Ewnish

She çhengey noa-emshyragh Hemittagh phobble Israel bun-chooish y duillag shoh. My ta sym ayd ayns çhengey Ghermaanagh ny h-Ewnyn, lhaih Ewdish.
Ewnish
עִבְרִית (ʿIvrit)
Fockley magh [ivˈʁit] - [(ʔ)ivˈɾit][note 1]
Goll er loayrt ayns Israel, boodeeyssyn Ewnagh 'sy Vroogh Heear;[1] goll er ymmyd dy liturgagh 'syn Ewaghys
Earroo loayreyderyn 5.3 million (1998) [2]
Kynney çhengey Affro-Aishanagh
  • Semittagh
    • Semittagh Meanagh
      • Semittagh Heear Hwoaie
        • Canaanagh
          • Ewnish
Corys screeuee Abbyrlhit Ewnagh
Staydys oikoil
Çhengey oikoil ayns Flag of Israel.svg Israel
Fo stiurey ec Colleish ny h-Ewnish
האקדמיה ללשון העברית (HaAkademia LaLashon HaʿIvrit)
Coadyn çhengey
ISO 639-1 he
ISO 639-2 heb
ISO 639-3 heb
Linguasphere 12-AAB-a

She çhengey Hemittagh Heear jeh'n chynney çhengey Affro-Aishanagh ee yn Ewnish (עִבְרִית ʿIvrit, [ivˈʁit] ny [ʕivˈɾit] ). T'ee coontit dy shenndeeagh myr çhengey ny h-Israeliteyn as nyn shennayryn oc. Dirree çhengaghyn Ewagh elley magh ass ny h-Ewnyn eebyrtagh. Va'n Ewnish goll er ymmyd ec possanyn neu-Ewagh elley, goaill stiagh ny Samaaree. Haink jerrey lesh yn Ewnish myr çhengey chadjin roish y vlein 200 BNJ, agh v'ee freilt myr çhengey liturgagh. 'Sy 19oo eash hie ee er ny h-aavioghey myr çhengey loayrit as lettyragh as, rere Ethnologue, t'ee goll er loayrt ec 5.3 millioon deiney er feie ny cruinney, as ayns Israel er lheh.[2]

She fer jeh'n daa hengey oikoil ayns Israel ee yn Ewnish Noa-emshyragh (she Arabish y fer elley), as ta'n Ewnish Chlassicagh goll er ymmyd son padjeryn ny studeyrys ayns boodeeyssyn Ewagh er feie ny cruinney. Ta ny sampleyryn s'leah jeh'n Ewnish screeuit çheet magh ass y 10oo eash RC[3] gys eash y Nah Hiamble. Lurg shen hie yn çhengey er ny lhiassaghey myr yn Ewnish Vishnagh.

Ta'n Ewnish Henndeeagh goll er loayrt myr çhengey liturgagh ec ny Samaaree, tra ta'n Ewnish noa-emshyragh as yn Arabish goll er loayrt myr ny çhengaghyn loayrit oc, ga nagh vel agh mysh 700 Samaaree foast er mayrn jiu. Ta Ewnyn as studeyryn yn Ewaghys as Israel, as shenndaalee as çhengoaylleeyn, jeeaghtyeyryn as deiney ayns shemminaareyn Creestee jannoo studeyryssyn urree myr çhengey yoarree.

Ta cree yn Torah (y chied lioar jeh ny 5 lioaryn 'sy Vible Ewagh), as y chooid by voo jeh'n Vible Ewagh, screeuit 'syn Ewnish Chlassicagh, as ta'n chooid smoo jeh'n chummey roie 'syn abbyrt Ewnish Viblagh. Ta scoillaryn smooinaghtyn dy row yn Ewnish blaaghey mysh y 6oo eash RC, ayns traa yn eebyrtys Babylonnagh. Er-yn-oyr shen, ta ny h-Ewnyn cur sheese er yn Ewnish myr Leshon HaKodesh (לשון הקודש), "Y Çhengey Chasherick", veih'n çhenndaght.

