Ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ

Ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ (pɩkɛ takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ yaa takayasɩ kɩkalɩsɩ nzɩ papɩzɩɣ pakalɩ-sɩ nee yɔɔ kʊyʊm naalɛ naatozo yɔ) pɩkɛ maɣzɩm tɛ takʊʊ nɛ wiluu tʊmɩyɛ se pɩtɩŋɛ pɩkpɛndɩ nɛ pɩkɛ tɩlɩyɛ tɔm ɛyaa kpeekpe cɔlɔ, nɛ ɖɩcɔna kɔyɔ pɩkɛ kpɛlɛkɩtʊ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ ɛsakuliye tɔm paa weyi ɛ-cɔlɔ.

Pɩkɛ tovonum takayaɣ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ ɖɩkpaɣ-kɛ yɔ kɛtɩtʊ ndɩ ndɩ wɛɛ ka-taa nɛ aseɣɖe tɔm sakɩyɛ wɛɛ ka-taa, nɛ pɩtɩŋɩɣna pɩlɩyɛ naɖɩyɛ yɔɔ yaa taabɩlɩ naa nabɛyɛ yɔɔ nɛ takayaɣ kɩkalɣ kpata naa yɔɔ. Tɔmʊʊ ŋgʊ kɩñɔ alɩwaatʊ kɩfatʊ tʊ nɛ yɔ tɩ-taa kpaɣ ɖooo ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ yaa tovonum lɛɣtʊ tɔm kpou, keɖeɣa laɣsɩ nɛ nesi tɛɛ tʊma lɩʊʊ pɩnzɩ 1751 ŋtalɩ 1772 alɩwaatʊ taa.

Keekee taa lɛ, ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ wɛ ndɩ nɛ tɔm kpou mbʊ pʊyɔɔ yɔ tɔm kpou taa lɛ ɖɩnaɣ se palɩzɩ tɔmpee tɔmɩŋ nɛ pawɩlɩ paa nɖɩ lɛ ɖɩ ɖɩ-caɣyɛ tɔm loyaɣ taa nɛ paapɩzɩɣ patasɩ cɛtʊʊ ɖɩ-yɔɔ natʊyʊ, ŋgʊ ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ yɔ ñɔyɔɔdʊʊ pɩtɩŋa pʊ-tɔm pɩkɔzɩna ɛsakuliye tɔm. Woɖe yɔɔ woɖe yɔɔ lɛ ɖɩnaɣ kpaɣ hɛkʊ taa alɩwaatʊ nɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɖooo canaʊ alɩwaatʊ, Siini ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ ɖɔɖɔ ceu cɔlɩɩ wɛɛ taa mbʊ takayaɣ ŋga kɛkɛ ɛsakuliye takayaɣ, kpɛlɛkɩtʊ pɩyʊ ɖama tamsɩnaʊ pɩyʊ.

Tɔmʊʊ ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ lɩna tɔmʊʊ encyclopædia, papɩsɩ-kʊ latɛŋ taa nɛ pɩwɩlɩɣ se pɩkɛ ɖanʊʊ lʊlʊʊ nɛ kɩlɩna Plutarque krɛkɩ tɔmʊʊ taa ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία. Tɔmpiye enkyklios tɔbʊʊ se kɩcɔcɔʊʊ, pʊtʊ weyi ɛcɔʊʊ kpɛyɛɛ ɛzɩ kaapɔɖɛ wɛʊ yɔ, walaa taa lɛ pɩwɛna alɩwaatʊ, pɩwɛɛ ɛyʊ paa weyi cɔlɔ, ŋgʊ tɔmpiye paideía tɔbʊʊ se kpɛlɛkɩtʊ. Tɔmʊʊ ŋgʊ enkyklios paideia kɩtɩŋa kɩ-tɔbʊʊ se tɩlɩyɛ kpeekpe mbʊ pɩkɛ kpɛlɛkɩtʊ tɩŋa yɔ.

Akɔnta

Akɔnta, tʊzɩtʊ nɔmɔʊ taa lɛ akɔnta labʊ kɛ tʊzɩyɛ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɖɩ pɩyʊ ɛtaakpaɖɩ lɛɛbʊ yem yɔ. Kiɖe tɛɛ lɛ pɩ-tɛ pɩyʊ kɩkpaɖɩŋ kaakɛ ñʊŋ kɩkalɩŋ. Pɩkɔma ɛjaɖɛ ɛsa feŋ lɛ anasaayɩ ñɩɣtʊ ndɩ ndɩ lɩɩ nɛ pɩsaŋ palakɩ akɔnta kɛlɛʊ.

