Zone System

The Zone System is a photographic technique for determining optimal film exposure and development, formulated by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer.[1] Adams described the Zone System as "[...] not an invention of mine; it is a codification of the principles of sensitometry, worked out by Fred Archer and myself at the Art Center School in Los Angeles, around 1939–40."[2]

The technique is based on the late 19th century sensitometry studies of Hurter and Driffield. The Zone System provides photographers with a systematic method of precisely defining the relationship between the way they visualize the photographic subject and the final results. Although it originated with black-and-white sheet film, the Zone System is also applicable to roll film, both black-and-white and color, negative and reversal, and to digital photography.

Principles

Visualization

An expressive image involves the arrangement and rendering of various scene elements according to the photographer’s desire. Achieving the desired image involves image management (placement of the camera, choice of lens, and possibly the use of camera movements) and control of image values. The Zone System is concerned with control of image values, ensuring that light and dark values are rendered as desired. Anticipation of the final result before making the exposure is known as visualization.

Exposure metering

Any scene of photographic interest contains elements of different luminance; consequently, the “exposure” actually is many different exposures. The exposure time is the same for all elements, but the image illuminance varies with the luminance of each subject element.

Exposure is often determined using a reflected-light[3] exposure meter. The earliest meters measured overall average luminance; meter calibration was established to give satisfactory exposures for typical outdoor scenes. However, if the part of a scene that is metered includes large areas of unusually high or low reflectance, or unusually large areas of highlight or shadow, the “effective” average reflectance[4] may differ substantially from that of a “typical” scene, and the rendering may not be as desired.

An averaging meter cannot distinguish between a subject of uniform luminance and one that consists of light and dark elements. When exposure is determined from average luminance measurements, the exposure of any given scene element depends on the relationship of its reflectance to the effective average reflectance. For example, a dark object of 4% reflectance would be given a different exposure in a scene of 20% effective average reflectance than it would be given in a scene of 12% reflectance. In a sunlit outdoor scene, the exposure for the dark object would also depend on whether the object was in sunlight or shade. Depending on the scene and the photographer’s objective, any of the previous exposures might be acceptable. However, in some situations, the photographer might wish to specifically control the rendering of the dark object; with overall average metering, this is difficult if not impossible. When it is important to control the rendering of specific scene elements, alternative metering techniques may be required.

It is possible to make a meter reading of an individual scene element, but the exposure indicated by the meter will render that element as a medium gray; in the case of a dark object, that result is usually not what is desired. Even when metering individual scene elements, some adjustment of the indicated exposure is often needed if the metered scene element is to be rendered as visualized.

Exposure zones

In the Zone System, measurements are made of individual scene elements, and exposure is adjusted based on the photographer’s knowledge of what is being metered: a photographer knows the difference between freshly fallen snow and a black horse, while a meter does not. Much has been written on the Zone System, but the concept is very simple—render light subjects as light, and dark subjects as dark, according to the photographer’s visualization. The Zone System assigns numbers from 0 through 10[5] to different brightness values, with 0 representing black, 5 middle gray, and 10 pure white; these values are known as zones. To make zones easily distinguishable from other quantities, Adams and Archer used Roman rather than Arabic numerals. Strictly speaking, zones refer to exposure,[6] with a Zone V exposure (the meter indication) resulting in a mid-tone rendering in the final image. Each zone differs from the preceding or following zone by a factor of two, so that a Zone I exposure is twice that of Zone 0, and so forth. A one-zone change is equal to one stop,[7] corresponding to standard aperture and shutter controls on a camera. Evaluating a scene is particularly easy with a meter that indicates in exposure value (EV), because a change of one EV is equal to a change of one zone.

Many small- and medium-format cameras include provision for exposure compensation; this feature works well with the Zone System, especially if the camera includes spot metering, but obtaining proper results requires careful metering of individual scene elements and making appropriate adjustments.

Zones, the physical world and the print

The relationship between the physical scene and the print is established by characteristics of the negative and the print. Exposure and development of the negative are usually determined so that a properly exposed negative will yield an acceptable print on a specific photographic paper.