Noteyn

  1. Israelish Chadjin (Shephardagh) [ʕivˈɾit]; Earackagh [ʕibˈriːθ]; Yeamanagh [ʕivˈriːθ]; Ashkenazagh [ˈivʀis]

Imraaghyn

  1. CIA World Fact Book
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hebrew language report. Ethnologue. Feddynit er 19 November 2012.
  3. http://www.physorg.com/news182101034.html
Arabish

She çhengey Hemittagh Veanagh ee yn Arabish (العربية al-ʿarabiyyah, ASE: [ʔæl.ʕɑrɑˈbiːjɐ], ny عربي ʿarabī, [ˈʕɑrɑbiː]), as myr shen ta kiangley eddyr ee as ny çhengaghyn Semittagh elley lheid as yn Ewnish as ny çhengaghyn Noa-Aramaagh. Ta ny smoo loayreyderyn ny h-Arabish na loayreyderyn jeh çhengey Hemittagh elley. T'ee myr çhengey ghooghyssagh ec ny smoo na 280 millioonyn dy leih, as ta'n chooid smoo jeu cummal 'sy Niar Meanagh as 'syn Affrick Hwoaie. Ta staydys oikoil eck ayns 26 çheeraghyn as ayns 4 reagheydyssyn eddyr-ashoonagh, goaill stiagh ny h-Ashoonyn Unnaneysit, as she çhengey liturgagh yn Islam t'aynjee. Ta sorçhyn eigsoylagh jeh'n Arabish ayn, as ad er nyn rheynn magh harrish ard mooar dy çheer-oaylleeagh. Ta fir jeu do-hoiggalagh eddyr nyn geilley. Ta'n Arabish Chadjinit Noa-emshyragh er n'ynsaghey ayns ny scoillyn, as ny h-ollooscoillyn, as er n'ymmyd ayns buill obbree, reiltyssyn as 'syn ym-ysseraght.

Ewdish

She çhengey Ghermaanagh ny h-Ewnyn bun-chooish y duillag shoh. My ta sym ayd ayns çhengey noa-emshyragh Hemittagh phobble Israel, lhaih Ewnish.She fer jeh ny çhengaghyn Germaanagh Eaghtyragh jeh bun ny h-Ewnyn Ashkenazagh ta goll er loayrt ayns ram ayrnyn y theihll ee yn Ewdish (Ewnish: ייִדיש yidish ny אידיש idish, ny "yn çhengey Ewagh" dy lettyragh). Hie ee er ny lhiassaghey tra ren boodeeys ny h-arreyderyn stiagh cur focklyn yn Ewnish as yn Aramaaish rish abbyrtyn y Ghermaanish lesh blastyn veih ny çhengaghyn Romanagh tra ren ad cummal ayns ardjyn Romanagh rieau. Lurg shen va blass veih ny çhengaghyn Slavagh currit stiagh 'sy çhengey tra ren y boodeeys Ashkenazagh arraghey gys y niar. Ta'n Ewdish goll er screeu 'syn abbyrlhit Ewnagh.

Ewnyn

She ashoon as possan kynneeagh-crauee ad ny h-Ewnyn (Ewnish: יְהוּדִים, Yehudim). She ny h-Israeliteyn ny ny Hebrewnyn y bun-phossan oc. Ta kiangley mooar eddyr y chynneeys, yn ashoonaght as y chraueeaght Ewagh er yn oyr dy nee yn Ewaghys craueeaght hradishoonagh ny h-Ewnyn. Ta mysh 13.7 millioon dy Ewnyn ayn 'sy theihll jiu, agh roish y Nah Chaggey Dowanagh v'eh er ooley dy row mysh 15 millioonyn dy Ewnyn ayn. Hooar shey millioon dy Ewnyn baase car y lhing shen ayns taghyrt ta goll er enney fo'n ennym "yn Deherree". Ta 42.5% jeh Ewnyn y theihll cummal ayns Israel, 39.3% ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneysit, 1.5 villioon 'syn Oarpey as mysh 400,000 'sy Chanadey.

Ghil'ad Zuckermann

Ghil'ad Zuckermann (1 Mean Souree, 1971, Tel Aviv, Israel) (D.Phil., Oxford; Ph.D., Cambridge) ny scoillar y çhengoaylleeaght.

