Schmarda (1853) proposed 21 regions, while Woodward proposed 27 terrestrial and 18 marine, Murray (1866) proposed 4, Blyth (1871) proposed 7, Allen (1871) 8 regions, Heilprin (1871) proposed 6, Newton (1893) proposed 6, Gadow (1893) proposed 4.
Philip Sclater (1858) and Alfred Wallace (1876) identified the main zoogeographic regions of the world used today: Palaearctic, Aethiopian (today Afrotropic), India (today Indomalayan), Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical.
In a similar way to geobotanic divisions, our planet is divided in zoogeographical (or faunal) regions (further divided as provinces, territories and districts), sometimes including the categories Empire and Domain.
The current trend is to classify the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology as biogeographic realms.
Following, some examples of regionalizations:
Huxley (1868) scheme:
Scheme by Trouessart (1890):
Anteaeolidiella is a genus of sea slugs, aeolid nudibranchs in the family Aeolidiidae.Australian Journal of Zoology
The Australian Journal of Zoology is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal published by CSIRO Publishing. It publishes original research and review articles on zoology, with a special focus on Australian fauna. It is broad in scope, covering a range of disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, reproductive biology, developmental biology, parasitology, morphology, behaviour, ecology, zoogeography, systematics and evolution.
The current Editor-in-Chief is Paul Cooper (Australian National University).Barbara Maria Patoleta
Barbara Maria Patoleta is a Polish arachnologist who specialises in the taxonomy, evolution and zoogeography of jumping spiders (family Salticidae) in the Pacific Islands.Cultrinae
The Cultrinae are one of at least 13 subfamilies of cyprinid fish. It contains ten genera.Ecological land classification
Ecological land classification is a cartographical delineation or regionalisation of distinct ecological areas, identified by their geology, topography, soils, vegetation, climate conditions, living species, habitats, water resources, and sometimes also anthropic factors. These factors control and influence biotic composition and ecological processes.James R. Dixon
James Ray Dixon (born August 1, 1928, in Houston, Texas – died January 10, 2015, in Bryan, Texas) was Professor Emeritus and Curator Emeritus of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection at Texas A&M University. He lived in El Campo, Texas throughout most of his childhood. He published prolifically on the subject of herpetology in his distinguished career, authoring and co-authoring several books, book chapters, and numerous peer reviewed notes and articles, describing two new genera, and many new species, earning him a reputation as one of the most prominent herpetologists of his generation. His main research focus was morphology based systematics of amphibians and reptiles worldwide with emphasis on Texas, USA, Mexico, Central America, and South America, although bibliographies, conservation, ecology, life history and zoogeography have all been the subjects of his extensive publications.Janusz Wojtusiak
Janusz Wojtusiak (February 21, 1942 – May 2, 2012) was a Polish entomologist and son of the well-known Polish biologist, Roman Wojtusiak, Professor at the Jagiellonian University.
He began his biological studies at the Jagiellonian University in 1959. After graduating in 1964, he was employed as an Assistant in the Department of Systematic Zoology and Zoogeography under the leaderships of Professor Stanisław Smreczyński. Throughout the 1960s and in the early 1970s he was particularly involved in the activities of the Polish Mountaineering Association.
He presented his Ph.D. thesis in 1971. It concerned the morphology of the family Adelidae. Soon after gaining the title of doctor habilitatus at the beginning of the 1980s, he was appointed Head of the Zoological Museum of the Jagiellonian University. Immediately afterwards, he was offered a contract to teach at a university in Nigeria. Between 1982 and 1986, Janusz taught zoology and entomology at the University of Nigeria in Nsukka.
One of the scientific result of his stay in Nigeria was the description of a new morphological organ in the ants of the genus Oecophylla, pretarsal pads, which allow these insects to push large prey on smooth and almost vertical surfaces.
After returning from Nigeria, he continued his research in the field of entomology. In 1991, he published a textbook on the ethology of insects, which is the only such comprehensive treatment of this topic in the Polish language to date.
In 1994, he received a professorial nomination from the President of the Republic of Poland, Lech Wałęsa.
From the mid-1990s, Wojtusiak concentrated on the mountainous areas of South America, participating in or organising more than ten scientific expeditions into the Andes, which resulted in more than 100 scientific publications and descriptions of more than 400 new species of butterflies and moths, principally belonging to the family Tortricidae, in co-authorship with Professor Józef Razowski.John B. Burch
John Bayard Burch (born 1929) is an American zoologist, a biology professor at the University of Michigan, and the Curator of Mollusks at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. His research interests are broad, and have encompassed not only the anatomy, systematics, and genetics of mollusks, but also various aspects of zoogeography and parasitology. He has engaged in extensive fieldwork around the world, usually collecting mollusks, especially freshwater and terrestrial species. Some sample taken in Tahiti in 1970 have proven to be of importance in efforts to conserve vanishing kinds of the land snail Partula.He is a son of biologist Paul Randolph Burch (1898–1958; U.S.A.).Among other awards, Burch received the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society's "Lifetime Achievement Award", and the "John B. Burch Student Scholarship" of the Malacological Society of the Philippines was named in his honor.Burch is Associate Editor of the malacological journal Malacologia.Konstantin Satunin
Konstantin Alekseevich Satunin (1863–1915) was a Russian zoologist who studied and described many mammals found in Russia and Central Asia.
