Zuolong (Zuo's dragon) is a genus of coelurosaur dinosaur which existed in what is now Wucaiwan, Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China during the Late Jurassic period (lower Oxfordian stage, around 160 mya).[1]

Temporal range: Late Jurassic, 161.2–155.2 Ma
Zuolong skeletal
Skeletal diagram of known material in white and light grey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Clade: Coelurosauria
Genus: Zuolong
Choiniere et al., 2010
Z. salleei
Binomial name
Zuolong salleei
Choiniere et al., 2010


Zuolong salleei
Life restoration

The holotype fossil of Zuolong, IVPP V15912, a partial skeleton with skull, was discovered in 2001 in China, in the upper part of the Shishugou Formation of Xinjiang. It was a subadult animal which measured approximately 3.1 metres (10 ft) in length and weighed up to approximately 35 kilograms (77 lb). Zuolong was named by Jonah N. Choiniere, James M. Clark, Catherine A. Forster and Xu Xing in 2010, and the type species is Zuolong salleei. The generic name honours General Zuo Zongtang, who secured Xinjiang for China in the nineteenth century. The specific name honours Hilmar Sallee, whose bequest helped finance the research.[1] The specific age for the holotype specimen is 161.2 to 155.2 million years ago. The holotype is considered by Thomas R. Holtz Jr. to be from almost certainly a juvenile theropod.[2]


In 2016, Gregory S. Paul estimated the length of Zuolong at 3 metres (9.8 ft), and its weight at 60 kilogrammes.[3] The specimen is probably from a juvenile animal, and is quite complete.[2]


Zuolong is a primitive coelurosaurian, possibly the most primitive known.[2]


  1. ^ a b Jonah N. Choiniere, James M. Clark, Catherine A. Forster and Xing Xu (2010). "A basal coelurosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) of the Shishugou Formation in Wucaiwan, People's Republic of China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30 (6): 1773–1796. doi:10.1080/02724634.2010.520779.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b c Holtz, T.R. Jr. (2012). Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages (PDF). Random House. pp. 367–444. ISBN 978-0-375-82419-7.
  3. ^ Paul, G.S., 2016, The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs, second edition, Princeton University Press p. 120

Aorun (pron.:"AW-roon") is an extinct genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur first discovered in 2006, with its scientific description published in 2013. It is one of the oldest known coelurosaurian dinosaurs and is estimated to have lived ~161.6 million years ago during the Late Jurassic Period. It is the fifth theropod discovered from Wucaiwan.

China Screen

China Screen is an annual independent Chinese documentary film festival organized by "Les Écrans des Mondes," a non-profit organization founded in 2007 in Paris. Known in France as "Les Écrans de Chine," the festival was set up to promote dialogue about and understanding of modern-day China. Festival president Michel Noll, a documentary producer and director himself, is also the founder of ICTV, the documentary production and distribution company that organizes the festival.

The festival has become a Europe-wide event, with several screenings taking place in Italy, Germany, Greece and Finland during the week of the festival.


Coeluridae is a historically unnatural group of generally small, carnivorous dinosaurs from the late Jurassic Period. For many years, any small Jurassic or Cretaceous theropod that did not belong to one of the more specialized families recognized at the time was classified with the coelurids, creating a confusing array of 'coelurid' theropods that were not closely related. Although they have been traditionally included in this family, there is no evidence that any of these primitive coelurosaurs form a natural group with Coelurus, the namesake of Coeluridae, to the exclusion of other traditional coelurosaur groups.


Coelurosauria (; from Greek, meaning "hollow tailed lizards") is the clade containing all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs.

Coelurosauria is a subgroup of theropod dinosaurs that includes compsognathids, tyrannosaurs, ornithomimosaurs, and maniraptorans; Maniraptora includes birds, the only dinosaur group alive today.Most feathered dinosaurs discovered so far have been coelurosaurs. Philip J. Currie considers it likely and probable that all coelurosaurs were feathered. In the past, Coelurosauria was used to refer to all small theropods, but this classification has since been abolished.


Coelurus ( si-LEWR-əs) is a genus of coelurosaurian dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period (mid-late Kimmeridgian faunal stage, 155–152 million years ago). The name means "hollow tail", referring to its hollow tail vertebrae (Greek κοῖλος, koilos = hollow + οὐρά, oura = tail). Although its name is linked to one of the main divisions of theropods (Coelurosauria), it has historically been poorly understood, and sometimes confused with its better-known contemporary Ornitholestes. Like many dinosaurs studied in the early years of paleontology, it has had a confusing taxonomic history, with several species being named and later transferred to other genera or abandoned. Only one species is currently recognized as valid: the type species, C. fragilis, described by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1879. It is known from one partial skeleton found in the Morrison Formation of Wyoming, United States. It was a small bipedal carnivore with elongate legs.


Deinocheiridae is a family of ornithomimosaurian dinosaurs, living in Asia from the Albian until the Maastrichtian. The family was originally named by Halszka Osmólska and Roniewicz in 1970, including only the type genus Deinocheirus. In a 2014 study by Yuong-Nam Lee and colleagues and published in the journal Nature, it was found that Deinocheiridae was a valid family. Lee et al. found that based on a new phylogenetic analysis including the recently discovered complete skeletons of Deinocheirus, the type genus, as well as Garudimimus and Beishanlong, could be placed as a successive group, with Beishanlong as the most primitive and Deinocheirus as most derived. The family Garudimimidae, named in 1981 by Rinchen Barsbold, is now a junior synonym of Deinocheiridae as the latter family includes the type genus of the former. The group existed from 115 to 69 million years ago, with Beishanlong living from 115 to 100 mya, Garudimimus living from 98 to 83 mya, and Deinocheirus living from 71 to 69 mya.