Israel

She çheer 'syn Aishey ee Israel (Ewnish: יִשְרָאֵל, Yisra'el; Arabish: إسرائيل‎, Isrā'īl). T'ee soit er slyst hiar yiass y Veanvooir. T'ee çhemmal rish y Livaan 'sy twoaie, rish y Teer 'sy niar hwoaie, rish y Jordaan as y Vroogh Heear 'sy niar, rish yn Egypt as Straih Ghaza 'sy neear yiass, as rish Lhoob Aqaba 'sy Vooir Ruy 'sy jiass. Ta'n çheer jeant seose jeh shiartanse dy hroyn çheer-oaylleeagh gyn bwooise er y nhee dy nee çheer veg t'ayn. Ayns Bun-leighyn y steat, ta Israel cur sheese urree hene myr Steat Ewagh as Deynlagh. Cha nel steat elley erbee ayn 'sy theihll raad ta'n chooid smoo jeh ny cummaltee ayn nyn Ewnyn.

She Tel Aviv caayr argidoil Israel, as she Jerusalem y chaayr smoo rere earroo yn phobble. Ta Israel hene coontey Jerusalem myr preeu-valley yn steat, ga nagh vel y soiaghey shen er enney ec ram çheeraghyn. 'Sy vlein 2012 va 7,956,000 deiney cummal ayns Israel; 5,995,700 nyn Ewnyn, 1,642,000 nyn Arabee (goaill stiagh ny Droosee as ny Bedoonee).

Jemayrt

She Jemayrt ny yn Vayrt yn laa 'sy çhiaghtyn eddyr Jelune as Jecrean.

Jerusalem

She fer jeh ny caayryn by hinney er y theihll as y chaayr smoo ayns Israel eh Jerusalem (Ewnish: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim; Arabish: القُدس‎ al-Quds as/ny أورشليم Ûrshalîm). T'eh coontit ec lught reill Israel myr preeu-valley yn steat shen, agh cha nel eh er enney dy h-oikoil ec y chooid smoo jeh'n phobbyl eddyrashoonagh. T'eh ny hoie ayns Sleityn Judaea, eddyr y Veanvooir as y Vooir Varroo. 'Sy vlein 2012 va 801,000 deiney cummal ayn as eh 125.2 km2 er eaghtyr. She caayr chasherick eh Jerusalem ec ny tree craueeaghtyn Abrahamagh — yn Ewaghys, y Chreestiaght as yn Islam.

Ladeenish

She çhengey Romanagh ee Ladeenish (Ladeenish: Dzhudezmo, Espanyol, Ladino, Hakitia), er ny ghoaill ass Shenn Chasteelish. Ta loayreyderyn nyn Ewnyn Sephardagh son y chooid smoo. Ta'n çhengey gannoonaghey er fud ny cruinney; ta sleih aeg ayns Israel çheet dy loayrt Ewnish, as ayns çheeraghyn America Yiass, ta'n çhengey covestey marish Spaainish.

Rere shenn ymmyd, va Ladino çheet er aase çhyndaa ren cur Spaainish, fockle er fockle, er Ewnish. V'ad cur Espanyol (gollrish Español, ennym Spaainish Spaainish) er y çhengey hene. Ta sleih er jeet dy chur Ladino urree rish yn 20oo Eash.

Nahariya

She Nahariya (Ewnish: נַהֲרִיָּה) y chaayr lystagh smoo twoaieagh ayns Israel as mysh 51,200 deiney cummal ayn. Ta ennym y chaayr çheet magh ass yn awin Ga'aton ta roie trooid y chaayr er yn oyr dy nee nahar (נהר) yn ennym Ewnish ta currit er awin.

Slyst Haifa

She fer jeh slystyn Israel ee Slyst Haifa (Ewnish: מחוז חיפה, Mehoz Ḥeifa; Arabish: منطقة حيفا). Ta'n clyst 864 km² er eaghtyr. She Haifa y preeu-valley.

Rere staydraa veih Ard-Rheynn Staydraa Israel 'sy vlein 2005, va 858,000 deiney cummal 'sy clyst. She Ewnyn 71.27% jeh pobble y lyst. Ta 18.81% nyn Arabee Voslymagh, 1.78% nyn Arabee Chreestee, as 2.52% nyn Nroosee. Cha row 4.9% jeh pobble y lyst rang-oardit rere craueeaght.