Although zones directly relate to exposure, visualization relates to the final result. A black-and-white photographic print represents the visual world as a series of tones ranging from black to white. Imagine all of the tonal values that can appear in a print, represented as a continuous gradation from black to white:

ZoneSystem-Gradient
Full Tonal Gradation

From this starting point, zones are formed by:

  • Dividing the tonal gradation into eleven equal sections.
ZoneSystem-Gradient-lines
Eleven-Step Gradation
Note: You may need to adjust the brightness and contrast of your monitor to see the gradations at the dark and light end of the scales.
  • Blending each section into one tone that represents all the tonal values in that section.
Eleven Symbolic Tones
  • Numbering each section with Roman numerals from 0 for the black section to X for the white one.
The Zone Scale
0 I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

Zones as tone and texture

Adams (1981, 52) distinguished among three different exposure scales for the negative:

  • The full range from black to white, represented by Zone 0 through Zone X.
  • The dynamic range comprising Zone I through Zone IX, which Adams considered to represent the darkest and lightest “useful” negative densities.
  • The textural range comprising Zone II through Zone VIII. This range of zones conveys a sense of texture and the recognition of substance.

He noted that negatives can record detail through Zone XII and even higher, but that bringing this information within the exposure scale of the print is extremely difficult with normal processing.

Adams (1981, 60) described the zone scale and its relationship to typical scene elements:[8]

Zone Description
0 Pure black
I Near black, with slight tonality but no texture
II Textured black; the darkest part of the image in which slight detail is recorded
III Average dark materials and low values showing adequate texture
IV Average dark foliage, dark stone, or landscape shadows
V Middle gray: clear north sky; dark skin, average weathered wood
VI Average Caucasian skin; light stone; shadows on snow in sunlit landscapes
VII Very light skin; shadows in snow with acute side lighting
VIII Lightest tone with texture: textured snow
IX Slight tone without texture; glaring snow
X Pure white: light sources and specular reflections

For cinematography, in general, parts of the scene falling in Zone III will have textured black, and objects on Zone VII will have textured white. In other words, if the text on a piece of white paper is to be readable, light and expose the white so that it falls on Zone VII. This is a rule of thumb. Some film stocks have steeper curves than others, and the cinematographer needs to know how each one handles all shades of black-to-white.

Technique

Effective film speed

The ISO standard for black-and-white negative film, ISO 6:1993, specifies development criteria that may differ from those used in practical photography (previous standards, such as ANSI PH2.5-1979, also specified chemistry and development technique). Consequently, the Zone System practitioner often must determine the speed for a particular combination of film, developer, and enlarger type; the speed determination is commonly based on Zone I. Although the method for determining speed for the Zone System is conceptually similar to the ISO method for determining speed, the Zone System speed is an effective speed[9] rather than an ISO speed.

Exposure

A dark surface under a bright light can reflect the same amount of light as a light surface under dim light. The human eye would perceive the two as being very different but a light meter would measure only the amount of light reflected, and its recommended exposure would render either as Zone V. The Zone System provides a straightforward method for rendering these objects as the photographer desires. The key element in the scene is identified, and that element is placed on the desired zone; the other elements in the scene then fall where they may. With negative film, exposure often favors shadow detail; the procedure then is to

  1. Visualize the darkest area of the subject in which detail is required, and place it on Zone III. The exposure for Zone III is important, because if the exposure is insufficient, the image may not have satisfactory shadow detail. If the shadow detail is not recorded at the time of exposure, nothing can be done to add it later.
  2. Carefully meter the area visualized as Zone III and note the meter’s recommended exposure (the meter gives a Zone V exposure).
  3. Adjust the recommended exposure so that the area is placed on Zone III rather than Zone V. To do this, use an exposure two stops less than the meter’s recommendation.

Development

For every combination of film, developer, and paper there is a "normal" development time that will allow a properly exposed negative to give a reasonable print. In many cases, this means that values in the print will display as recorded (e.g. Zone V as Zone V, Zone VI as Zone VI, and so on). In general, optimal negative development will be different for every type and grade of paper.

It is often desirable for a print to exhibit a full range of tonal values; this may not be possible for a low-contrast scene if the negative is given normal development. However, the development can be increased to increase the negative contrast so that the full range of tones is available. This technique is known as expansion, and the development usually referred to as "plus" or "N+". Criteria for plus development vary among different photographers; Adams used it to raise a Zone VII placement to Zone VIII in the print, and referred to it as "N + 1" development.

Conversely, if the negative for a high-contrast scene is given normal development, desired detail may be lost in either shadow or highlight areas, and the result may appear harsh. However, development can be reduced so that a scene element placed on Zone IX is rendered as Zone VIII in the print; this technique is known as contraction, and the development usually referred to as "minus" or "N−". When the resulting change is one zone, it is usually called "N − 1" development.