Limusaurus (meaning "mud lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur from the Jurassic (Oxfordian stage) Upper Shishugou Formation in the Junggar Basin of western China. The genus contains a single species, L. inextricabilis. Limusaurus was a small, slender animal, about 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) in length, that had a long neck and legs but also highly reduced forelimbs. It underwent a drastic morphological transformation as it aged; while juveniles were toothed, these teeth were completely lost and replaced by a beak with age, corresponding to a shift in diet from omnivory to herbivory.

Limusaurus is the first definitively known ceratosaur from Eastern Asia; while originally considered to be the most basal member (i.e. phylogenetically closest to the origin) of the group Ceratosauria (along with its closest relative, Elaphrosaurus), a 2016 analysis showed that they are in fact members of the Noasauridae, a group of similarly small and lightly-built abelisaurs. The pattern of digit reduction in Limusaurus has been used to support the contested hypothesis that the three-fingered hand of tetanuran theropods is the result of the loss of the first and fifth digits from the ancestral five-fingered theropod hand, which has implications for the evolution of birds. However, it is now considered to be irrelevant to the subject of digit homology.

List of Asian dinosaurs

This is a list of dinosaurs whose remains have been recovered from Asia excluding the Indian Subcontinent, which was part of a separate landmass for much of the Mesozoic. This list does not include dinosaurs that live or lived after the Mesozoic era such as birds.

List of Catholic saints

This is an incomplete list of people and angels whom the Catholic Church has canonized as saints. According to Catholic theology, all saints enjoy the beatific vision; it is impossible therefore for any list to enumerate them all. Many of the saints listed here are to be found in the General Roman Calendar, while others may also be found in the Roman Martyrology; still others are particular to local places and their recognition does not extend to the larger worldwide church.

Candidates go through the following steps on the way to being declared saints.

Saints acknowledged by the Eastern Orthodox and other churches are listed in Category:Christian saints by century and/or Category:Christian saints by nationality.

List of commonly used taxonomic affixes

This is a list of common affixes used when scientifically naming species, particularly extinct species for whom only their scientific names are used, along with their derivations.

-acanth, acantho-, -cantho: Pronunciation: /eɪkænθ/, /eɪkænθoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἄκανθα (ákantha). Meaning: spine.Examples: Acanthodes ("spiny base"); Acanthostega ("spine roof"); coelacanth ("hollow spine"); Acrocanthosaurus ("high-spined lizard"); Acanthoderes ("spiny neck")arch-, archi-, archo-, -archus: Pronunciation: /ark/, /arkoʊ/, /arkɪ/, /arkəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἀρχός (arkhós), meaning: ruler; ἀρχικός (arkhikós), meaning: ruling. Used for exceptionally large or widespread animals.Examples: Archelon ("ruling turtle"); Architeuthis ("ruling squid"); Archosaur ("ruling lizard"); Andrewsarchus ("Andrews's ruler")archaeo-: Pronunciation: /arkiːɒ/, /arkiːoʊ/ . Origin: Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos). Meaning: ancient. Used for early versions of animals and plants.Examples: Archaeopteryx ("ancient wing"); Archaeoindris ("ancient Indri"); Archaeopteris ("ancient fern")arthro-: /arθroʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἄρθρον (árthron). Meaning: Joint. Often used for animals with exoskeletons.Examples: Arthrospira ("jointed coil"); Arthropleura ("jointed rib"); arthropod ("jointed foot")aspido-, -aspis: Pronunciation: /əspɪdoʊ/, /əspɪs/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἀσπίς (aspís). Meaning: shield. The suffix "=aspis" is used to describe armored fish.Examples: Aspidochelone ("shield turtle"); Cephalaspis ("head shield"); Sacabambaspis ("Sacabamba shield"); Brindabellaspis ("Brindabella shield")-avis: Pronunciation: /əvɪs/. Origin: Latin avis. Meaning: Bird.Examples: Protoavis ("first bird"); Argentavis ("Argentine bird"); Eoalulavis ("little-winged dawn bird")brachi-, brachy-: pronunciation: /brækɪ/. Origin: Ancient Greek βραχύς, βραχίων (brakhús, brakhíōn). Meaning: short, and the short part of the arm, or upper arm, respectively. Used in its original meaning, and also to mean "arm".Examples: Brachylophosaurus ("short-crested lizard"); Brachiosaurus ("arm lizard"); Brachyceratops ("short-horned face")bronto-: Pronunciation: /brɒntoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek βροντή (brontḗ). Meaning: thunder. Used for large animals.Examples: Brontosaurus ("thunder lizard"), Brontotherium ("thunder beast"), Brontoscorpio ("thunder scorpion")-canth, cantho-: see -acanth, acantho--cephalus, cephalo-, -cephale, -cephalian: Pronunciation: /sɛfələs/, /sɛfəloʊ̯/, /sɛfəli:/ /sɛfeɪliːən/. Origin: Ancient Greek κεφαλή (kephalḗ). Meaning: head.Examples: Euoplocephalus ("well-protected head"), Pachycephalosaurus ("thick headed lizard"), Amtocephale ("Amtgai head"); Therocephalian ("beast-headed")-ceras, cerat-, -ceratus : Pronunciation: /sɛrəs/, /sɛrət/, /sɛrətəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek κέρας (kéras). Meaning: horn. Used for many horned animals, but most notably ceratopsians.Examples: Triceratops ("three-horned face"), Orthoceras ("straight horn") Megaloceras ("big horn") Ceratosaurus ("horned lizard") Microceratus ("small horned")cetio-, -cetus: Pronuncuation: /sɛtɪoʊ/, /siːtəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek κῆτος (kētos). Meaning: sea-monster. The suffix "-cetus" is used for whales or whale ancestors, while the prefix "cetio-" is used for whale-like or large animals.Examples: Cetiosaurus ("whale lizard"); Ambulocetus ("walking whale"); Pakicetus ("Pakistan whale")-cheirus: Pronunciation: /kaɪrəs/. Origin: χείρ (kheír). Meaning: hand.Examples: Deinocheirus ("terrible hand"); Ornithocheirus ("bird hand"); Austrocheirus ("southern hand"); Haplocheirus ("simple hand")chloro-: Pronunciation: /kloroʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek χλωρός (khlōrós). Meaning: green.Examples: Chlorophyta ("green plant") Chlorophyll ("green leaf")coel-: Pronunciation: /siːl/ or /sɛl/ . Origin: Ancient Greek κοῖλος (koîlos). Meaning: hollow.Examples: coelacanth ("hollow spine"); Coelodonta ("hollow tooth"); Coelophysis ("hollow form") Amphicoelias (¨hollow at both ends¨)cyclo-: Pronunciation: /saɪkləʊ/ (or /saɪklɒ/). Origin: Ancient Greek κύκλος (kúklos). Meaning: circle.Examples: Cyclomedusa ("circle Medusa"); Cyclostomata ("circle mouth")cyn-, -cyon: Pronunciation: /saɪn/, /saɪɒn/. Origin: Ancient Greek κύων (kúon). Meaning: dog. Used for dogs or dog-like creatures.Examples: Cynodont ("dog tooth"); Cynopterus ("dog wing"); Arctocyon ("bear dog")-dactyl, -dactylus: Pronunciation: /dæktəl/, /dæktələs/. Origin: Ancient Greek δάκτυλος (dáktulos). Meaning: finger, toe.Examples: artiodactyl ("even toe"); Pterodactylus ("wing finger"); perissodactyl ("uneven toe")-deres: Origin: Ancient Greek δέρη (dére). Meaning: neck, collar.Examples: Acanthoderes ("spiny neck")-derm: Pronunciation: /dɜrm/. Origin: Ancient Greek δέρμα (dérma). Meaning: animal hide. Used for skin.Examples: placoderm ("plated skin"); echinoderm ("hedgehog skin"); ostracoderm ("shell skin")deino-: See dino-, deino-.