Slyst Hwoaie, Israel

She fer jeh slystyn Israel ee yn Clyst Hwoaie (Ewnish: מחוז הצפון, Mehoz Hatzafon; Arabish: منطقة الشمال). Ta'n clyst 4,478 km² er eaghtyr. She Nasair y preeu-valley as y chaayr smoo 'sy clyst. Ta'n clyst goaill stiagh Ardjyn Golan veih'n vlein 1981 as yn ard shen goll er reirey myr fo-lyst y lyst, ga nagh vel y cummaltys as y goaill stiagh Israelagh er enney ec yn AU.

She Arabee (53%) y chooid smoo jeh'n phobble as she Ewnyn 43.5% jeh'n phobble. Cha nel slyst elley erbee ayns Israel raad dy vel y chooid smoo jeh'n phobble nyn Arabee.

Slyst Jerusalem

She fer jeh slystyn Israel ee Slyst Jerusalem (Ewnish: מחוז ירושלים, Mehoz Ḥeifa; Arabish: منطقة القدس). Ta'n clyst 864 km² er eaghtyr. She Jerusalem y preeu-valley.

Ta ny smoo na 920,000 deiney cummal 'sy clyst as ta 67.8% jeu nyn Ewnyn as 30.6% nyn Arabee. Ta queigoo jeh Arabee Israel cummal 'sy clyst, as ee goaill stiagh Jerusalem Heear as Hiar. Ta'n chooid smoo jeh ny h-Arabee nyn Balasteenee gyn seyraanaght ga dy vel reihys oc. Ta'n chooid sloo jeh ny h-Arabee nyn Arabee Israelagh as t'ad cummal ayns Abu Ghosh, Beit Safafa as Jerusalem Hiar. Ta'n pobble neu-Ewagh jeant seose jeh Moslymee (28.3%), Creestee 1.8% as deiney gyn rang-oardraghey (1.4%).

Slyst Tel Aviv

She Slyst Tel Aviv (Ewnish: מחוז תל אביב, Mehoz Tel Aviv; Arabish: منطقة تل أبيب) y clyst sloo mastey slystyn Israel. Ta'n clyst 176 km² er eaghtyr. She Tel Aviv y preeu-valley as y chaayr smoo 'sy clyst. Ta ny smoo na 1,200,000 deiney cummal 'sy clyst as she Ewnyn 99% jeh pobble y lyst. Ta 1% nyn Arabee (0.7% nyn Arabee Voslymagh as 0.3% nyn Arabee Chreestee).

Slyst Veanagh, Israel

She fer jeh slystyn Israel ee yn Clyst Veanagh (Ewnish: מחוז המרכז, Meḥoz haMerkaz; Arabish: منطقة الوسط). Ta'n clyst 1,293 km² er eaghtyr as t'ee goaill stiagh y chooid smoo jeh ard Sharon. She Ramla y preeu-valley as she Rishon LeZion y chaayr smoo 'sy clyst. Rere Ard-Rheynn Staydraa Israel va ny smoo na 1,700,000 deiney cummal 'sy clyst as va 88% jeu nyn Ewnyn as 8.2% nyn Arabee. Cha row rang-oardraghey ec 4% jeh pobble y lyst.

Slyst Yiass, Israel

She fer jeh slystyn Israel ee yn Clyst Yiass (Ewnish: מחוז הדרום, Mehoz HaDarom; Arabish: لواء الجنوب). Ta'n clyst 12,000 km² er eaghtyr as, rere yn earroo shen, t'ee ny slyst smoo ayns Israel. She Beersheba y preeu-valley as she Ashdod y chaayr smoo 'sy clyst. T'ee coodaghey y chooid smoo jeh Faasagh Negev myrane lesh glion Arabah.

Ta ny smoo na 1,000,000 deiney cummal 'sy clyst as ta 86% jeu nyn Ewnyn as 14% nyn Arabee (y chooid smoo jeu nyn Moslymee).

Slystyn Israel

Ta Israel goll er rheynn magh ayns shey slystyn, ta goll er enney 'syn Ewnish myr mehozot (מחוזות; un. mahoz), as queig fo-lystyn jeig, ta goll er enney 'syn Ewnish myr nafot (נפות, un. nafa). Ta dagh fo-lyst goll er rheynn magh ayns jeih ardjyn najooragh as daeed.