It sometimes is possible to make greater adjustments, using "N + 2" or "N − 2" development, and occasionally even beyond.

Development has the greatest effect on dense areas of the negative, so that the high values can be adjusted with minimal effect on the low values. The effect of expansion or contraction gradually decreases with tones darker than Zone VIII (or whatever value is used for control of high values).

Specific times for N+ or N− developments are determined either from systematic tests, or from development tables provided by certain Zone System books.

Additional darkroom processes

Adams generally used selenium toning when processing prints. Selenium toner acts as a preservative and can alter the color of a print, but Adams used it subtly, primarily because it can add almost a full zone to the tonal range of the final print, producing richer dark tones that still hold shadow detail. His book The Print described using the techniques of dodging and burning to selectively darken or lighten areas of the final print.

The Zone System requires that every variable in photography, from exposure to darkroom production of the print, be calibrated and controlled. The print is the last link in a chain of events, no less important to the Zone System than exposure and development of the film. With practice, the photographer visualizes the final print before the shutter is released.

Application to other media

Roll film

Unlike sheet film, in which each negative can be individually developed, an entire roll must be given the same development, so that N+ and N− development are normally unavailable.[10] The key element in the scene is placed on the desired zone, and the rest of the scene falls where it will. Some contrast control is still available with the use of different paper grades. Adams (1981, 93–95) described use of the Zone System with roll film. In most cases, he recommended N − 1 development when a single roll was to be exposed under conditions of varying contrast, so that exposure could be sufficient to give adequate shadow detail but avoid excessive density and grain build-up in the highlights.

Color film

Because of color shifts, color film usually does not lend itself to variations in development time. Use of the Zone System with color film is similar to that with black-and-white roll film, except that the exposure range is somewhat less, so that there are fewer zones between black and white. The exposure scale of color reversal film is less than that of color negative film, and the procedure for exposure usually is different, favoring highlights rather than shadows; the shadow values then fall where they will. Whatever the exposure range, the meter indication results in a Zone V placement. Adams (1981, 95–97) described the application to color film, both negative and reversal.

Digital photography

The Zone System can be used in digital photography just as in film photography; Adams (1981, xiii) himself anticipated the digital image. As with color reversal film, the normal procedure is to expose for the highlights and process for the shadows.

Until recently, digital sensors had a much narrower dynamic range than color negative film, which, in turn, has less range than monochrome film. But an increasing number of digital cameras have achieved wider dynamic ranges. One of the first was Fujifilm’s FinePix S3 Pro digital SLR, which has their proprietary “Super CCD SR sensor” specifically developed to overcome the issue of limited dynamic range, using interstitial low-sensitivity photosites (pixels) to capture highlight details. The CCD is thus able to expose at both low and high sensitivities within one shot by assigning a honeycomb of pixels to different intensities of light.

Greater scene contrast can be accommodated by making one or more exposures of the same scene using different exposure settings and then combining those images. It often suffices to make two exposures, one for the shadows, and one for the highlights; the images are then overlapped and blended appropriately, so that the resulting composite represents a wider range of colors and tones. Combining images is often easier if the image-editing software includes features, such as the automatic layer alignment in Adobe Photoshop, that assist precise registration of multiple images. Even greater scene contrast can be handled by using more than two exposures and combining with a feature such as Merge to HDR in Photoshop CS2 and later. A simplified approach has been adopted by Apple Inc. as a selectible HDR option in later versions of the iPhone.

The tonal range of the final image depends on the characteristics of the display medium. Monitor contrast can vary significantly, depending on the type (CRT, LCD, etc.), model, and calibration (or lack thereof). A computer printer’s tonal output depends on the number of inks used and the paper on which it is printed. Similarly, the density range of a traditional photographic print depends on the processes used as well as the paper characteristics.

Histograms

Most high-end digital cameras allow viewing a histogram of the tonal distribution of the captured image. This histogram, which shows the concentration of tones, running from dark on the left to light on the right, can be used to judge whether a full tonal range has been captured, or whether the exposure should be adjusted, such as by changing the exposure time, lens aperture, or ISO speed, to ensure a tonally rich starting image.[11]

Misconceptions and criticisms

The Zone System gained an early reputation for being complex, difficult to understand, and impractical to apply to real-life shooting situations and equipment.