dendro-, -dendron, -dendrum: Pronunciation: /dɛn.dɹoʊ/, /ˈdɛndɹən/, /dɛndɹəm/. Origin: Ancient Greek δένδρον (déndron). Meaning: tree.Examples: Rhododendron ("rose tree"); Liriodendron ("lily tree"); Dendrocnide ("tree nettle"); Epidendrum ("above tree") Lepidodendron (¨scaled tree¨)di-: Pronunciation: /daɪ/. Origin: Ancient Greek δίς (dís). Meaning: twice. Used to indicate two of something.Examples: Dilophosaurus ("twice crested lizard"); Diceratops ("two-horned face") diapsid ("two arches")dino-, deino-: Pronunciation: /daɪnoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek δεινός (deinós). Meaning: "terrible", "formidable". Used for presumably fearfully large or dangerous animals or animal parts.Examples: dinosaur ("terrible lizard"), Dinofelis ("terrible cat"), Deinonychus ("terrible claw"), Deinocheirus ("terrible hand")diplo-: Pronunciation: /dɪploʊ/, /dɪplo/. Origin: Ancient Greek διπλόος, διπλοῦς (diplóos, diploûs). Meaning: double.Examples: Diplodocus ("double beam"); Diplopoda ("double feet"); Diplomonad ("double unit")-don, -dont, -donto-: See -odon, -odont, -odonto-.

