14oo eash

Taghyrtyn

1314: Cah Bannockburn, 24 Mean Souree. Chossyn armee ny h-Albey er ny Sostynee as hooar ad nyn seyrsnys.

Sleih er-lheh

Jeihaghtyn as bleeantyn

1290yn 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299
1300yn 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309
1310yn 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319
1320yn 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329
1330yn 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339
1340yn 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349
1350yn 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359
1360yn 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369
1370yn 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379
1380yn 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389
1390yn 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399
1400yn 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409
Abbyrlhit Coptagh

Notey: Ta cowraghyn er lheh 'syn art shoh. Mannagh vel jargaght jannoo screeu crampit ec y cho-earrooder ayd, foddee dy vaik uss cowraghyn feysht, kishtaghyn ny cowraghyn elley ayns ynnyd ny cowraghyn kiartey.Ta'n abbyrlhit Coptagh yn abbyrlhit t'ec y Choptish. T'eh foast ymmydit ayns ny hagglishyn Coptagh ec y traa t'ayn.

Brattagh ny Britaan

She Gwenn ha du ("y Bane as y Doo") yn ennym 'sy Vritaanish ta currit er brattagh ny Britaan. Ta'n brattagh ymmydit feie shenn-çheer jeh'n Vritaan, ard ta goaill stiagh yn ard noa-emshyragh ta coodaghey 80% jeh'n çhenn-çheer (Bretagne 'sy Rangish) as Liger-Atlantel, fer jeh ny rheynnyn ta jannoo seose yn ard Broioù al Liger.

Va cummey yn vrattagh crooit ec Morvan Marchal 'sy vlein 1923. Hooar eh yn eie da'n vrattagh veih bratteeyn ny Steatyn Unnaneysit as y Ghreag er yn oyr dy row yn daa heer shen coontit myr cowraghyn y teyrsnys as y deynlaghys ec y traa shen.

Ta ny nuy rimmeig shassoo son ny nuy ard-aspick 'sy çheer. Ta ny queig rimmeig doo shassoo son ny h-ard-aspickyssyn Gallo (Bro-Zol, Bro-Naoned, Bro-Roazhon, Bro-Sant-Maloù as Bro-Sant-Brieg) as ta ny kiare rimmeig bane shassoo son ny h-ard-aspickyssyn Britaanish (Bro-Dreger, Bro-Leon, Bro-Gerne as Bro-Gwened). Ta'n cantoon lesh ny h-ermynyn cur cooinaghtyn da armys diucagh y Vritaan

Camphire

She lus ynrican 'sy ghenus Lawsonia ee camphire (Lawsonia inermis), as bun y daah henna. Ta shennaghys liauyr ec y daah er son daahghey crackan, folt as eaddagh.

Colaashtey ny Trinaid, Divlyn

Va bun currit er Colaashtey ny Trinaid, Divlyn ayns 1592 liorish y Venrein Ealisaid I. T’ee ny co-cholleish ynrican Ollooscoill Ghivlyn, as yn jees oc nyn ollooscoill shinney Nerin..

Ta slane ennym y cholleish Coláiste Thríonóid Naofa Neamhroinnte na Banríona Eilís gar do Bhaile Átha Cliath ny The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, dy ghra myr shen, “Colaashtey ny Trinaid Noo Neurheynnit ny Benrein Ealisaid er gerrey da Divlyn”.

Ta Tríonóide ny soie ayns mean Ghivlyn, noi'n shenn Ard-whaiyl Nerin.

Hug ad entreilys da studeyryn bwoirrinagh ayns 1904.

Ta Lioarlan Cholleish ny Trinaid ny lioarlan tashtey leighagh y Reeriaght Unnaneyssit, as ta’n currym cheddin echey da’n Phobblaght Nerin. She Leabhar Cheanannais eh lioar share er enney y lioarlan, ny soie 'sy Shenn Lioarlann marish Lioar Ghurrow (The Book of Durrow), Lioar Howth (The Book of Howth) as shenn lioaryn elley. Ayns yn 18oo eash, hie Claasagh Cholleish ny Trinaid er chur da'n cholleish. She claasagh y 14oo eash t'ayn, mastey cha nel agh tree t'er mayrn foast.

Gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Mannin

Va'n gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Mannin bunnit er 6 sheadinyn, as ad er ny rheynn magh ayns 17 skeeraghyn. Jiu, ta'n ellan er ny rheynn magh ayns slystyn balley, slystyn balley beg as slystyn skeerey son cooishyn gurneilys ynnydagh myr:

4 slystyn balley: Doolish (balley corpagh), Balley Chashtal, Purt ny h-Inshey, as Rhumsaa

5 slystyn balley beg: Kione Droghad, Maayl, Laksaa, Purt Çhiarn, as Purt le Moirrey

15 slystyn skeerey: Andreas, Cairbre, Balley ny Loghey, Braddan, Breeshey, Carmane, Jorby, Creest ny h-Ayrey, Lonan, Malew, Marooney, Maghal, Perick, Rosien, as Stondane

Hem, Nord

She commyoon ayns twoaie yn Rank eh Hem. T'eh soit 'sy rheynn Nord ayns Nord-Pas-de-Calais faggys da'n joarey rish y Velg eddyr Roubaix as Villeneuve-d'Ascq. 'Sy vlein 2009 va 17,150 deiney cummal ayn. Ta'n commyoon 9.65 km2 er eaghtyr.

Ta'n fockle "Hem" çheet magh ass y çhenn 'ockle "Ham", fockle ta keeallaghey "balley" ny "boayl cummaltit". Hie ennym y valley er ny cheaghley car y 14oo eash.

Jastrzębie-Zdrój

She caayr 'sy Tileesh ayns jiass y Pholynn eh Katowice (focklit magh myr [jasˈtʂɛmbʲɛ ˈzdruj]; Germaanish: Bad Königsdorff-Jastrzemb). Ta mysh 92,000 dooinney cummal 'sy chaayr. She balley beg farrane v'ayn derrey yn 20oo eash. Hooar eh kiartyn caayragh ayns 1963.

Końskowola

She balley beg ayns y Pholynn eddyr Puławy as Kurów eh Końskowola (ASE: [kɔɲskɔ'vɔla]). Va 2,188 deiney cummal 'sy valley 'sy vlein 2004.

Kraków

Ta Kraków (ny Cracow; Fockley magh 'sy Pholynnish: [ˈkrakuf]) ny nah chaayr smoo as fer jeh ny caayryn shinney 'sy Pholynn. T'eh ny hoie er yn awin Wisła ayns ard y Pholynn Veg. By phreeu-valley er y Pholynn eh eddyr ny bleeantyn 1038 as 1569, er Co-unnaneys ny Polynn as ny Litaan eddyr ny bleeantyn 1569 as 1596 as er Ard-Ghiucaght Kraków eddyr ny bleeantyn 1846 as 1918. Myrane lesh shen by phreeu-valley eh er Queiggey Kraków eddyr y 14oo eash as 1999. Jiu she preeu-valley Wheiggey ny Polynn Beg t'ayn.

Mynvioagh

She bioag do-akin da'n tooill eh mynvioagh (ny mynorgaanagh). Hooar magh Anton van Leeuwenhoek dy row ad ayn ayns 1675. She myn-vioagh-oaylleeaght y studeyrys er lheid ny bioagyn, lesh mynreayrtan son adsyn y 'akin.