Criticism has been raised on grounds that the Zone System obscures simple densitometry considerations by needlessly introducing its own terminology for otherwise trivial concepts. Noted photographer Andreas Feininger wrote in 1976,

I deliberately omitted discussing the so-called Zone System of film exposure determination in this book because in my opinion it makes mountains out of molehills, complicates matters out of all proportions, does not produce any results that cannot be accomplished more easily with methods discussed in this text, and is a ritual if not a form of cult rather than a practical technical procedure.[12]

Much of the difficulty may have resulted from Adams’s early books, which he wrote without the assistance of a professional editor; he later conceded (Adams 1985, 325) that this was a mistake. Fred Picker (The Zone VI Workshop 1974) provided a concise and simple treatment that helped demystify the process. Adams’s later Photography Series published in the early 1980s (and written with the assistance of Robert Baker) also proved far more comprehensible to the average photographer.

The Zone System has often been thought to apply only to certain materials, such as black-and-white sheet film and black-and-white photographic prints. At a time when introduction of electronic still image cameras to the consumer market was imminent (e.g. the Sony Mavica), Adams (1981, xii) stated

I believe the electronic image will be the next major advance. Such systems will have their own inherent and inescapable structural characteristics, and the artist and functional practitioner will again strive to comprehend and control them.

which is sometimes interpreted as evidence that Adams envisioned his Zone System to be useful for electronic or even digital image capture/processing. However, in this quotation there is no claim that the Zone System would be a suitable instrument to comprehend and control the new imaging devices, and Adams explicitly states that electronic systems may have their own characteristics (which might thus require different approaches).

Yet another misconception is that the Zone System emphasizes technique at the expense of creativity. Some practitioners have treated the Zone System as if it were an end in itself, but Adams made it clear that the Zone System was an enabling technique rather than the ultimate objective.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Americana. 30. Scholastic Library Publishing. 2006. p. 137. ISBN 0-7172-0139-2. By 1939 he had devised the Zone System...
    Robinson, Edward M. (2007). Crime scene photography. Academic Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-12-369383-7. ...Ansel Adams' zone system, formulated in 1939–1940.
  2. ^ Dowdell, John J.; Zakia, Richard D. (1973). Zone systemizer for creative photographic control, Part 1. Morgan & Morgan. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-87100-040-8.
  3. ^ Adams (1981, 30) considered the incident-light meter, which measures light falling on the subject, to be of limited usefulness because it takes no account of the specific subject luminances that actually produce the image.
  4. ^ A typical scene includes areas of highlight and shadow, and has scene elements at various angles to the light source, so it usually is possible to use the term “average” reflectance only loosely. Here, “effective” average reflectance is used to include these additional effects.
  5. ^ Adams (1981) designated 11 zones; other photographers, including Picker (1974) and White, Zakia, and Lorenz (1976) used 10 zones. Either approach is workable if the photographer is consistent in her methods.
  6. ^ Adams (1981) distinguished among exposure zones, negative density values, and print values. The negative density value is controlled by exposure and the negative development; the print value is controlled by the negative density value, and the paper exposure and development. Commonly, “zone” is also used, if somewhat loosely, to refer to negative density values and print values.
  7. ^ Photographers commonly refer to exposure changes in terms of “stops”, but properly, a stop is a device that regulates the amount of light, while a step is a division of a scale. The standard exposure scale consists of power-of-two steps; a one-step exposure increase doubles the exposure, while a one-step decrease halves the exposure. Davis (1999, 13) recommended the term “stop” to avoid confusion with the steps of a photographic step tablet, which may not correspond to standard power-of-two exposure steps. ISO standards generally use “step”.
  8. ^ Adams’s description of zones and their application to typical scene elements was somewhat more extensive than the table in this article. The application of Zone IX to glaring snow is from Adams (1948).
  9. ^ The effective speed determined for a given combination of film and developer is sometimes described as an “Exposure Index” (EI), but an “EI” often represents a fairly arbitrary choice rather than the systematic speed determination done for use with the Zone System.
  10. ^ If a roll-film camera accepts interchangeable backs, it is possible to use N+ and N− development by designating different backs for different development, and changing backs when the image so requires. Without interchangeable backs, different camera bodies can be designated for different development, but this usually is practical only with small-format cameras.
  11. ^ Discussion on how histograms can be used to implement the Zone System in digital photography (archived 2012-05-01)
  12. ^ Feininger, Andreas, Light and Lighting in Photography, Prentice-Hall, 1976