dromaeo-, -dromeus: Pronunciation: /droʊmɪoʊ/, /droʊmɪəs/ Origin: Ancient Greek δρομαῖος (dromaîos). Meaning: runner.Examples: Dromaeosaurus ("runner lizard"); Kulindadromeus ("Kulinda runner"); Thalassodromeus ("sea runner")eo-: Pronunciation: /iːoʊ̯/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἠώς (ēṓs). Meaning: dawn. Used for very early appearances of animals in the fossil record.Examples: Eohippus ("dawn horse"); Eomaia ("dawn Maia"); Eoraptor ("dawn seizer")-erpeton: Pronunciation: /ɜrpətɒn/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἑρπετόν (herpetón). Meaning: reptile (literally, "creeping thing"); used for amphibians.Examples: Hynerpeton ("Hyner creeper"); Greererpeton ("Greer creeper"); Arizonerpeton ("Arizona creeper")eu-: Pronunciation: /iːu̟/. Origin: Ancient Greek εὖ (eû). Meaning: "good", "well"; also extended via New Latin to mean "true". Used in a variety of ways, often to indicate well-preserved specimens, well-developed bones, "truer" examples of fossil forms, or simply admiration on the part of the discoverer.Examples: Euparkeria ("Parker's good [animal]") Euhelopus ("good marsh foot") Eustreptospondylus ("true Streptospondylus")-felis: Pronunciation: /fiːlɪs/. Origin: Latin felis, feles. Meaning: cat. "Felis" alone is the genus name for the group that includes the domestic cat.Examples: Dinofelis ("terrible cat"); Pardofelis ("leopard cat");-form, -formes: Pronunciation: /foʊrm/, /foʊrms/. Origin: Latin forma. Meaning: shape, form. Used for large groups of animals that share similar characteristics.Examples: Galliformes ("chicken form"); Anseriformes ("goose form"); Squaliformes ("shark form")giga-, giganto-: Pronunciation: /d͡ʒaɪgə/, /d͡ʒaɪgæntoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek γίγας, γῐ́γᾰντος (gígas, gigantos). Meaning: giant, of a giant, respectively. Used for large species.Examples: Giganotosaurus ("giant southern lizard"); Gigantopithecus ("giant ape"); Gigantoraptor ("giant seizer")-gnath-, gnatho-, -gnathus: Pronunciation: /neɪθ/, /neɪθoʊ/, /neɪθəs/ (or /gneɪθəs/). Origin: Ancient Greek γνάθος (gnáthos). Meaning: jaw.Examples: Caenagnathasia ("recent Asian jaw"); Gnathostoma ("jaw mouth"); Compsognathus ("elegant jaw")hemi-: Pronunciation: /hɛmi/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἡμι- (hēmi-). Meaning: half.Examples: Hemicyon ("half-dog"); hemichordate ("half-chordate"); Hemiptera ("half-wing")hippus, hippo-: Pronunciation: /ἵππος/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἵππος (híppos). Meaning: horseExamples: Eohippus ("dawn horse"); Hippodraco ("horse dragon"); Hippopotamus ("river horse")hyl-, hylo-: Pronunciation: /haɪl/, /haɪloʊ/ (or /haɪlɒ/). Origin: Ancient Greek ὕλη ("húlē"). Meaning: wood, forest.Examples: Hylonomus ("forest dweller"); Hylobates ("forest walker"); Hylarana ("forest frog")-ia: Pronunciation: /iːə/. Origin: Ancient Greek -ια, -εια (-ia, -eia). Meaning: an abstraction usually used as an honorific for a person or place.Examples: Dickinsonia ("for Dickinson"); Cooksonia ("for Cookson"); Coloradia ("for Colorado"); Edmontonia ("for Edmonton")ichthyo-, -ichthys: Pronunciation: /ɪkθioʊs/, /ɪkθis/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἰχθῦς (ikhthûs). Meaning: fish. The suffix "-ichthys" is used for fish, while the prefix "ichthyo-", while used for fish, is also used for fish-like creatures.Examples: Ichthyosaurus ("fish lizard"); Leedsichthys ("Leeds's fish"); Haikouichthys ("Haikou fish")-lania, Pronunciation: /læniːə/, Origin: Ancient Greek ἀλαίνειν (alaínein): Meaning: to wander. Used for animals that are found in most places around continents.Examples: Meiolania ("weak wanderer"); Megalania ("great wanderer")-lepis, lepido-: Pronunciation: /lɛpɪs/ /lɛpɪdoʊ/ (or /lɛpɪdɒ/). Origin: Ancient Greek λεπίς (lepis). Meaning: scale.Examples: Mongolepis ("Mongol scale"); Polymerolepis ("many part scale"); Lepidosauria ("scaled lizards"); Lepidoptera ("scaled wing"); Lepidodendron ("scaled tree")-lestes: Pronunciation: /lɛstiːz/. Origin: Ancient Greek λῃστής (lēistḗs). Meaning: robber.Examples: Carpolestes ("fruit robber"); Ornitholestes ("bird robber"); Sarcolestes ("flesh robber"); Necrolestes ("grave robber")long: Pronunciation: /lʊng/. Origin: Mandarin long (龙/龍). Meaning: dragon. Used for dinosaur finds in ChinaExamples: Mei long ("sleeping dragon"); Bolong ("small dragon"); Zuolong ("Zuo's dragon")-lopho-, -lophus: Pronunciation: /lɒfoʊ/, /ləfəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek λόφος (lóphos). Meaning: A bird's crest. Used for animals with crests on their heads.Examples: Dilophosaurus ("two-crested lizard"); Brachylophosaurus ("short-crested lizard"); Saurolophus ("lizard crest")macro-: Pronunciation: /mækroʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek μακρός (makrós). Meaning: (correctly) long; (usually) large.Examples: macropod ("big foot"); Macrodontophion ("big tooth snake"); Macrogryphosaurus ("big enigmatic lizard")-maia, maia-: Pronunciation: /meiə/ Origin: Ancient Greek Μαῖα (Maîa). Meaning: Originally the mother of Hermes in Greek mythology and the goddess of growth in Roman mythology, alternatively spelled Maja. Frequently used to indicate maternal roles, this word should not be construed as translating directly to "mother" (Latin māter; Ancient Greek μήτηρ mḗtēr); aside from being a proper name, in Ancient Greek "maîa" can translate to "midwife" or "foster mother" and was used as an honorific address for older women, typically translated into English as "Good Mother".Examples: Maiasaura ("Good Mother/Maia's lizard"); Eomaia ("dawn Maia"); Juramaia (Jurassic Maia")mega-, megalo-: Pronunciation: /mɛga/, /mɛgaloʊ̯/. Origin: Ancient Greek μέγας, μεγάλη (mégas, megálē). Meaning: big.Examples: Megarachne ("big spider"); Megalosaurus ("big lizard"); Megalodon ("big tooth")micro-: Pronunciation: /maɪkroʊ̯/. Origin: Ancient Greek μικρός (mikrós). Meaning: "small".Examples: Microraptor ("small seizer") Microvenator ("small hunter"); Microceratops ("small horned face")mimo-, -mimus: /maɪmoʊ̯/, /maɪməs/. Origin: Latin mimus. Meaning: actor. Used for creatures that resemble others.Examples: Struthiomimus; ("ostrich mimic"); Ornithomimus ("bird mimic"); Gallimimus ("chicken mimic"); ornithomimosaur ("bird mimic lizard")-monas, -monad: Pronunciation: /moʊnas/, /monas/, /moʊnad/, /monad/. Origin: Ancient Greek μονάς (monás). Meaning: unit. Used for single-celled organisms (mainly protists).Examples: Chlamydomonas ("cloak unit"); Pseudomonas ("false unit"); Metamonad ("encompassing unit")-morph: Pronunciation: /moʊrf/. Origin: Ancient Greek μορφή (morphḗ). Meaning: form, shape. Used for large groups of animals which share a common genetic lineageExamples: crocodylomorphs ("crocodile form"); sauropodomorphs ("sauropod form"); Muscomorpha ("fly form") Dimorphodon ("two forms of teeth")-nax, -anax-: Pronunciation: /ναξ/άναξ/. Origin: Ancient Greek ἄναξ (ánax). Meaning: king.Examples: Lythronax ("gore king") Saurophaganax ("king of the lizard-eaters")-nych, nycho-, -nyx: see -onych, onycho-, -onyx

