Reza Shah

Reza Shah Pahlavi ( Pèrsi: رضا شاه پهلوی ; kocap [reˈzɑː ˈʃɑːhe pæhlæˈviː] ; 15 Maret 1878   - 26 Juli 1944), sing misuwur kanthi jeneng Reza Shah , yaiku Shah Iran saka 15 Desember 1925 nganti dheweke dipeksa dadi abdine dening invasi Anglo-Soviet ing Iran tanggal 16 September 1941.

Rong taun sawisé kudeta Persia 1921 , dipimpin déning Zia'eddin Tabatabaee , Reza Pahlavi dadi perdana menteri Iran. Pengangkatan kasebut didukung dening sidang nasional Iran. Ing taun 1925, Reza Pahlavi diangkat minangka raja hukum Iran kanthi kaputusan dadi wakil rakyat Iran. Déwan kasebut nggulingaké Ahmad Shah Qajar , Shah pungkasan saka dinasti Qajar , lan pindhah menyang konstitusi 1906 Iran kanggo ngidini pilihan Reza Pahlavi. Panjenenganipun ngedegaken dinasti Pahlavi ingkang dumugi taun 1979 nalika Revolusi Iran . Reza Shah nepungake pirang-pirang reformasi sosial, ekonomi, lan politik nalika pemerintahane, pungkasane mbangun pondasi negara Iran modern.

Warisan-Nya tetep kontroversial nganti saiki. Pembélaoné nyatakaké yèn dhèwèké minangka pasukan modhèrn modernisasi kanggo Iran (sing utamané internasional sing diturunaké nalika pamaréntahan Qajar), nalika para pengkritik nyatakaké yèn dhèwèké asring ngrusak, amarga gagal nganyataké modhèl petani gedhe ing Iran sing pungkasané nyebar wiji kanggo Revolusi Iran hampir patang puluh taun salajengipun, ingkang mungkasi 2,500 taun raja Persia .[3][4]. Kajaba iku, desakan marang nasionalisme ètnik lan unitarisme budaya, bebarengan karo penghargaan lan sedentarization dipaksa, nyebabaké panindhes sawatara kelompok etnis lan sosial. Kaya karo kawicaksanan Atatürk Turunané , pamaréntahané uga nglakokaké kawicaksanan ekstensif Persianisasi kanggo nggawé bangsa, tunggal, lan sapérangan homogen.[5]

Reza Pahlavi
Alâhazrat Homâyuni Šâhanšâh
Reza Shah portrait
Shah of Iran
Panjenengan15 December 1925 –
16 September 1941
Pamakuthan25 April 1926[1]
LeluhurAhmad Shah Qajar
PanerusMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Prime Ministers
20th Prime Minister of Iran
Term28 October 1923 –
1 November 1925
LeluhurHassan Pirnia
PanerusMohammad-Ali Foroughi
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Minister of War
Term24 April 1921 –
1 November 1925
LeluhurMasoud Kayhan
PanerusAmir Abdollah Tahmasebi
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Lair15 Maret 1878
Alasht, Savad Kooh, Mazandaran, Persia
Surud26 Juli 1944 (umur 66)
Johannesburg, South Africa
Astana7 May 1950
Reza Shah's mausoleum, Shah-Abdol-Azim shrine, Rey
GariniMaryam Khanum
Tadj ol-Molouk (queen consort)
Qamar ol-Molouk
Esmat ol-Molouk
PutraPrincess Hamdamsaltaneh
Princess Shams
Mohammad Reza Shah
Princess Ashraf
Prince Ali Reza
Prince Gholam Reza
Prince Abdul Reza
Prince Ahmad Reza
Prince Mahmoud Reza
Princess Fatimeh
Prince Hamid Reza
Jeneng dawa
Reza Pahlavi
Pèrsi: رضا پهلوی‎‎
WangsaPahlavi
BapaAbbas-Ali
IbuNoush-Afarin
AgamaAtheism[2] Cithakan:Infobox politician

Awal urip

Museum of Reza Shah Pahlavi
Museum of Reza Shah Pahlavi, the house where he was born, Alasht, Mazandaran Province

