Zweites Buch

The Zweites Buch (pronounced [ˈtsvaɪ̯təs buːχ], "Second Book"), published in English as Hitler's Secret Book and later as Hitler's Second Book,[1] is an unedited transcript of Adolf Hitler's thoughts on foreign policy written in 1928; it was written after Mein Kampf and was not published in his lifetime. The Zweites Buch was not published in 1928 because Mein Kampf did not sell well at that time and Hitler's publisher, Franz-Eher-Verlag, told Hitler that a second book would hinder sales even more.[2]

Zweites Buch
Hitler's Zweites Buch (1928), 1961 edition
1961 German-language hardcover edition
AuthorAdolf Hitler
CountryGermany
LanguageGerman
SubjectAutobiography, political theory
Pages197
LC ClassDD247.H5
Preceded byMein Kampf 
Followed byHitler's Table Talk 

Contents

  • War and Peace
  • The Necessity of Strife
  • Race and Will in the Struggle for Power
  • Elements of Foreign Policy
  • National Socialist Foreign Policy
  • German Needs and Aims
  • Policies of the Second Reich
  • Military Power and Fallacy of Border Restoration as Goal
  • Hopelessness of an Economic Situation
  • On Necessity for an Active Foreign Policy
  • Germany and Russia
  • German Foreign Policy
  • German Goals
  • England as an Ally
  • Italy as an Ally
  • Summary

Zweites Buch and Mein Kampf

There are a number of similarities and differences between Zweites Buch and Mein Kampf. As in Mein Kampf, Hitler declared that the Jews were his eternal and most dangerous opponents. As in Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined what the German historian Andreas Hillgruber has called his Stufenplan ("stage-by-stage plan"). Hitler himself never used the term Stufenplan, which was coined by Hillgruber in his 1965 book Hitlers Strategie. Briefly, the Stufenplan called for three stages. In the first stage, there would be a massive military build-up, the overthrow of the shackles of the Treaty of Versailles, and the forming of alliances with Fascist Italy and the British Empire. The second stage would be a series of fast, "lightning wars" in conjunction with Italy and the United Kingdom against France and whichever of her allies in Eastern Europe—such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia—chose to stand by her. The third stage would be a war to obliterate what Hitler considered to be the "Judeo-Bolshevik" regime in the Soviet Union.

The "fourth stage"

In contrast to Mein Kampf, in Zweites Buch Hitler added a fourth stage to the Stufenplan. He insinuated that in the far future a struggle for world domination might take place between the United States and a European alliance comprising a new association of nations, consisting of individual states with high national value.[3] Zweites Buch also offers a different perspective on the U.S. than that outlined in Mein Kampf. In the latter, Hitler declared that Germany's most dangerous opponent on the international scene was the Soviet Union; in Zweites Buch, Hitler declared that for immediate purposes, the Soviet Union was still the most dangerous opponent, but that in the long-term, the most dangerous potential opponent was the United States.[4]

Habitat argument

In the first two chapters Hitler proclaims the balance between population and natural resources to be the main focus of any nation, and he gives it a far-reaching and detailed analysis.

The starting point of his analysis is the "struggle for daily bread" (food production) as the basis of human society. From this need for self-preservation, he develops his central idea of the relationship between the population and the size of the habitat of a people. If the habitat cannot provide sufficient resources for survival, degeneration and a decline of the nation results. Hitler raises the struggle for adequate habitat to a central principle of human history. Hitler points out that this battle is often enforced militarily, as history has adequately demonstrated.

As solutions to the struggle for living space, Hitler considers birth control, emigration of the population, increased food production, and increased exports to buy additional food. All of these alternatives he finds problematic. Birth control and emigration he believes leads to a weakening of the nation, as people are the true life-blood of the nation. The increase of food production he declares to be fundamentally limited by a finite amount of productive land. Greater exports he discards because it leads to increased market competition with other nations, making Germany dependent on outside nations and therefore leading to the situation Germany faced with the start of World War I in 1914. Hitler revisits these arguments several times in subsequent chapters.