-odon, -odont, -odonto-: Pronunciation: /oʊdɒn/, /oʊdɒnt/, /oʊdɒntoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek ὀδούς (odoús). Meaning: tooth.Examples: Dimetrodon ("two-measures of teeth"), cynodont ("dog tooth") Carcharodontosaurus ("serrated tooth lizard")-oides, -odes: Pronunciation: /oiːdiːz/, /oʊːdiːz/. Origin: Ancient Greek εἶδος (eîdos). Meaning: likeness. Used for species that resemble other species.Examples: Hypocnemoides ("like Hypocnemis"); Aetobarbakinoides ("like the long-legged buzzard"); Callianthemoides ("like Callianthemum"); Argyrodes ("like silver")onycho-, -onychus, -onyx: /ɒnikoʊ/, /ɒnikəs/ (or /ɒnaɪkoʊ/, ɒnaɪkəs/), /ɒniks/. Origin: Ancient Greek ὄνυξ (ónux). Meaning: claw.Examples: Deinonychus ("terrible claw"); Euronychodon ("European claw tooth"); Nothronychus ("sloth claw"), Baryonyx ("heavy claw")-ops: Pronunciation: /ɒps/. Origin: Ancient Greek ὄψ (óps). Meaning: face.Examples: Triceratops ("three-horned face"); Moschops ("calf face"); Spinops ("spine face")-ornis, ornith-, ornitho-: Pronunciation: /oʊ̯rnɪs/, /oʊ̯rnɪθ/, /oʊ̯rnɪθoʊ̯/. Origin: Ancient Greek ὄρνις, ὄρνιθος (órnis, órnithos). Meaning: bird, of a bird respectively. "ornith-" and "ornitho-" are generally used for animals with birdlike characteristics; the suffix "-ornis" is generally applied to fossil bird species.Examples: ornithischian ("bird-hipped"); Ornithocheirus ("bird-hand"); Eoconfuciusornis ("Confucius's dawn bird")pachy-: Pronunciation: /pæki/ Origin: Ancient Greek παχύς (pakhús). Meaning: thick.Examples: Pachycephalosaurus ("thick-headed lizard"); Pachylemur ("thick lemur"); Pachyuromys ("thick tailed mouse")para-: Pronunciation: /pærɑː/ Origin: Ancient Greek παρά (pará). Meaning: near. Used for species that resemble previously named species.Examples: Paranthodon ("near Anthodon"); Pararhabdodon ("near Rhabdodon"); Parasaurolophus ("near Saurolophus)"-pelta: Pronunciation: /pɛltə:/ Origin: Ancient Greek πέλτη (péltē). Meaning: shield. Frequently used for ankylosaurs.Examples: Sauropelta ("lizard shield"); Dracopelta ("dragon shield"); Cedarpelta ("Cedar shield")-pithecus: Pronunciation: /piθəkəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek πίθηκος (píthēkos). Meaning: ape.Examples: Australopithecus ("southern ape"); Ardipithecus ("floor ape"); Gigantopithecus ("giant ape")platy-: Pronunciation: /ˈplætɪ/. Origin: Ancient Greek πλατύς (platús). Meaning: flat. Used for creatures that are flat or have flat parts.Examples: Platyhelminthes ("flat worm"); Platybelodon ("flat spear-tusk"); Platycodon ("flat bell"); Platypus ("flat foot)plesio-, plesi-: Pronunciation: /pliːziːoʊ/, /pliːz/ (or pliːʒ/). Origin: Ancient Greek πλησίον (plēsíon). Meaning: near. Used for species that bear similarities to other species.Examples: Plesiosaurus ("near lizard"); Plesiorycteropus ("near aardvark"); Plesiobaena ("near Baena"); Plesiadapis ("near Adapis")-pod, podo-, -pus: Pronunciation: /pɒd/, /pɒdoʊ/, /pʊs/. Origin: Ancient Greek πούς, ποδός (poús, podós). Meaning: foot, of the foot, respectively.Examples: Ornithopod ("bird foot"); Brachypodosaurus ("short footed lizard"); Moropus ("slow foot")pro-, protero-: pronunciation: /proʊ̯/, /proʊ̯tεroʊ̯/. Origin: Ancient Greek πρό, πρότερος (pró, próteros). Meaning: before. Usually used for ancestral forms.Examples:Proterosuchus ("before crocodile"); Procompsognathus ("before elegant jaw"); Prosaurolophus ("before lizard crest")proto-: Pronunciation: /proʊtoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek πρῶτος (prōtos). Meaning: first. Used for early appearances in the fossil record.Examples: Protoceratops ("first horned face"); Protognathosaurus ("first jaw lizard"); Protohadros ("first hadrosaur")psittaco-, -psitta: Pronunciation: /sitɑːkoʊ/, /psitə/. Origin: Ancient Greek ψιττακός (psittakós). Meaning: parrot. "Psittaco-" is used for parrot-like creatures, while the suffix "psitta" is used for parrots.Examples: Psittacosaurus ("parrot lizard"); Cyclopsitta ("Cyclops parrot"); Xenopsitta ("strange parrot").pter-, ptero-, -pterus, pteryg-, -ptera, -pteryx. Pronunciation: /ter/, /teroʊ/, /pterəs/, /terɪg/, /pterɪx/. Origin: Ancient Greek πτέρυξ, πτέρυγος (pterux, ptérugos). Meaning: wing, of a wing, respectively. Used for many winged creatures, but also expanded to mean "fin", and used for many undersea arthropods.Examples: Pteranodon ("toothless wing"); Pterodactylus ("winged finger"); Eurypterus ("wide wing" or fin); Pterygotus ("winged" or finned); Coleoptera ("sheathed wing"); Archaeopteryx ("ancient wing"); Stenopterygius ("narrow finned")-pus: see: -pod, -podo-, -pus.-raptor, raptor-: Pronunciation: /ræptər/. Origin: Latin raptor. Meaning: "seizer, stealer". Frequently used for dromaeosaurids or similar animals. The term "raptor" by itself may also be used for a dromeosaurid, a Velociraptor, or originally, a bird of prey.Examples: Velociraptor ("swift seizer"); Utahraptor ("Utah seizer"); Raptorex ("seizer king")-rex: Pronunciation: /rεks/. Origin: Latin rex. Meaning: king. Often used for large or impressive animals.Examples: Raptorex ("seizer king"); Dracorex ("dragon king"); Tyrannosaurus rex ("tyrant lizard king")-rhina, rhino-, -rhinus: Pronunciation: /raɪnə/ /raɪnoʊ̯/, /raɪnəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek ῥίς (rhís). Meaning: nose.Examples: Altirhinus ("high nose"); Pachyrhinosaurus ("thick-nosed lizard"); Lycorhinus ("wolf nose"); Arrhinoceratops ("noseless horned face"); Cretoxyrhina ("Cretaceous sharp nose"); Rhinoceros ("nose horn")rhodo-: Pronunciation: /roʊdoʊ/, /rodoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon). Meaning: "rose". Used for red-colored organisms.Examples: Rhododendron ("rose tree"); Rhodophyta ("rose plant"); Rhodomonas ("rose unit")-rhynchus: Pronunciation: /rɪnkəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek ῥύγχος (rhúgkhos). Meaning: "beak", "snout".Examples: Rhamphorhynchus ("prow beak"); Aspidorhynchus ( "shield snout"); Ornithorhynchus ("bird beak")sarco-: Pronunciation: /sɑːrkʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek σάρξ (sárx). Meaning: flesh. Used for flesh-eating animals or animals and plants with fleshy partsExamples: Sarcophilus ("flesh-loving"); Sarcopterygii ("fleshy fin"); Sarcosuchus ("flesh crocodile")saur, sauro-, -saurus: Pronunciation: /sɔər/, /sɔəroʊ/, /sɔərəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek σαῦρος (saûros). Meaning: lizard. Used for dinosaurs and other extinct reptiles.Examples: Dinosaur ("terrible lizard") Mosasaur ("Meuse lizard"), Tyrannosaurus("tyrant lizard"), Allosaurus("different lizard") Sauroposeidon ("Poseidon lizard")smilo-, -smilus: Pronunciation: /smaɪloʊ/, /smaɪləs/. Origin: Ancient Greek σμίλη (smílē). Meaning: a carving knife or chisel. Used for animals with sabre teeth.Examples: Smilodon ("knife tooth"); Smilosuchus ("knife crocodile"); Thylacosmilus ("pouched knife"); Xenosmilus ("strange knife")-spondylus: Pronunciation: /spɒndələs/. Origin: Ancient Greek σπόνδυλος (spóndulos). Meaning: vertebra.Examples: Streptospondylus ("backwards vertebra"); Massospondylus ("longer vertebra"); Bothriospondylus ("excavated vertebra")squali-, squalo-: Pronunciation: /skweɪlɪ/, /skweɪloʊ/ . Origin: Latin squalus. Meaning: a kind of sea fish. Used for shark like creatures.Examples: Squalodon ("shark tooth") Squaliformes ("shark form"); Squalicorax ("shark raven") Squalomorphii ("shark shape")stego-, -stega: Pronunciation: /stɛgoʊ/, /stɛgə/. Origin: Ancient Greek στέγη (stégē). Meaning: roof. Used for armoured or plated animals.Examples: Stegosaurus ("roofed lizard"); Ichthyostega ("roofed fish"); Acanthostega ("spine roof")strepto-: Pronunciation: /streptoʊ/, /strepto/. Origin: Ancient Greek στρεπτός (streptós). Meaning: twisted, bent.Examples: Streptophyta ("bent plant"); Streptococcus ("twisted granule"); Streptospondylus ("twisted vertebra")-stoma, -stome, -stomus: Pronunciation: /stoʊma/, /stoʊm/, /stoʊməs/. Origin: Ancient Greek στόμα (stóma). Meaning: mouth.Examples: deuterostome (second mouth); Gnathostoma ("jaw mouth") Anastomus ("on mouth")sucho-, -suchus: Pronunciation: /sjuːkoʊ/, /sjuːkəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek σοῦχος (soûkhos). Meaning:: Originally the Ancient Greek name for the Ancient Egyptian crocodile-headed god, Sobek. Used to denote crocodilians or crocodile-like animals.Examples: Deinosuchus ("terrible crocodile") Anatosuchus ("duck crocodile"), Suchomimus ("crocodile mimic")-teuthis: Pronunciation: /tjuːθɪs/. Origin: Ancient Greek τευθίς (teuthís). Meaning: squid. Used for squids and similar cephalopods.Examples: Gonioteuthis ("narrow squid") Architeuthis ("ruling squid") Vampyroteuthis ("vampire squid"); Cylindroteuthis ("cylindrical squid")thero-, -therium. Pronunciation: /θɛroʊ/, /θiːrɪəm/. Origin: Ancient Greek θήρ (thḗr). Meaning: beast. Used for supposedly monstrous animals. The suffix "-therium" is often used to denote extinct mammals.Examples: theropod ("beast foot"), Megatherium ("big beast") Brontotherium ("thunder beast"); Uintatherium ("beast of the Uinta mountains")thylac-: Pronunciation: /θaɪlæk/. Origin: Ancient Greek θύλακος (thúlakos). Meaning: a sack. In the sense of "pouch", used for marsupials.Examples: Thylacine ("pouched one"); Thylacoleo ("pouched lion"); Thylacosmilus ("pouched knife")tri-: Pronunciation: /traɪ/. Origin: Ancient Greek τρία (tría). Meaning: three.Examples: Triceratops ("three-horned face"); Triconodon ("three coned teeth"); trilobite ("three lobes")titano-, -titan: Pronunciation: /taɪtænoʊ/, /taɪtən/. Origin: Ancient Greek Τιτάν, Τιτᾶνος (Titán, Titânos). Meaning: Titan, of the Titan, respectively. Used for large animals.Examples: Titanosaurus ("Titan lizard"); Giraffatitan ("giraffe Titan"); Anatotitan ("duck Titan"); Titanoboa ("Titanic boa")tyranno-, -tyrannus: Pronunciation: /taɪrænoʊ/, /taɪrænəs/. Origin: Ancient Greek τύραννος (túrannos). Meaning: tyrant. Used for animals similar to Tyrannosaurus.Examples: Tyrannosaurus ("tyrant lizard"); Nanotyrannus ("dwarf tyrant"); Tyrannotitan ("Titanic tyrant")veloci-: Origin: Latin velox. Meaning: speed.Example: Velociraptor ("quick thief"); Velocisaurus ("swift lizard")-venator: Pronunciation: /vɛnətər/. Origin: Latin venator. Meaning: hunter.Examples: Afrovenator ("African hunter"); Juravenator ("Jura hunter"); Scorpiovenator ("scorpion hunter"); Neovenator ("new hunter"); Concavenator ("Cuenca hunter")xeno-: Pronunciation: /zinoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek ξένος (xénos). Meaning: strange, stranger. Used for organisms that exhibit unusual traits for their class.Examples: Xenosmilus ("strange knife"); Xenotarsosaurus ("strange ankled lizard"); Xenopsitta ("strange parrot"); Xenocyon ("strange dog"); Xenokeryx ("strange horn"); Xenostega ("strange roof"); Xenohyla ("strange hynadae"); Xenozancla ("strange animal"); Xenodermus ("strange mover")-zoon, -zoa: Pronunciation: /zoʊɑːn/, /zoʊə/. Origin: Ancient Greek ζῷον (zōion). Meaning: animal. Used for broad categories of animals, or in certain names of animals.Examples: Metazoa ("encompassing animals"); Parazoa ("near animals"); Ecdysozoa ("moulting animals"); Yunnanozoon ("animal from Yunnan"); Yuyuanozoon ("animal from Yu Yuan")