Ta ymmodee sorçhyn dy vyn-vioagh ayn; t'ad goaill stiagh bacteyryn, fungyssyn, archaea, protista, algaghyn glassey as kuse dy veiyn beggey, myr sampleyr, plankton. Ta kuse dy vyn-vioagh-oayllee cur veeryssyn nyn mast'oc, agh fir elley, er lhieusyn nagh vel ad bio. Ta’n chooid smoo jeu nyn mioagyn un-chillagagh, agh cha nel dagh ooilley fer; ta kuse dy vioagyn yl-chillagagh mynreayrtagh, as kuse dy phrotistyn as bacteyryn macroreayrtagh, dy ghra myr shen, ry-akin da’n tooill (myr sampleyr, Thiomargarita namibiensis).Ta mynvioee cummal er feie ny cruinney, ayns dagh rheynn ny bea-chruinney raad ta ushtey fliugh, goaill stiagh thalloo, çhibbraghyn çhehey, er grunt ny marrey, ard ‘syn aeraght, as duinid ayns bleayst ny cruinney. Ta feme orroo er son aa-choorsal beaghey ayns eggochoryssyn. Ta jargaght tashtey nitrageen ec kuse dy vyn-vioee, as myr shen, ta laue scanshoil oc ‘sy chorys nitrageen. Foddee dy vel laue oc ayns frassaghey as emshir myrgeddin.Ta ymmyd jeant jeh mynvioee ayns bea-haghnoaylleeaght chammah, ayns gyle as braghey tradishoonagh, as ayns çhaghnoaylleeaght jeianagh ta jannoo ymmyd jeh jeshaghteyrys gienntagagh. Er y laue elley, ta mynvioee ghorlagh lane assee; t'ad goll stiagh bioagyn elley as gaase ayndaue, as shen bun aslayntyn ta marroo millioonyn dy 'leih, beiyn as lossreeyn.

Olsztyn

She caayr ayns shiar hwoaie yn Pholynn eh Olsztyn (focklit magh myr [ˈɔlʂtɨn]; Germaanish: Allenstein; Shenn Pholynnish: Holstin; Shenn Phrooshish: Alnāsteini; Litaanish: Olštynas). T'eh ny hoie er yn awin Łyna. She preeu-valley Wheiggey Warmia-Mazury veih'n vlein 1999. V'eh ny chooid jeh Queiggey Olsztyn (as jeh unnidyn elley eddyr ny bleeantyn 1945 as 1975 as eddyr 1975 as 98). She coontae caayragh t'ayn.

Queiggaghyn ny Polynn

She aarheynn reiragh jeh'n cheim s'yrjey 'sy Pholynn veih'n 14oo eash eh yn queiggey (Polynnish: województwo, focklit magh myr [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ]). Ren lhiasseeyn gurneilys ynnydagh y Pholynn, hie er nyn noltey 'sy vlein 1998 as hie magh er bree er 1 Jerrey Geuree 1999, cur shey queiggaghyn jeig er bun. V'ad currit er bun ayns ynnyd henn wheiggaghyn Phobblaght Heayagh y Pholynn hie magh er nyn groo er 1 Jerrey Souree 1975.

Ta enmyn ny h-ardjyn shenndeeagh as çheer-oaylleeagh currit er ny queiggaghyn noa-emshyragh. Roish y vlein 1998 va enmyn ny preeu-valjyn currit er ny shenn wheiggaghyn.

Ta'n eaghtyrys reiragh er keim ny queiggaghyn rheynnit magh eddyr kiannoort (voivode ny wojewoda y Pholynnish) ta goll er pointeil ec y reiltys ashoonagh, çhionnal reiht (sejmik), as coonseil chiannoortagh ta reiht ec y çhionnal shen. She marszałek województwa (marshyl y wheiggey) yn ennym ta currit er fer ny ben toshee y choonseil chiannoortagh. Ta ny queiggaghyn hene goll er rheynn magh ayns coondaeghyn (powiat) as baljaghtyn (gmina).

Shenn Loghlynish

By hengey Ghermaanagh y Twoaie va goll er loayrt ec cummaltee Loghlin as ec cummaltee ny baljyn va bunnit oc harrish ny faarkaghyn car Eash ny Loghlynee ee yn Çhenn Loghlynish.

Hie yn Phroto-Loghlynish er ny lhiassaghey myr y Çhenn Loghlynish roish y 8oo eash, as hie yn Çhenn Loghlynish er ny lhiassaghey myr ny çhengaghyn Germaanagh Hwoaie 'sy 14oo eash veanagh ny yeianagh. Ren yn aght shen cur jerrey rish y Çhenn Loghlynish. Er y laue elley, ta sampleyryn y Çhenn Loghlynish screeuit foast ry-gheddyn as ad screeuit sheese 'sy 15oo eash.