Foreign policy

In the other chapters Hitler developed his thoughts on the future National Socialist foreign policy that serves the struggle for living space. As in Mein Kampf, Hitler explains that the Jews are the eternal and most dangerous opponents of the German people; he also outlines and elaborates on his future political plans.

In Mein Kampf, Hitler mentioned the United States only occasionally and even with contempt. They were, to him, a "racially degenerate" society that will continue to see its demise. In his second book, however, Hitler describes the United States as a dynamic and "racially successful" society that has eugenics, racial segregation practices, and an exemplary immigration policy at the expense of "inferior" immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. Why this change occurred in Hitler's attitude between 1924 and 1928 is unknown. Historians have noted that Hitler was notoriously poorly informed about the world outside Germany and, at the time of the writing of Mein Kampf, he probably knew little about the United States. Hitler's knowledge of the U.S. came especially from the Western novels of Karl May he read. This seems to have changed by 1928; Hitler would have heard of the prosperity and industrialization in the United States, as well as the Immigration Act of 1924, racial segregation, and the forced sterilization concept for supposedly mentally retarded people in several states. Hitler stated his admiration for such measures, as well as his wish that Germany should adopt similar policies on a larger scale.

Hitler stated that National Socialist foreign policy was to be based on Lebensraum for the German people:

The National Socialist Movement, on the contrary, will always let its foreign policy be determined by the necessity to secure the space necessary to the life of our Folk. It knows no Germanising or Teutonising, as in the case of the national bourgeoisie, but only the spread of its own Folk. It will never see in the subjugated, so called Germanised, Czechs or Poles a national, let alone Folkish, strengthening, but only the racial weakening of our Folk.[5]

Ideas on international relations

Of all of Germany's potential enemies comprising the eventual Allies of World War II, Hitler ranked the U.S. as the most dangerous. By contrast, Hitler saw the United Kingdom as a fellow "Aryan" power that in exchange for Germany's renunciation of naval and colonial ambitions would ally itself with Germany. France, in Hitler's opinion, was rapidly "Negroizing" itself. In regard to the Soviet Union, Hitler dismissed the Russian people as being Slavic Untermenschen ("sub-humans") incapable of intelligent thought. Hitler consequently believed that the Russian people were ruled by what he regarded as a gang of bloodthirsty but inept Jewish revolutionaries.

United Kingdom

In Zweites Buch, Hitler called for an Anglo-German alliance based on political expediency as well as the notion that the two Germanic powers were natural allies. In Zweites Buch, Hitler argued that the alleged British striving for a balance of power leading to an Anglo-German alliance would not conflict with his goal of Germany being the dominant continental power because it was wrong to believe that "England fought every hegemonic power immediately", but rather was prepared to accept dominant states whose aims were "obviously and purely continental in nature".[6] Hitler went on to write that "Of course no one in Britain will conclude an alliance for the good of Germany, but only in the furtherance of British interests."[7] Nonetheless, because Hitler believed that there was an ongoing struggle between the "Jewish invasion" and the "old British tradition" for the control of the United Kingdom, Hitler believed the chances for Anglo-German alliance to be good provided the "Jewish invasion" was resisted successfully.[8] Hitler hedged somewhat, however, by claiming that

The instincts of Anglo-Saxondom are still so sharp and alive that one cannot speak of a complete victory of Jewry, but rather, in part the latter is still forced to adjust its interests to those of the English. If the Jew were to triumph in England, English interests would recede into the background.... [But] if the Briton triumphs then a shift of England's attitude vis-à-vis Germany can still take place."[8]

English publication history

A translation by Salvator Attanasio was published in 1962, as Hitler's Secret Book, with an introduction by Telford Taylor[9]. A translation by Krista Smith was published in 2003, as Hitler's Second Book, edited by Gerhard Weinberg.[10] Another edition titled Hitler's Second Book was translated, introduced and annotated by Arthur Kemp and published in 2014 by the Kemp-owned Ostara Publications.[11].