Reza Shah Pahlavi lair ing desa Alasht , Provinsi Savadkuh , Provinsi Mazandaran , ing taun 1878, kanggo Mayor Abbas-Ali Khan lan Noush-Afarin.[6][7]. Ibune yaiku imigran Muslim saka Georgia (yaiku bagian saka Kekaisaran Rusia[8][9] kulawargane sing hijrah menyang tanah daratan Persia (Iran) sawise Kekaisaran Qajar dipeksa nyerahake kabeh tlatah ing Kaukasus sasampunipun Russo -Persian Wars sawatara dekade sadurunge kelahiran Reza Shah[10]. Bapane ditugasake ing Resimen Savadkuh kaping 7, lan ditawani ing Perang Anglo-Persia ing taun 1856. Abbas-Ali tilar donya ing tanggal 26 November 1878, nalika Reza lagi umur 8 wulan. Sasampunipun sedanipun bapakipun, Reza lan ibunipun pindhah dhateng sedhèrèkipun ing Teheran. Dheweke nikah maneh nalika taun 1879 lan ninggalake Reza kanggo pamane. Ing taun 1882, pamane banjur ngirim Reza menyang kanca keluarga, Vartan Gorguekoohi, sawijining perwira tentara Persia[11] Nalika Reza lagi nembelas taun, dheweke gabung karo Brigade Persia Persia . Ing taun 1903, dheweke dilapurake dadi penjaga lan abdi ing konsul Walanda Frits Knobel . Reza umur 25 taun. Dheweke uga njabat ing Angkatan Darat Iran , ing pundi piyambakipun pikantuk peringkat saperangan saperangan senjata miturut perintah Qajar Pangeran Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma . Ing taun 1911, dhèwèké mènèhi akun apik ing kampanye pungkasan lan diangkat dadi Letnan Pertama. Keahliannya ing penanganan senapan mesin diangkat dadi pangkat sing setara karo Kapten nalika taun 1912. Taun 1915, dheweke diangkat dadi pangkat Kolonel.[12] Cathetan layanan militer pungkasanipun mimpin dheweke minangka komandan Brigadir ing Brigade Cossack Persia. Dheweke dadi perwira pungkasan Brigade, lan siji-sijine komandan Iran ing sejarah, nggayuh posisi iki koloni Rusia Vsevolod Starosselsky , sing ditulungi Reza Shah, ing taun 1918, njupuk alih brigade. Dheweke uga salah sijine perwira pungkasan dadi perwira Neshan-e Aqdas sadurunge runtuh dinasti Qajar taun 1925[13]

Rujukan

  1. Rahnema, Ali (2011). Superstition as Ideology in Iranian Politics: From Majlesi to Ahmadinejad. Cambridge University Press. k. 115. ISBN 9781139495622.
  2. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan 2011 pages 22-23.
  3. Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p.91
  4. Roger Homan, "The Origins of the Iranian Revolution," International Affairs 56/4 (Autumn 1980): 673–7.
  5. Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. kk. 123–163. ISBN 9780691053424. OCLC 7975938.
  6. Gholam Reza Afkhami (27 October 2008). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. k. 4. ISBN 978-0-520-25328-5. Dijupuk 2 November 2012.
  7. Zirinsky, Michael P. (1992). "Imperial power and dictatorship: Britain and the rise of Reza Shah, 1921-1926". International Journal of Middle East Studies 24: 639–663. doi:10.1017/s0020743800022388. Dijupuk 2 November 2012.
  8. Afkhami, Gholam Reza (2009). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. k. 4. (..) His mother, who was of Georgian origin, died not long after, leaving Reza in her brother's care in Tehran. (...).
  9. The Pahlavi Dynasty: An Entry from Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam. EWI Press. 2012. k. 3. (...) His mother, Nush Afarin, was a Georgian Muslim immigrant (...). |first1= kurang |last1= ing Authors list (pitulung)
  10. Homa Katouzian. State and Society in Iran: The Eclipse of the Qajars and the Emergence of the Pahlavis I.B.Tauris, 2006. ISBN 978-1845112721 p 269
  11. Nahai, Gina B. (2000). Cry of the Peacock. New York: Simon and Schuster. k. 180. ISBN 0-7434-0337-1. Dijupuk 31 October 2010.
  12. "History of Iran : Reza Shah Pahlavi - Reza Shah Kabir (Reza Shah The Great)". Iran Chamber Society. Dijupuk 10 April 2016.
  13. Christopher Buyers, Persia, The Qajar Dynasty: Orders & Decorations Royal Ark

Pranala Njaba

Reza Shah
House of Pahlavi
Lair: 15 March 1878 Tilar donya: 26 July 1944
Iran
Kang sadurungé
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Shah of Iran
15 December 1925 – 16 September 1941
Kang sawisé
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Kalungguhan pulitik
Kang sadurungé
Hassan Pirnia
Prime Minister of Iran
28 October 1923 – 1 November 1925
Kang sawisé
Mohammad-Ali Foroughi
Kang sadurungé
Masoud Kayhan
Minister of War
24 April 1921 – 13 June 1926
Jabatan militèr
Kang sadurungé
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Commander-in-Chief of Iran
14 February 1925 – 16 September 1941
Kang sawisé
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Kang sadurungé
Vsevolod Starosselsky
Commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade
1920–1921
Kang sawisé
Ghassem Khan Vali
Kalungguhan ing organisasi nirbathi
Kang sadurungé
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Chairman of the Iranian Red Lion and Sun Society
1931–1941
Kang sawisé
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Ing basa liyané

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