Tɔmpiye akɔnta, nɖɩ kɛna lɛɣtʊ nɛ tɩlɩtʊ laɣsɩ kɛ nɔɔnɔɔ ɖa-alɩwaatʊ tʊnɛ tɛ kɛlɛmʊʊ, ɖɩlɩna latɛŋ se calculus nɛ ɖɩ-tɔbʊʊ kaʊʊ cikpeluu. Kaŋ cikpeŋ ɛnʊ ɛɛkɛ ɖooo kiɖe tɛɛ lɛ akɔnta kalɩtʊ natʊyʊ halɩ nɛ ɑ-alɩwaatʊ tʊnɛ yɔ. Paɖʊwaɣ kaŋ nɛ pɛkɛdɩɣ nɛ ɛyaa, kpɩna yaa tɔɔnaɣ nɛ sɔzʊʊ tɛ akɔnta yaa pasʊʊ ñɩŋʊ. Pɩɩkɛ ɛsa tɛ akɔnta nɛ ɖiɣɖiɣ ñɩŋʊ, ɛɛkɛ kajalaɣ wɩlɩyʊ paa hɔʊ ŋgʊ kɩ-taa akɔnta nɔmɔʊ taa.

Abɛɛ palakɩŋna akɔnta, Ishango mɔɔ ɖɔɖɔ ana payaɣ se Ishango ɖaŋ, pʊtʊnaa mba palakanaɣ akɔnta. Kajalaɣ akɔnta lɛ kalɩyasɩ palakanaɣ tʊmɩyɛ (pakalɩɣ wondu ñʊʊ tɩ-huɖe taa, pakalɩ sɔɔjanaa ñʊʊ kaŋ taa, pakalɩ kɩyakɩŋ ñʊŋ kɩyakɩŋ tɛŋɛlɛ yɔɔ yaa fenasɩ takayaɣ taa, liidiye hɛyʊ wondu ɖɩyaɖɛ taa yaa lambuu hɛyʊ).

Ɖooo ɖa-canaa cɔlɔ lɛ kaŋ cikpeŋ pakalanaɣ (calculi), yaa pakalaɣ nee nɔsɩ yɔɔ kɛnɛ. Kɛlɛ Room mba ñaɖanɩ ñɔɔzʊʊ laɣsɩ ɛzɩ ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ nakayɛ yɔɔdʊʊ yɔ Martianus Capella mana-kɛ pɩnaɣ 420 cɔlɔ mbʊ yɔ.

Al-Khwarizmi

Muhammad Ibn Mūsā al-Khuwārizmī, walaa taa lɛ, patʊɣʊ nɛ paya se Al-Khwarizmi. Palʊla-ɩ pɩnzɩ 780 wɛɛ taa, e-liɖe kɛ Khiva tɛ Khzarezm ageeta taa, peeɖe paha-ɩ hɩɖɛ nɖɩ. Lone nɖɩ payaɣ sɔnɔ se Uzbɛkɩstaɣ. Ɛyʊ ɛnʊ ɛsɩba pɩnaɣ 850 cɔlɔ mbʊ yɔ Bagdad tɛtʊ taa. Ɛɛkɛ tʊzɩyɛ laɖʊ yaa ɛɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ ɛyʊ, tɛtʊ wɛtʊ tʊzɩtʊ niye mʊyʊ, tɩyɩnzɩ tɩyɩnaʊ tʊmɩyɛ laɖʊ nɛ tɩyɩnzɩ yɔɔ kpɛlɛkʊʊ niye mʊyʊ.

Ɛkɛ Bagdad lɔŋ sɩnɖaa ɖɩɣa taa ɛyʊ. Ɛma ɛ-takayasɩ tɩŋa payɩ nɛ arabɩ kʊnʊŋ taa nɛ palɩzɩ matʊ ndʊ nɛ latɛŋ kʊnʊŋ taa kpaɣ nɛ kpaɣɖʊ 12 alɩwaatʊ taa nɛ pɩsɩna nɛ palɩzɩ ñʊŋ lɛɛzɩtʊ kalɩtʊ kɛ Eerɔpʊ ajɛyɛ taa. Ɛ-tɛ fezuu caɣʊ maɣna abbassidi waa kewiyaɣ kɩɖɛzaɣ alɩwaatʊ yaa wɛɛ.