Satunin graduated from Moscow University in 1890. From 1893 he worked at a sericulture station in the Caucasus. He became a senior specialist at the Department of Agriculture in 1907, concentrating on applied zoology and hunting in the Caucasus. He continued in this post until his death in 1915. He principally studied the mammals of Russia and Central Asia, and was responsible for describing many new species. He published many works on the fauna of the Caucasus, mainly in the field of mammalogy but also entomology, herpetology, ichthyology, ornithology, sericulture, zoogeography, game management science and fishing. For example, he gave descriptions of a tiger from Prishibinskoye, comparing it to a horse.Lieven Ferdinand de Beaufort
Lieven Ferdinand de Beaufort (March 23, 1879 in Den Treek, Leusden – 11 May 1968 in Amersfoort) was a Dutch biologist who, in 1903, participated in the North New Guinea Expedition. In the 1920s he was director of the Zoological Museum of Artis in Amsterdam and later zoogeography professor at the University of Amsterdam.
Beaufort is commemorated in the scientific name of a species of lizard, Sphenomorphus beauforti.Michael C. Thomas
Michael C. Thomas (born 1948) is an American entomologist who is co-author of the book series American Beetles.
Born in Miami, Florida, Thomas graduated from the University of South Florida in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in fine arts, followed by a Master of Science degree in Entomology from the University of Florida in 1981. Thomas has also received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida.
From 1986 to 1988, Thomas worked as a Taxonomic Entomologist for the West Virginia Department of Agriculture.
Since 1988, Thomas has worked for the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in Gainesville as a Taxonomic Entomologist, an Entomology Section Administrator, and a Curator of Coleoptera and Orthoptera. His research interests include the biology and systematics of Cucujidae, and the zoogeography of the Coleoptera of Florida.Miscellanea Malacologica
Miscellanea Malacologica is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering malacology, specifically papers on the taxonomy, nomenclature, and zoogeography of mollusks. The journal is published by Marien Faber (Duivendrecht, the Netherlands) and was established in 2004.
The name of the journal is Latin for "malacological miscellany". The journal is a large format publication with color illustrations. It is published on an irregular basis: from 2004 to 2012 it had from two to five issues per year. The journal is abstracted and indexed in The Zoological Record.Pacific Insects
Pacific Insects was a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Entomology Department at the Bishop Museum from 1959 to 1982. It was renamed to International Journal of Entomology in 1983 and discontinued in 1985. It was the organ of the "Zoogeography and Evolution of Pacific Insects" program. It should not be confused with Pacific Insects Monograph, nor with the new International Journal of Entomology, published since 2010 by the International Society of Zoological Research.Phytogeography
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτόν, phytón = "plant" and γεωγραφία, geographía = "geography" meaning also distribution) or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species and their influence on the earth's surface. Phytogeography is concerned with all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges (at both large and small scales, see species distribution) to the factors that govern the composition of entire communities and floras. Geobotany, by contrast, focuses on the geographic space's influence on plants.Region
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law.
Apart from the global continental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans, and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet. The land and water global regions are divided into subregions geographically bounded by large geological features that influence large-scale ecologies, such as plains and features.
As a way of describing spatial areas, the concept of regions is important and widely used among the many branches of geography, each of which can describe areas in regional terms. For example, ecoregion is a term used in environmental geography, cultural region in cultural geography, bioregion in biogeography, and so on. The field of geography that studies regions themselves is called regional geography.
In the fields of physical geography, ecology, biogeography, zoogeography, and environmental geography, regions tend to be based on natural features such as ecosystems or biotopes, biomes, drainage basins, natural regions, mountain ranges, soil types. Where human geography is concerned, the regions and subregions are described by the discipline of ethnography.
A region has its own nature that could not be moved. The first nature is its natural environment (landform, climate, etc.). The second nature is its physical elements complex that were built by people in the past. The third nature is its socio-cultural context that could not be replaced by new immigrants.Scenopinidae
The Scenopinidae or window flies are a small (about 400 described species) family of flies (Diptera), distributed worldwide. In buildings, they are often taken at windows, hence the common name window flies.
The two species with cosmopolitan distributions are associated with the movement of trade goods (Scenopinus fenestralis and S. glabrifrons). Very little is known of the larval biology; larvae have been found associated with stored-grain pests, in nests of birds and rodents, in beetle larvae burrows in trees and shrubs, and in association with therevid larvae in soil. They may be predators of the larvae of other insects. Adults have sponging mouthparts and are found on open flowers.Spixiana
Spixiana is a biannual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil on behalf of the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, covering research in zoology. Spixiana publishes original works in the fields of taxonomy, morphology, phylogeny, and zoogeography. It also publishes monographs in supplements.Wanda Wesołowska
Wanda Wesołowska (born 1950) is a Polish zoologist known for her work with arachnids. Her research focuses on the taxonomy, biology and zoogeography of jumping spiders.Yehudah L. Werner
Yehudah Leopold Werner (born 1931 in Munich) is an Israeli herpetologist and Professor Emeritus at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Department of Evolution, Systematics and Ecology).
He and his parents were forced to flee from Nazi Germany in 1933, and reached Palestine via France and England in 1935. Georg Haas (1905–1981), an emigrant from Austria who was Professor in Jerusalem, guided his PhD at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. During his long scientific career, Werner published more than 400 titles. Among other things, the biology of the geckos, including
their vocal communication, as well as the zoogeography and conservation of the reptiles and amphibians in the Middle East are his main themes. Werner was a co-founder of the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel and served as chairperson of the Zoological Society of Israel.