References

  • Adams, Ansel. 1948. The Negative: Exposure and Development. Ansel Adams Basic Photography Series/Book 2. Boston: New York Graphic Society. ISBN 0-8212-0717-2
  • Adams, Ansel. 1981. The Negative. The New Ansel Adams Basic Photography Series/Book 2. ed. Robert Baker. Boston: New York Graphic Society. ISBN 0-8212-1131-5. Reprinted, Boston: Little, Brown, & Company, 1995. ISBN 0-8212-2186-8. Page references are to the 1981 edition.
  • Adams, Ansel. 1985. Ansel Adams: An Autobiography. ed. Mary Street Alinder. Boston: Little, Brown, & Company. ISBN 0-8212-1596-5
  • ANSI PH2-1979. American National Standard Method for Determining Speed of Photographic Negative Materials (Monochrome, Continuous-Tone). New York: American National Standards Institute.
  • Davis, Phil. 1999. Beyond the Zone System. 4th ed. Boston: Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-80343-4
  • ISO 6:1993. Photography—Black-and-White Pictorial Still Camera Negative Film/Process Systems. International Organization for Standardization.
  • Latour, Ira H. 1998. Ansel Adams, The Zone System and the California School of Fine Arts. History of Photography, v22, n2, Summer 1998, pg 148. ISSN 0308-7298/98.
  • Picker, Fred. 1974. Zone VI Workshop: The Fine Print in Black & White Photography. Garden City, N.Y.: Amphoto. ISBN 0-8174-0574-7
  • White, Minor, Richard Zakia, and Peter Lorenz. 1976. The New Zone System Manual. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Morgan & Morgan ISBN 0-87100-100-4

Further reading

  • Farzad, Bahman. The Confused Photographer’s Guide to Photographic Exposure and the Simplified Zone System. 4th ed. Birmingham, AL: Confused Photographer’s Guide Books, 2001. ISBN 0-9660817-1-4
  • Johnson, Chris. The Practical Zone System, Fourth Edition: For Film and Digital Photography. 4th ed. Boston: Focal Press, 2007. ISBN 0-240-80756-1
  • Lav, Brian. Zone System: Step-by-Step Guide for Photographers. Buffalo, NY: Amherst Media, 2001. ISBN 1-58428-055-7

External links

Ansel Adams

Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American landscape photographer and environmentalist known for his black-and-white images of the American West.

Adams helped found the anti-pictorialist Group f/64, an association of photographers advocating "pure" photography that favored sharp focus and the use of the full tonal range of a photograph.

With Fred Archer, Adams developed an exacting system of image-making called the Zone System, which described a method of achieving a desired final print through a deeply technical understanding of how tonal range is recorded and developed in exposure, negative development, and printing. The resulting clarity and depth of such images characterized his photography.

Adams was a life-long advocate for environmental conservation, and his photographic practice was deeply entwined with this advocacy. At age 12, he was given his first camera during his first visit to Yosemite National Park. He developed his early photographic work as a member of the Sierra Club. He was later contracted with the U.S. Department of the Interior to make photographs of U.S. National Parks; his work and his persistent advocacy helped expand the National Park system.

With trustee David H. McAlpin and curator Beaumont Newhall, Adams was a key advisor in establishing the photography department at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, an important landmark in securing photography's institutional legitimacy. He helped to stage that department's first photography exhibition, helped found the photography magazine Aperture, and co-founded the Center for Creative Photography at the University of Arizona.

Black and white

Black-and-white (B/W or B&W) images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray.

Colorado Mineral Belt

The Colorado Mineral Belt (CMB) is an area of ore deposits from the La Plata Mountains in Southwestern Colorado to near the middle of the state at Boulder, Colorado and from which over 25 million troy ounces (778 t) of gold were extracted beginning in 1858. The belt is a "northeast-striking zone defined by: a Proterozoic shear zone system (McCoy, 2001); a suite of Laramide-aged plutons and related ore deposits (Tweto and Sims, 1963); a major gravity low (Isaacson and Smithson, 1976); low-crustal velocities; and high heat flow (Decker et al., 1988)." Mining districts include:[2]

Central City-Idaho Springs district

Leadville mining district, named for Leadville, Colorado

Sneffels-Red Mountain-Telluride districtThe belt lies within a zone that has been geologically active at intervals beginning from near the time of crustal accretion in central Colorado at least 1.6 billion years ago until the present. Parts of the CMB follow shear zones of Precambrian age and the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Igneous rocks intruded about 60 to 70 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny are associated with the belt and once were thought to be responsible for most of the ore deposits. Now many of the important ore deposits are thought to be genetically related to younger magmatism, some at least as young as about 25 million years.