Ɛ-hɩɖɛ tɩna se palɩzɩ tɔmʊʊ algorithme, pʊ-tɔbʊʊ se nɔmɔŋ wɩlɩɣ takayaɣ (papɩsɩ ɛ-hɩɖɛ latɛŋ nɖɛ nɛ paya se Algoritmi) nɛ ɛ-tʊma sakɩyɛ taa hɩɖɛ ñʊʊ tɩna palɩzɩ ñʊŋ lɛɛzʊʊ kalɩtʊ tɔmʊʊ. Arabɩ tɛ ñʊŋ kalɩtʊ nɛ pɩtɛ tɔm pɩtalɩ Hɛkʊ taa Wɩsɩ Ɖɩlɩyɛ taa ɛjaɖɛ taa nɛ Erɔpʊ lɩna Ɛɛndɩ ñʊŋ kalɩyasɩ wɛtʊ nɩnaʊ cɔlɔ ɛ-takayaɣ lɛɛka, ŋga posusa kɔ-tɔm nɛ kʊnʊŋ taa abbasside tɛ Ampiiri taa yɔ.

Pʊtɔpɔzɩ se pesidi yaa peyiidi lɛɣtʊ tʊ ɛnʊ nɛ pɛɖɩsɩ tʊ lɛlʊ Abu-'Abdollâh Mohammad Khuwârizmi, weyi ɛkɛ Mafâtih al-'Olum kiɖe ɖʊyʊ yɔ (lɛɣtʊ kpɛlɛkɩtʊ nɔnɔɔ ñɩma), ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ ŋga pama pɩnzɩ 976-997 alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ. Patatɩlɩ Al-Khawarizmi wezuu caɣʊ taa mbʊ pʊɖɔŋa yɔ sakɩyɛ. Kɛlɛ pekpekuu se pʊwɛ ɛzɩ palʊla-ɩ Khiva tɛtʊ taa pɩnaɣ 780. Aseɣɖe tɔm sakɩyɛ wɛ nɛ pɩwɩlɩɣ ɛ-lɛɣtʊ kpɛlɛkɩtʊ tʊma sakɩyɛ. Ɛɛkɛ lɛɣtʊ tʊ nɛ tɛtʊ wɛtʊ tʊzɩtʊ niye mʊyʊ ɛtɛ ɛkɛ ɖɔɖɔ kɩbɩnjaazɩ tɔm kɛdɩyʊ mbʊ lɛ, pɔtɔ ɖɔɖɔ se ɛkɛ ñʊŋ lɛɛzɩtʊ kalɩtʊ caa.

Ɛyʊ ɛnʊ ɛkɛ tʊzɩyɛ tʊma sakɩyɛ tɛ kɩɖe ɖʊyʊ. Tʊma ana adaa kɩkɩlɩyɛ paya se Kitābu 'l-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisābi 'l-jabr wa'l-muqābalah (كتاب المختصر في حساب الجبر والمقابلة) nɖɩ posusa ɖɩ-tɔm Al-Ma’mūn kewiyaɣ alɩwaatʊ taa yɔ (pɩnzɩ 813-833), nɛ pamazɩ kɩkɛ kajalaɣ wonuu ŋgʊ palaba-kʊ nɛ tʊmɩyɛ ñʊŋ lɛɛzɩtʊ kalɩtʊ ɖeɖe yɔ. Takayaɣ ŋga kata wɛ ñʊŋ loɖo.

Pamaza se Diophante Alexandrie ñɩnʊ kɛnɛ ñʊŋ lɛɛzɩtʊ kalʊʊ wɩlɩyʊ, Al-Khwariwmi tasɩmɩ-ɩ pʊɖɔɔ. Ɖɩcɔna kɔyɔ, kajalaɣ ñʊŋ kɩtɩlɩŋ kpɛlɛkɩtʊ lɩ ɖooo tobi akɔnta labʊ pɩtɩŋna siɣsiɣ kitinau nɛ tʊkaɣ ɖʊʊ pɩnzɩ wayɩ, kpaɣɖʊ 9 alɩwaatʊ tɛmtʊ taa, yaa Al-Khwarizmi sɩm wayɩ pɩtalɩ pɩnzɩ nɩnʊwa mbʊ yɔ. Nɛ mbʊ ɛsɔza pɩtasɩ kajalaɣ takayaɣ kanɛ kɔyɔ yɔ yeba se pamazɩ se Al-Khwarizmi kɛnɛ ñʊŋ lɛɛzɩtʊ kalʊʊ caa.