List of dinosaur genera

This list of dinosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the superorder Dinosauria, excluding class Aves (birds, both living and those known only from fossils) and purely vernacular terms.

The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered dinosaurs. Many listed names have been reclassified as everything from birds to crocodilians to petrified wood. The list contains 1559 names, of which approximately 1192 are considered either valid dinosaur genera or nomina dubia.

Long Day's Journey into Night (2018 film)

Long Day's Journey into Night is a 2018 drama film directed by Bi Gan. The film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival. The film's English language title is unrelated to the 1956 Eugene O'Neill play of the same name. It is notable for its final 59 minutes, which consist of one unbroken long take shot in 3D.

Martyr Saints of China

The Martyr Saints of China, or Augustine Zhao Rong and his 119 companions, are saints of the Catholic Church. The 87 Chinese Catholics and 33 Western missionaries, from the mid-17th century to 1930, were martyred because of their ministry and, in some cases, for their refusal to apostatize.

Many died in the Boxer Rebellion, in which anti-colonial peasant rebels slaughtered 30,000 Chinese converts to Christianity along with missionaries and other foreigners.

In the ordinary form of the Latin Rite they are remembered with an optional memorial on July 9.


Nqwebasaurus (IPA: [ᵑǃʷɛbaˈsɔɹəs]; anglicized as or ) is a basal coelurosaur and is the basal-most member of the coelurosaurian clade Ornithomimosauria from the Early Cretaceous of South Africa. The name Nqwebasaurus is derived from the Xhosa word "Nqweba" which is the local name for the Kirkwood district, and "thwazi" is ancient Xhosa for lightning. Currently it is the only known coelurosaur discovered in Africa and shows that basal coelurosaurian dinosaurs inhabited Gondwana 50 million years earlier than previously thought. The type specimen of Nqwebasaurus was discovered by William J. de Klerk who is affiliated with the Albany Museum in Grahamstown. It is the only fossil of its species found to date and was found in the Kirkwood Formation of the Uitenhage Group. Nqwebasaurus has the unofficial nickname "Kirky", due to being found in the Kirkwood.


Ornitholestes (meaning "bird robber") is a small theropod dinosaur of the late Jurassic (Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, middle Kimmeridgian age, about 154 million years ago) of Western Laurasia (the area that was to become North America).

To date, Ornitholestes is known only from a single partial skeleton with a badly crushed skull found at the Bone Cabin Quarry near Medicine Bow, Wyoming, in 1900. It was described by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1903. An incomplete hand was later attributed to Ornitholestes, although it now appears to belong to Tanycolagreus. The type (and only known) species is O. hermanni. The specific name honors the American Museum of Natural History preparator Adam Hermann.


The Ornithomimosauria, ornithomimosaurs ("bird-mimic lizards") or ostrich dinosaurs are theropod dinosaurs which bore a superficial resemblance to modern ostriches. They were fast, omnivorous or herbivorous dinosaurs from the Cretaceous Period of Laurasia (now Asia, Europe and North America), as well as Africa and possibly Australia. The group first appeared in the Early Cretaceous and persisted until the Late Cretaceous. Primitive members of the group include Nqwebasaurus, Pelecanimimus, Shenzhousaurus, Hexing and Deinocheirus, the arms of which reached 2.4 m (8 feet) in length. More advanced species, members of the family Ornithomimidae, include Gallimimus, Struthiomimus, and Ornithomimus. Some paleontologists, like Paul Sereno, consider the enigmatic alvarezsaurids to be close relatives of the ornithomimosaurs and place them together in the superfamily Ornithomimoidea (see classification below).

Shishugou Formation

The Shishugou Formation (simplified Chinese: 石树沟组; traditional Chinese: 石樹溝組; pinyin: Shíshùgōu Zǔ) is a geological formation in Xinjiang, China.

Its strata date back to the Late Jurassic period. Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation (see Junggar Basin dinosaur trap). The Shishugou Formation is considered one of the most phylogenetically and trophically diverse Middle to Late Jurassic theropod fauna.The Wucaiwan Formation, once considered a separate, underlying formation, is now considered the lowest unit of the Shishugou Formation.

Sicong, Chaling

Sicong Township (simplified Chinese: 思聪乡; traditional Chinese: 思聰鄉; pinyin: Sīcōng Xiāng) is an rural township in Chaling County, Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.


Xinjiangovenator (meaning "Xinjiang hunter") is a genus of coelurosaurian dinosaurs, possibly part of the group Maniraptora, which lived during the Early Cretaceous period, sometime between the Valanginian and Albian stages. The remains of Xinjiangovenator were found in the Lianmuqin Formation of Wuerho, Xinjiang, China, and were first described by Dong Zhiming in 1973. The genus is based on a single specimen, an articulated partial right lower leg, containing the tibia, three pieces of the fibula, the calcaneum and the astragalus. This specimen, IVPP V4024-2, is the holotype of the genus.The holotype was originally thought to be another specimen of Phaedrolosaurus. However, Phaedrolosaurus is based only on a non-diagnostic tooth, so the hindlimb bones were given their own genus by Oliver Rauhut and Xu Xing in 2005. The type species is Xinjiangovenator parvus. The generic name is derived from the autonomous region of Xinjiang and Latin venator, "hunter". The specific name parvus means "small" in Latin.The lower leg (tibia plus ankle bones) has a length of 312 millimeters (12.3 inches). Gregory S. Paul estimated in 2010 that Xinjiangovenator individuals had a length of 3 meters and a mass of 70 kg. Rauhut & Xu (2005) established two autapomorphies (unique derived traits) that could be used to characterize Xinjiangovenator. First, the lateral condyle (outer ankle joint) at the lower end of the tibia extends further backwards than the outer edge of the portion of the tibia near the knee. Secondly, the proximal part of the fibula (near the knee) has a longitudinal groove along its front edge.



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