Ziklag (Hebrew: צִקְלַג) is the biblical name of a town that was located in the Negev region in the south-west of what was the Kingdom of Judah. It was a provincial town within the Philistine kingdom of Gath when Achish was king.[1] Its exact location has not been identified with any certainty.


At the end of the 19th century, both Haluza (by Wadi Asluj, south of Beersheba)[2] and Khirbet Zuheiliqah (located north-west of Beersheba and south-southeast of Gaza city) had been suggested as possible locations.[3][4]

Ziklag has other popular name; Haluza (slightly clearer in the underlying Hebrew script than in English), meaning fortress; Khirbet Zuheiliqah was identified by Conder and Kitchener as the location on the basis of Ziklag being a corruption of Zahaliku.[2]

The more recently proposed identifications for Ziklag are:

In the Bible

The Book of Genesis (Genesis 10:14) refers to Casluhim as the origin of the Philistines. Biblical scholars regard this as an eponym rather than an individual, and it is thought possible that the name is a corruption of Halusah; with the identification of Ziklag as Haluza, this suggests that Ziklag was the original base from which the Philistines captured the remainder of their territory.[2] It has also been proposed that Ziklag subsequently became the capital of the Cherethites.[2]

In the lists of cities of the Israelites by tribe given in the Book of Joshua, Ziklag appears both as a town belonging to the Tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:31) and as a town belonging to the Tribe of Simeon (Joshua 19:5). Textual scholars believe that these lists were originally independent administrative documents, not necessarily dating from the same time, and hence reflecting the changing tribal boundaries.[3] (1 Samuel 30) claims that by the time of David, the town was under the control of Philistines, but subsequently was given by their king - Achish - to David, who at that time was seemingly acting as a vassal of the Philistines. David requested "a place in one of the country towns" and was awarded Ziklag, which he used as a base for raids against the Geshurites, the Girzites, and the Amalekites,[12] which he conducted away from the oversight of Achish.[13] David's reports to Achish state that he had been conducting raids on Saul's lands in southern Judah and on the Jerahmeelites.

Biblical scholars argue that the town was probably on the eastern fringe of the Philistines' territory, and that it was natural for it to be annexed to Judah when David became king.[14] Since the compilation of the Book of Joshua is regarded by textual scholars as late, probably being due to the deuteronomist, it is possible that the tribal allocations given within it date from after this annexation rather than before.[14]

According to 1 Samuel 30, while David was encamped with the Philistine army for an attack on the Kingdom of Israel, Ziklag was raided by Amalekites; the Amalekites burning the town, and capturing its population without killing them (scholars think this capture refers to enslavement). However, none of the archaeological sites which have been proposed to be Ziklag show any evidence of destruction during the era of David.[15]

In the narrative, when David's men discovered that their families had been captured, they became angry with David, but once David had sought divination from the ephod that Abiathar possessed, he managed to persuade them to join him in a pursuit of the captors, as the divination was favourable. Six hundred men went in pursuit, but a third of them were too exhausted to go further than the HaBesor Stream. They found an abandoned and starving slave, formerly belonging to one of the Amalekites who had raided Ziklag, and having given him fig cake, raisin cake, and water, persuaded him to lead them to the Amalekite raiders. The slave led them to the camp of the captors, and found the captors holding a feast and celebrating, due to the size of their spoil; David's forces engaged in battle with them for a night and a day, and ultimately became victorious.

Textual scholars ascribe this narrative to the monarchial source of the Books of Samuel; the rival source, known as the republican source (named this due to its negative presentation of David, Saul, and other kings), does not at first glance appear to contain a similar narrative. The same narrative position is occupied in the republican source by the story of Nabal,[16] who lived in the region south of Hebron (which includes the Negev).[14] There are some similarities between the narratives, including David leading an army in revenge (for Nabal's unwillingness to give provisions to David), with 400 of the army going ahead and 200 staying behind,[14] as well as David gaining Abigail as a wife (though in the Ziklag narrative he re-gains her), as well as several provisions, and there being a jovial feast in the enemy camp (i.e. Nabal's property). However, there are also several differences, such as the victory and provisions being obtained by Abigail's peaceful actions rather than a heroic victory by David, the 200 that stayed behind doing so to protect the baggage rather than due to exhaustion, the main secondary character being the wife of the enemy (Nabal) rather than their former slave, David's forces being joined by damsels rather than rejoining their wives, and Nabal rather than the Amalekites being the enemy.