Kewiyaɣ fɛyɩ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ

Kewiyaɣ fɛyɩ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ

Kewiyaɣ fɛyɩ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɩnaa (krɛkɩ kʊnʊŋ taa lɛ ἀναρχία / anarkhia, pama-ɖɩ nɛ an kajalaɣ pɛmtʊ mayaɣ, pʊ-tɔbʊʊ se arkhe, kewiyaɣ, sɔsɔtʊ, ñazɩtʊ tɔm fɛyɩ), pɩwɩlɩɣ se pɩkɛ ɛyaa mba pɛ-tɛ nɔɔyʊ ɛɛñazɩɣ nɔɔyʊ yɔ yaa kewiyaɣ paɣtʊ fɛyɩ yɔ, ɛyaa mba pɛ-tɛ wiyaʊ fɛyɩ, nɔɔyʊ ɛɛtɩyɩɣ eyeke sɔsɔtʊ, pʊ-tɔbʊʊ ɖɔɖɔ se nɔɔyʊ ɛɛñazɩɣ lɛlʊ. Ɛlɛ papɩzɩɣ panɩna ɖama, pala politiki paɣtʊ natʊyʊ naa yaa halɩ tɩɖɔɔ kɛlɛ kʊyʊm ɛɛtɩyɩɣ-tʊ eyeke nɛ ɛñazɩna.

Ɛyaa sakɩyɛ tɛ nɩɣ taa, kewiyaɣ fɛyɩ lɩmɣzɩyɛ tɔm ɖɔ paa weyi ɛ-tɛ nɩɣ taa, nɛ pɩtasɩna pɩwɛɛ ndɩ ndɩ ɛlɛ pɩcaɣ kaɖɛ. Ɖɩcaɣ eniiziye mbʊ lɛ, ɛyaa tɛ nɩɣ taa lɛ pɩkɛ fiti fiti tɔm ɛyaa hɛkɩŋ taa nɛ kɩbandʊ natʊyʊ fɛyɩ samaɣ hɛkʊ. Pɩnaɣ 1840 pierr-Joseph Proudhon kaalɛɣ ɛ-laŋɩyɛ taa mabʊ nɛ ɛtɔ se ɛkɛ pɩ-tɛ ɛyʊ pʊ-tɔbʊʊ se etisa pʊ-yɔɔ.

Kewiyaɣ fɛyɩ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɩnaa cɔlɔ lɛ, pɔ-tɔŋ tɔm ndʊ tɩ-tɛ ɛyaa kɛnɛ paɣtʊ tɛ samaɣ, mbʊ papɩza nɛ peyele nɛ ɛyaa nɩɩ nɛ petisi se pɛkpɛndʊʊ pa-ñɩm tɩŋa nɛ pɩpɩsɩ pe-kpeekpe pa-pɩyʊ kpaɣ ɛzɩ kɩlabɩm wondʊ mbʊ pʊyɔɔ lalaa ñɔtɔŋ se hayi matɩna ma-ñɩm. Agbelenaa tɔm kpou pɩlɩna tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩcɔŋna kʊnʊŋ ɖama tɔm nɩɣ cɔlɔ kɛ Caen Basse-Normandie lɛ pɔtɔŋ se pañɩna lɛ tɔmpiye nɖɩ ɖɩ-tɛ agbelenaa 9 yɔɔ lɛ lʊbɛ lɩzɩɣ se lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩfɛyɩ ɖeu (cɔlɩyɛ fɛyɩ, siduu siduu tɔm yeke, yiduu tɔm yeke, wɛɛkɩtʊ tɔm yeke, kɩɩnɩnaʊ tɔm yeke, ɖama kʊyɩnaʊ nɛ aleɣwondu tɔm yeke) kɛlɛ politiki tɔm ndʊ polosa ɛyaa mba pɛ-tɛ yɔ kɛlɛ se (pa-tɩŋa pɛwɛ kɩmaŋ nɛ paa weyi ɛwɛɛ pɛɛɛ taa).

Pɩkɔma pɩnaɣ 1869, samaɣ ɛsakuliye takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ ŋga pama-kɛ pɩtɩŋna Louis Asseline yɔɔ yɔ ñɩkɩɣ niiye tɔm tʊ nɛ tɩ-yɔɔ nɛ kɔtɔŋ se lalaa cɔlɔ lɛ pɩkɛ komina paɣtʊ fɛyɩ tɔm, sɔsɔtʊ fɛyɩ tɔm, nɔɔyʊ ɛɛwɩlɩɣ nɔɔyʊ nɔmɔʊ nakʊyʊ, paɣtʊ fɛyɩ, ŋgʊ peeɖe yɔ panaɣ yiki yiki tɔm sakɩyɛ ɛyaa fetenum taa nɛ pa-laɣsɩ taa. Lalaa ñɔtɔŋ se pɩkɛ palɩzɩɣ politiki paɣtʊ natutozo ñɩndʊ natʊyʊ yɔ, cɔɔcɩ tɔm fɛyɩ, pɔyɔkɩ kewiyaɣ tɔm, pa-maɣmaɣ palakɩna pa-lɩmaɣza nɛ pa-tʊma, ɛkɔm ɛkɔŋna-wɛ kɩfatʊ natʊyʊ nɛ ɖoli.

Kʋnʋmɩŋ lɛɛŋ

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