Computer-aided dispatch

Computer-aided dispatch (CAD), also called computer-assisted dispatch, is a method of dispatching taxicabs, couriers, field service technicians, mass transit vehicles or emergency services assisted by computer. It can either be used to send messages to the dispatchee via a mobile data terminal (MDT) and/or used to store and retrieve data (i.e. radio logs, field interviews, client information, schedules, etc.). A dispatcher may announce the call details to field units over a two-way radio. Some systems communicate using a two-way radio system's selective calling features. CAD systems may send text messages with call-for-service details to alphanumeric pagers or wireless telephony text services like SMS. The central idea is that persons in a dispatch center are able to easily view and understand the status of all units being dispatched. CAD provides displays and tools so that the dispatcher has an opportunity to handle calls-for-service as efficiently as possible.

CAD typically consists of a suite of software packages used to initiate public safety calls for service, dispatch, and maintain the status of responding resources in the field. It is generally used by emergency communications dispatchers, call-takers, and 911 operators in centralized, public-safety call centers, as well as by field personnel utilizing mobile data terminals (MDTs) or mobile data computers (MDCs).

CAD systems consist of several modules that provide services at multiple levels in a dispatch center and in the field of public safety. These services include call input, call dispatching, call status maintenance, event notes, field unit status and tracking, and call resolution and disposition. CAD systems also include interfaces that permit the software to provide services to dispatchers, calltakers, and field personnel with respect to control and use of analog radio and telephone equipment, as well as logger-recorder functions.

Dispatch (logistics)

Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees (workers) or vehicles to customers. Industries that dispatch include taxicabs, couriers, emergency services, as well as home and commercial services such as maid services, plumbing, HVAC, pest control and electricians.

With vehicle dispatching, clients are matched to vehicles according to the order in which clients called and the proximity of vehicles to each client's pick-up location. Telephone operators take calls from clients, then either enter the client's information into a computer or write it down and give it to a dispatcher. In some cases, calls may be assigned a priority by the call-taker. Priority calls may jump the queue of pending calls. In the first scenario, a central computer then communicates with the mobile data terminal located in each vehicle (see computer assisted dispatch); in the second, the dispatcher communicates with the driver of each vehicle via two-way radio.

With home or commercial service dispatching, customers usually schedule services in advance and the dispatching occurs the morning of the scheduled service. Depending on the type of service, workers are dispatched individually or in teams of two or more. Dispatchers have to coordinate worker availability, skill, travel time and availability of parts. The skills required of a dispatcher are greatly enhanced with the use of computer dispatching software (see computer aided call handling).

Dye coupler

Dye coupler is present in chromogenic film and paper used in photography, primarily color photography. When color developer reduces ionized (exposed) silver-halide crystals, the developer is oxidized, and the oxidized molecules react with dye coupler molecules to form dye in situ. The silver image is removed by subsequent bleach and fix processes, so the final image will consist of the dye image.

Dye coupler technology has seen considerable advancement since the beginning of modern color photography. Major film and paper manufacturers have continually improved the stability of the image dye by improving couplers, particularly since the 1980s, so that archival properties of images are enhanced in newer color papers and films. Generally speaking, dye couplers for paper use are given more emphasis on the image permanence than those for film use, but some modern films (such as Fujichrome Provia films) use variants of couplers that were originally designed for paper use to further improve the image permanence.

Exposure compensation

Exposure compensation is a technique for adjusting the exposure indicated by a photographic exposure meter, in consideration of factors that may cause the indicated exposure to result in a less-than-optimal image. Factors considered may include unusual lighting distribution, variations within a camera system, filters, non-standard processing, or intended underexposure or overexposure. Cinematographers may also apply exposure compensation for changes in shutter angle or film speed (as exposure index), among other factors.

Many digital cameras have a display setting and possibly a physical dial whereby the photographer can set the camera to either over or under expose the subject by up to three f-stops (f-numbers) in 1/3rd stop intervals. Each number on the scale (1,2,3) represents one f-stop, decreasing the exposure by one f-stop will halve the amount of light reaching the sensor. The dots in between the numbers represent 1/3rd of an f-stop.

Fred R. Archer

Fred Robert Archer (December 3, 1889 – April 27, 1963), was an American photographer who collaborated with Ansel Adams to create the Zone System. He was a portrait photographer, specializing early in his career in portraits of Hollywood movie stars. He was associated with the artistic trend in photography known as pictorialism. He later became a photography teacher, and ran his own photography school for many years.