Va'n Çhenn Loghlynish rheynnit magh ayns tree abbyrtyn: Shenn Loghlynish y Niar, Shenn Loghlynish y Neear, as y Çhenn Ghutnish. By reayn abbyrtagh ad Shenn Loghlynish y Niar as y Neear gyn joarey baghtal eddyr oc. Myr sampleyr, va troyn Loghlynish y Niar ry-gheddyn ayns Norlynn hiar, as troyn Loghlynish y Neear ry-gheddyn 'sy Toolynn heear. By ee Shenn Loghlynish y Niar çhengey vooinjer y Danvarg as y Toolynn. Er cooishyn y çheer-oaylleeaght, ta'n Çhenn Ghutnish currit ry cheilley lesh Shenn Loghlynish y Niar, ga dy row troyn er lheh eck anchasley rish ny Loghlynishyn elley.

Jiu, ta sluightyn y Çhenn Loghlynish, çhengaghyn so-hoiggalagh rish nyn geilley, foast goll er loayrt: yn Eeslynnish, yn Aaroish, y Norlynnish, y Danvargish, as y Toolynnish.

Yn Vritaan (çheer)

She yn çheer bun-chooish y duillag shoh. My ta sym ayd ayns keeall elley yn 'ockle shoh, lhaih Yn Vritaan.She ard cultooragh ee yn Vritaan (Britaanish: Breizh, focklit magh myr [bʁɛjs] ny [bʁɛχ]; Frangish: Bretagne, focklit magh myr [bʁə.taɲ]; Galloish: Bertaèyn, focklit magh myr [bəʁ.taɛɲ]). She nane jeh ny h-Ashoonyn Celtiagh ee. Roish dy daink urree dy ve ny cooid jeh Reeriaght ny Frank 'sy vlein 1532 myr queiggey, by reeriaght as, eisht, ghiucaght neuchrogheydagh ee.

Ta'n Vritaan coodaghey y lieh-innys heear hwoaie jeh mooar-heer yn Oarpey ayns shiar hwoaie y Rank. T'ee çhemmit liorish Mooir yn Eeaght 'sy twoaie, liorish y Vooir Cheltiagh as y Cheayn Sheear 'sy neear as liorish Baie ny Biscaayn 'sy jiass. T'ee 34,023 km2 er eaghtyr. T'ee goll er rheynn magh ayns queig rheynn: Penn-ar-Bed 'sy neear, Aodoù-an-Arvor 'sy twoaie, Il-ha-Gwilen 'sy niar hwoaie, Liger-Atlantel 'sy jiass as Mor-Bihan 'sy jiass.

'Sy vlein 1956, va gurneilys ynnydagh y Rank aachummit as va ny h-ardjyn currit er bun. Va Ard y Vritaan currit er bun ec y traa shen, agh cha nel yn ard coodaghey agh 80% jeh eaghtyr yn ard cultooragh. Va Liger-Atlantel, mygeayrt y chaayr Naoned, scarrit magh ass y Vritaan as currit stiagh 'syn ard Broioù al Liger.

Ayns Jerrey Geuree 2006 va 4,300,500 dooiney cummal ayn. Ta 72% jeh'n phobble cummal ayns Ard y Vritaan as 28% ayns Ard Broioù al Liger. 'Sy vlein 1999 v'ad Naoned (711,120), Roazhon (521,188) as Brest (303,484) ny caayryn smoo ayn.She çheer ghooie ny Britaanee ee yn Vritaan as ta'n çheer coontit myr fer jeh ny h-Ashoonyn Celtiagh as ee freill enney cultooragh ta aahoilshaghey e shennaghys. Ta deiney ennagh cur feysht er staydys bunraghtoil roie yn Vritaan, as ta gleashaght ashooneyragh shirrey ny smoo hene-reiltys da'n Vritaan çheusthie jeh'n Rank.

Ayns çhengaghyn elley

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.