The Books of Samuel go on to mention that as a result, the people taken by the Amalekites were released, and the spoil that the Amalekites had taken, including livestock, and spoil from attacks elsewhere, were divided among David's men, including the third that had remained at the Besor. This ruling, that even those left behind would get a share, is stated by the text to have been a response by David to those who believed only the two thirds of David's men that had battled with the Amalekites should get a reward. A similar ruling is given in the Priestly Code (Numbers 31:27) and in Joshua 22:8. Scholars believe that these rulings are derived from the decision in regard to the Amalekite spoil, rather than vice versa.[14]

According to the text, once back at Ziklag, David sent portions of the spoil to the various community leaders within Judah; the text gives a list of the locations of the recipients, but they are all just within the Negev.[14]


  1. ^ 1 Samuel 27:5-6
  2. ^ a b c d Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica
  3. ^ a b "Ziklag". Jewish Encyclopedia.
  4. ^ "Ziklag". Easton's Bible Dictionary.
  5. ^ a b Marten Woudstra (1981). The Book of Joshua. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 245, 373. ISBN 9780802825254. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  6. ^ https://www.biblicaltraining.org/library/ziklag
  7. ^ a b Negev, A.; Gibson, S., eds. (2001). Sharia, Tell esh-. Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land. pp. 458–9.
  8. ^ The Zeita Excavations - project overview Archived December 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ "Une ancienne cité philistine découverte en Israël". www.lefigaro.fr. 2019-07-09. Retrieved 2019-07-10.
  10. ^ AFP (2019-07-09). "En Israël, des archéologues affirment avoir découvert la ville biblique de Ziklag". Geo.fr (in French). Retrieved 2019-07-10.
  11. ^ Amanda Borschel-Dan (8 July 2019). "As archaeologists say they've found King David's city of refuge, a debate begins". The Times of Israel.
  12. ^ 1 Samuel 27:8
  13. ^ Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers on 1 Samuel 27, accessed 29 May 2017
  14. ^ a b c d e f Matthew Black; Arthur Samuel Peake (1962). Peake's Commentary on the Bible. T. Nelson.
  15. ^ Fritz, Volkmar (May–June 1993), Where is David's Ziklag?, Biblical Archaeology Review
  16. ^ "Books of Samuel". Jewish Encyclopedia.


  • Blakely, Jeffrey, "The Location of Medieval/Pre-Modern and Biblical Ziklag," Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 139,1 (2007), 21-26.
1958 in literature

This article is a summary of the literary events and publications of 1958.


Achish (אָכִישׁ) is a name used in the Hebrew Bible for two Philistine rulers of Gath. It is perhaps only a general title of royalty, applicable to the Philistine kings. The two kings of Gath, which is identified by most scholars as Tell es-Safi, are:

The monarch, described as "Achish the king of Gath", with whom David sought refuge when he fled from Saul. He is called Abimelech (meaning "father of the king") in the superscription of Psalm 34. It was probably this same king, or his son with the same name, described as "Achish, the son of Maoch", to whom David reappeared a second time at the head of a band of 600 warriors. The king assigned David to Ziklag, whence he carried on war against the surrounding tribes. Achish had great confidence in the valour and fidelity of David, but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit him to go to battle along with the Philistine hosts. David remained with Achish a year and four months.

Another king of Gath, described as "Achish, son of Maacah", probably a grandson of the foregoing king, is referred to during Solomon's reign. Kings 2:39-46 mentions two servants of Shimei fleeing to this king in Gath, and Shimei going to Gath to bring them back, in breach of Solomon's orders, and the consequence was that Solomon put Shimei to death.The Latin transliteration "Achish" represents the "Begadkefat" aspiration over a medial stop, in later Aramaic and post-Biblical Hebrew. Before the strong influence of this dialect of Aramaic over Hebrew, which occurred after the Babylonian invasion, אָכִישׁ would (if the vowels are right) have been pronounced "Akîsh".

In the seventh-century B.C. Ekron inscription the name "Akîsh" appears as "son of Padi, son of Ysd, son of Ada, son of Ya'ir"; Akîsh by then held enough authority in Ekron to dedicate a temple. A similar name (IKAUSU) appears as a king of Ekron in seventh-century B.C. Assyrian inscriptions, as does Padi. Scholars agree that these two are the same men, although a royal status cannot yet be confirmed for their ancestors Ysd, Ada, and Ya'ir.

This appears to indicate that either the name "Akish" was a common name for Philistine kings, used both at Gath and Ekron, or, as Naveh has suggested, that the editor of the biblical text used a known name of a Philistine king from the end of the Iron Age (Achish of Ekron) as the name of a king(s) of Gath in narratives relating to earlier periods.