Along with Edward Weston, whose portrait he took, Archer was known as one of the "two big names in art photography in those days out on the west coast". He socialized with and exchanged ideas with many other artists and intellectuals in Los Angeles for decades. He was "without a doubt, the individual with the longest history of participation in the Southern California Salon movement."

Golden triangle (composition)

The Golden Triangle (Composition) rule is a rule of thumb in visual composition for photographs or paintings, especially those which have elements that follow diagonal lines. The frame is divided into four triangles of two different sizes, done by drawing one diagonal from one corner to another, and then two lines from the other corners, touching the first at 90 degree angles. There are a couple ways this can be used:

1. Filling one of the triangles with the subject2. Placing the diagonal elements so that they run along two of the lines

Gábor Baross

Noble Gábor Baross de Bellus (6 July 1848 – 8 May 1892) was a Hungarian statesman, was born at Barossháza now Pružina near Trencsén (now Trenčín, Slovakia). He was for a time one of the professors there under Cardinal Kolos Vaszary. After acquiring considerable local reputation as chief notary of his county, he entered parliament in 1875. He at once attached himself to Kálmán Tisza and remained faithful to his chief even after the Bosnian occupation had alienated so many of the supporters of the prime minister.

It was he who drew up the reply to the malcontents on this occasion, for the first time demonstrating his many-sided ability and his genius for sustained hard work. But it was in the field of economics that he principally achieved his fame. In 1883 he was appointed secretary to the ministry of ways and communications. Baross, who had prepared himself for quite another career, and had only become acquainted with the civilized West at the time of the Compromise of 1867, mastered, in an incredibly short time, the details of this difficult department. His zeal, conscientiousness and energy were so universally recognized, that on the retirement of Gábor Kemény, in 1886, he was appointed minister of ways and communications. He devoted himself especially to the development of the national railways, and the gigantic network of the Austro-Hungarian railway system and its unification was mainly his work.

But his most original creation in this respect was the zone system, which immensely facilitated and cheapened the circulation of all wares and produce, and brought the remotest districts into direct communication with the central point at Budapest. The amalgamation of the ministry of commerce with the ministry of ways in 1889 further enabled Baross to realize his great idea of making the trade of Hungary independent of foreign influences, of increasing the commercial productiveness of the kingdom and of gaining every possible advantage for her export trade by a revision of tolls. This patriotic policy provoked loud protests both from Austria and Germany at the conference of Vienna in 1890, and Baross was obliged somewhat to modify his system. This was by no means the only instance in which his commercial policy was attacked and even hampered by foreign courts. But wherever he was allowed a free hand he introduced epoch-making reforms in all the branches of his department, including posts, telegraphs, and so on.

A man of such strength of character was not to be turned from his course by any amount of opposition, and he rather enjoyed to be alluded to as "the iron-handed minister." The crowning point of his railway policy was the regulation of the Danube at the hitherto impassable Iron-Gates Rapids by the construction of canals, which opened up the eastern trade to Hungary and was an event of international importance. It was while inspecting his work there in March 1892 that he caught a chill, from which he died on 8 May. The day of his burial was a day of national mourning.

In Budapest today he is commemorated by a square (Hungarian: tér) named in his honour, Baross tér, at the front of Budapest Keleti railway station. A large bronze statue of him was reinstated there on 6 December 2013 after several years of major works for the new Budapest Metro Line 4.

Metering mode

In photography, the metering mode refers to the way in which a camera determines exposure. Cameras generally allow the user to select between spot, center-weighted average, or multi-zone metering modes. The different metering modes allow the user to select the most appropriate one for use in a variety of lighting conditions. In complex light situations professional photographers tend to switch to manual mode, rather than depending on a setting determined by the camera.

Postal codes in Canada

A Canadian postal code is a six-character string that forms part of a postal address in Canada. Like British, Irish and Dutch postcodes, Canada's postal codes are alphanumeric. They are in the format A1A 1A1, where A is a letter and 1 is a digit, with a space separating the third and fourth characters. As of September 2014, there were 855,815 postal codes using Forward Sortation Areas from A0A in Newfoundland to Y1A in the Yukon.

Canada Post provides a free postal code look-up tool on its website, via its mobile application, and sells hard-copy directories and CD-ROMs. Many vendors also sell validation tools, which allow customers to properly match addresses and postal codes. Hard-copy directories can also be consulted in all post offices, and some libraries.