See also

References

  1. ^ Publishers Weekly
  2. ^ Cf. Adam Tooze (2007): The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. London. p. 13.
  3. ^ Hitler, Adolf; Weinberg, Gerhard L. (editor) (2003). Hitler's second book: the unpublished sequel to Mein Kampf, p. 227. Enigma.
  4. ^ Hillgruber, Andreas. Germany and the Two World Wars, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1981 pages 50–51
  5. ^ Zweites Buch, p.143
  6. ^ Jäckel, Eberhard. Hitler's World View page 41
  7. ^ Strobl, Gerwin. The Germanic Isle page 43.
  8. ^ a b Leitz, Christian. Nazi Foreign Policy page 35
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Endeavors.unc.edu
  11. ^ [2]

Bibliography

  • Eberhard, Jäckel, Hitler's World View A Blueprint for Power, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 1981.
  • Hillgruber, Andreas. Germany and the Two World Wars, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1981.
  • Leitz, Christian, Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933–1941 The Road to Global War, Routledge: London, United Kingdom, 2004.
  • Strobl, Gerwin, The Germanic Isle Nazi Perceptions of Britain, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2000.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (editor), Hitler's Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf, Enigma Books: New York, 2003, ISBN 1-929631-16-2.

External links

Alex Linder

Milton Alexander Linder (born June 30, 1966) is the owner-operator of Vanguard News Network (VNN), an antisemitic, white separatist, white supremacist, neo-Nazi, Holocaust denying, fascist, and white nationalist website which he launched in 2000. VNN is one of the most active white supremacist sites on the Internet, according to the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). Its motto is "No Jews. Just Right."

Antisemitism (authors)

This is a list of authors in the field of antisemitism in alphabetical order.

Deutsches Jungvolk

The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

Esoteric Nazism

Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.

Foreign races

Foreign races (German: Fremdvölkische) was a term used during the Nazi era to describe people who were not of "German or related blood" (Nuremberg Laws). The term at first was used only by members of the Schutzstaffel, but later became used by the Reich police, justice system and state bureaucracy.

Gerhard Weinberg

Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born 1 January 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War II. Weinberg is the William Rand Kenan, Jr. Professor Emeritus of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has been a member of the history faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill since 1974. Previously he served on the faculties of the University of Michigan (1959–1974) and the University of Kentucky (1957–1959).

Johann Georg Hiedler

Johann Georg Hiedler (baptised 28 February 1792 – 9 February 1857) was considered the officially accepted paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler by Nazi Germany. Whether Johann Georg was in fact Hitler's biological paternal grandfather is disputed by modern historians.

La France juive

La France juive ("Jewish France"), subtitled Essay on Contemporary History, was an antisemitic tract published by Édouard Drumont in 1886.

Mein Kampf

Mein Kampf (German: [maɪ̯n kampf], My Struggle or My Fight) is a 1925 autobiographical manifesto by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926. The book was edited firstly by Emil Maurice, then by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial." After slow initial sales, the book was a bestseller in Germany after Hitler's rise to power in 1933.After Hitler's death, copyright of Mein Kampf passed to the state government of Bavaria, which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. In 2016, following the expiration of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, Mein Kampf was republished in Germany for the first time since 1945, which prompted public debate and divided reactions from Jewish groups.

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist Flyers Corps

The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).

During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.

National Socialist League

The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.

National Unity Party (Canada)

The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Ossewabrandwag

The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.

Otto Strasser

Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.

His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.

Strasserism

Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism

The Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (Swedish: Svenska Kommittén Mot Antisemitism, SKMA) is a Sweden-based non-profit organization, founded in 1983, that works to counteract and spread knowledge about antisemitism. The organization claims political and religious independence.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.

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