Ta ny staydraa 'syn ard shoh bunnit er earrooyn veih Ard-Rheynn Staydraa Israel as, er yn oyr shen, t'ad goaill stiagh dagh boayl fo reirey theayagh Israel (goaill stiagh ardjyn fo cummaltys Israel 'sy Vroogh Heear as ayns Ardjyn Golan). Ta ny earrooyn heese fo Slyst Jerusalem goaill stiagh Jerusalem Hiar, ta foast er enney ec yn AU myr cooid y Vroogh Heear.

Tel Aviv-Yafo

She Tel Aviv-Yafo (Ewnish: תֵּל אָבִיב-יָפוֹ; Arabish: تل أَبِيب-يافا) y nah chaayr smoo ayns Israel, as ny smoo na 400,000 deiney cummal ayn. Ta'n chaayr 52 km2 er eaghtyr as t'ee ny soie er coose Meanvooiragh Israel heear veanagh. T'ee ny chaayr smoo ayns Ard Moirvaljagh Tel Aviv as 3,401,700 deiney cummal ayn. Ta'n chaayr goll fo reirey valjaght Tel Aviv-Yafo, as she Ron Huldai meoir y chaayr. Ta'n ennym Tel Avivim currit er cummaltee y chaayr. Er yn oyr nagh vel ny h-Ashoonyn Unnaneysit as ram çheeraghyn cur Jerusalem er enney myr preeu-valley yn çheer, ta ram thieyn çaghteraght soit ayns Tel Aviv.

Va Tel Aviv bunnit ec y voodeeys Ewnagh er brooinyn y çhenn chaayr phurtagh Jaffa (Ewnish: יָפוֹ Yafo; Arabish: يافا‎, Yāfā) 'sy vlein 1909. Ren arraghey stiagh ny Ewnyn cur rish aase Tel Aviv as tammylt beg ny yei haink er Tel Aviv dy ve ny smoo na Jaffa, as pobbyl Arabagh cummal ayn ec y traa shen. Va Tel Aviv as Jaffa covestit rish nyn geilley myr un valjaght 'sy vlein 1950, daa vlein lurg bunneeaght Steat Israel.

Yn Ewaghys

She craueeaght, fallsoonys as aght bea ny h-Ewnyn eh yn Ewaghys (veih Iudaismus y Ladjyn, Ioudaïsmos y Ghreagish, as, fy yerrey, veih יהודה Yehudah, "Judah" yn Ewnish; Ewnish: יהדות Yahadut, troyn er lheh ny h-Ewnyn). She craueeaght un-jeeagh as y bun echey 'sy Vible Ewagh (ny yn Tanakh) lesh ronseeyn ayns teksyn ny s'lhea, lheid as y Talmud eh yn Ewaghys. T'eh coontit ec Ewnyn crauee myr dreagh y vooinjerys conaantagh va bunnit ec Jee lesh Cloan Israel. Ta'n Ewaghys Rabbinagh jeean-loayrt dy ren Jee taishbyney ny leighyn as ny h-annaghyn da Moses er Sliau Sinai ayns cummey yn Torah Screeuit as Loayrit. Ren possanyn eigsoylagh, lheid as ny Sadduceeyn as ny h-Ewnyn Greagagh car eash y Nah Hiamble, ny Karaiteyn as ny Sabbateeyn car y vean-eash, as possanyn mastey ny gleashaghtyn aachummey noa-emshyragh, ceau ourys er y jeean-loayrtys shen. Ta gleashaghtyn libraalagh 'sy traa t'ain, lheid as possanyn 'syn Ewaghys Sheelnaueagh, as ad coontit myr possanyn neu-yeeagh.

Ta'n Ewaghys ny shinney na 3,000 bleeaney d'eash as shennaghys gyn brishey echey. Mastey ard-chraueeaghtyn y theihll, ta'n Ewaghys coontit myr fer jeh ny craueeaghtyn un-jeeagh shinney. Va'n enmys "Ewnyn" currit er ny Hebrewnyn / Israeliteyn ayns ny lioaryn jeianagh jeh'n Tanakh, lheid as ayns Lioar Esther as yn enmys shen currit ayns ynnyd yn enmys "Cloan Israel". Ren teksyn, tradishoonyn as scansh yn Ewaghys cur dy mooar er ny craueeaghtyn Abrahamagh elley, goaill stiagh y Chreestiaght, yn Islam as y credjue Baha'i.

Ayns çhengaghyn elley

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