When writing out the postal address for a location within Canada, the postal code follows the abbreviation for the province or territory.

Principal photography

Principal photography is the phase of film production in which the bulk of the movie is filmed, with actors on set and cameras rolling, as distinct from pre-production and post-production.Principal photography is typically the most expensive phase of film production, due to actor, director, and set crew salaries, as well as the costs of certain shots, props, and on-set special effects. Its start generally marks a point of no return for the financiers, because until it is complete, there is unlikely to be enough material filmed to release a final product needed to recoup costs. While it is common for a film to lose its greenlight status during pre-production – for example, because an important cast member drops out or unexpectedly dies, or some kind of scandal engulfs the studio or an actor – it is extremely uncommon for financing to be withdrawn once principal photography has begun.Feature films usually have insurance in place by the time principal photography begins. The death of a bankable star before completing all planned takes, or the loss of sets or footage can render a film impossible to complete as planned. For example, sets are notoriously flammable. Furthermore, professional-quality movie cameras are normally rented as needed, and most camera houses will not allow rentals of their equipment without proof of insurance.Once a film concludes principal photography, it is said to have wrapped, and a wrap party may be organized to celebrate. During post-production, it may become clear that certain shots or sequences are missing or incomplete and are required to complete the film, or that a certain scene is not playing as expected, or even, as seen in the late stages of filming The Hate U Give, that a particular actor's performance or behavior has not turned out as desired, causing him or her to be completely replaced with another. In these circumstances, additional material may have to be shot. If the material has already been shot once, or is substantial, the process is referred to as a re-shoot, but if the material is new and relatively minor, it is often referred to as a pick-up.

Snoot

In photography, a snoot is a tube or similar object that fits over a studio light or portable flash and allows the photographer to control the direction and radius of the light beam. These may be conical, cylindrical, or rectangular in shape. Snoots can isolate a subject when using a flash. They help by stopping "light spill", or when lighting falls in a larger footprint than intended.

Still life photography

Still life photography is a genre of photography used for the depiction of inanimate subject matter, typically a small group of objects. It is the application of photography to the still life artistic style. An example is food photography.

This genre gives the photographer more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition compared to other photographic genres, such as landscape or portrait photography. Lighting and framing are important aspects of still life photography composition.

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, mounted the exhibition “In Focus: Still Life” in 2010. The exhibition included works by renowned still life photographers such as Paul Outerbridge, Paul Strand, André Kertész, Albert Renger-Patzsch, Josef Sudek, Jan Groover, Sharon Core, and Martin Parr.

Time in Australia

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time (AWST; UTC+08:00), Australian Central Standard Time (ACST; UTC+09:30), and Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST; UTC+10:00). Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Standard time was introduced in the 1890s when all of the Australian colonies adopted it. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time. Now, Western Australia uses Western Standard Time; South Australia and the Northern Territory use Central Standard Time; while New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) use Eastern Standard Time.

Daylight saving time (+1 hour) is used in states in the south and south-east - South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the ACT. It is not currently used in Western Australia, the Northern Territory or Queensland.

Time in Canada

Canada is divided into six time zones, based on proposals by Scottish Canadian railway engineer Sir Sandford Fleming, who pioneered the use of the 24-hour clock, the world's time zone system, and a standard prime meridian. Most of Canada operates on standard time from the first Sunday in November to the second Sunday in March and daylight saving time the rest of the year.

Time in Spain

Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March (01:00 GMT) to the last Sunday in October (01:00 GMT) throughout Spain.

Spain used Greenwich Mean Time (UTC±00:00) before the Second World War (except for the Canary Islands which used GMT−01:00 before this date). However, the time zone was changed to Central European Time in 1940 and has remained so since then, meaning that Spain does not use its "natural" time zone under the coordinated time zone system. Some observers believe that this time zone shift plays a role in the country's relatively unusual daily schedule (late meals and sleep times).

Vernacular photography

Vernacular photography is the creation of photographs that take everyday life and common things as subjects.

Though the more commonly known definition of the word "vernacular" is a quality of being "indigenous" or "native", the use of the word in relation to art and architecture refers more to the meaning of the following sub-definition (of vernacular architecture) from The Oxford English Dictionary: "concerned with ordinary domestic and functional buildings rather than the essentially monumental."

Examples of vernacular photographs include travel and vacation photos, family snapshots, photos of friends, class portraits, identification photographs, and photo-booth images.

Vernacular photographs are types of accidental art, in that they often are unintentionally artistic.

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