ sukuli waɖɛ takayaɣ pɩnaɣ 1854 lɛ, ehiɣ sukuli wɩlɩɣ tʊmɩyɛ Penza tɛtʊ taa. Peeɖe ɛkakɩ Marie Alexandrovna Blank, weyi ɛlaba-ɩ halʊ kɩyɛna fenaɣ pɩnaɣ 1863.

Ɛpazɩ ɛsɔɔlɩ Rusii Ampiiri tɛ ɛsɩnda ɖɛnaʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔm mbʊ lɛ, ɛpɩsɩ wiliu tʊmɩyɛ tʊ sukuli naa taa. Hɔʊ ŋgʊ kɩwɛna pɩyaa lutozo. Anna, palʊla-ɩ pɩnaɣ 1864, Alexandre, palʊla-ɩ pɩnaɣ 1866, ɛwayɩ palʊla Vladimir palʊlɩ-ɩ, palʊla ɛlɛ maɣmaɣ pɩnaɣ 1870. Vladimir wayi palʊla, Olga pɩnaɣ 1871, Dmitri pɩnaɣ 1874 nɛ Maria pɩnaɣ 1878. Piyaa naalɛ hɔʊ kʊnɛyɔ ki-nesi tɛɛ sɩba pɩcatʊ taa. Halɩpɩɣa paaya ɖɔɖɔ se Olga pɩnaɣ 1868 nɛ abalɩpɩɣa Nikolaï pɩnaɣ 1873.

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