Ahinoam (Hebrew: אֲחִינֹעַם‎, romanized: ăħinoʕam) is a Hebrew name literally meaning brother of pleasantness, thus meaning pleasant.

There are two references in the Bible to people who bear that name:

A daughter of Ahimaaz, who became a wife of Saul and the mother of his four sons and two daughters, one of whom is Michal, David's first wife.

A woman from Jezreel, who became David's second wife, after he fled from Saul, leaving Michal, his first-ever wife, behind, and the mother of Amnon, David's first-born.

Allen Upward

George Allen Upward (20 September 1863 – 12 November 1926) was a poet, lawyer, politician and teacher. His work was included in the first anthology of Imagist poetry, Des Imagistes, which was edited by Ezra Pound and published in 1914. He was a first cousin once removed of Edward Upward. His parents were George and Mary Upward, and he was survived by an elder sister (Mary) Edith Upward.Upward was brought up as a member of the Plymouth Brethren and trained as a lawyer at the Royal University of Dublin (now University College Dublin). While living in Dublin, he wrote a pamphlet in favour of Irish Home Rule.

Upward later worked for the British Foreign Office in Kenya as a judge. Back in Britain, he defended Havelock Wilson and other labour leaders and ran for election as a Lib-Lab candidate, taking 659 votes in Merthyr at the 1895 general election.He wrote two books of poetry, Songs of Ziklag (1888) and Scented Leaves from a Chinese Jar. He also published a translation Sayings of Confucious and a volume of autobiography, Some Personalities (1921).

Upward wrote a number of now-forgotten novels: The Prince of Balkistan (1895), A Crown of Straw (1896), A Bride's Madness (1897), The Accused Princess (1900) (source: Duncan, p. xii), "''The International Spy: Being a Secret History of the Russo-Japanese War" (1905), and Athelstane Ford. His 1910 novel "The Discovery of the Dead" is a collected fantasy (listed in Bleiler) dealing with the emerging science of Necrology.

His 1913 book The Divine Mystery is an anthropological study of Christian mythology.

In 1908, Upward self-published a book (originally written in 1901) which he apparently thought would be Nobel Prize material: The New Word. This book is today known as the first citation of the word "Scientology", however there was no delineation in this book of its definition by Upward. It is unknown whether L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of the Scientology-organization, knew of this book.

In 1917 the British Museum refused to take Upwards' manuscripts, "on the grounds that the writer was still alive," and Upward burned them (source: Duncan, p. xi).

He shot himself in November 1926. Ezra Pound would a decade later satirically remark that this was due to his disappointment after hearing of George Bernard Shaw's Nobel Prize award which Shaw won in 1925.


Amalek (Hebrew: עֲמָלֵק, Amaleq, Arabic: عماليق‎ ‘Amālīq) is a nation described in the Hebrew Bible as enemies of the Israelites. The name "Amalek" can refer to the nation's founder, a grandson of Esau; his descendants, the Amalekites; or the territories of Amalek which they inhabited.


Bealiah (בְּעַלְיָה beh-al-yaw) or Baalyah, a Benjamite, was one of David's thirty heroes who went to Ziklag, mentioned in 1 Chronicles 12:5. The name derives from Baal and Jah, and according to the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915) means "Yahweh is Lord."

Cherethites and Pelethites

In the Bible, the Cherethites and Pelethites (Hebrew: כרתי ופלתי‎), the former also spelled Kerethites, are two ethnic groups in the Levant. Their identity has not been determined with certainty. The Cherethites are mentioned independently three times, and as the "Cherethites and Pelethites" seven times. They are interpreted to have been a group of elite mercenaries employed by King David, some of whom acted as his bodyguards, and others as part of his army.

Cities in the Book of Joshua

The Book of Joshua lists almost 400 ancient Levantine city names (including alternative names and derivatives in the form of words describing citizens of a town) which refer to over 300 distinct locations in Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. Each of those cities, with minor exceptions (e.g. Hamath, Gubla) is placed in one of the 12 regions, according to the tribes of Israel and in most cases additional details like neighbouring towns or geographical landmarks are provided. It has been serving as one of the primary sources for identifying and locating a number of Middle Bronze to Iron Age Levantine cities mentioned in ancient Egyptian and Canaanite documents, most notably in the Amarna correspondence.

Days of Ziklag

Days of Ziklag (Hebrew: ימי צקלג, Yemei Tziklag) is a novel by S. Yizhar, first published in 1958. It is widely considered to be one of the most prominent works in Israeli literature.

The novel describes 48 days during the 1947–1949 Palestine war in which it follows a squad of IDF soldiers trying to hold a godforsaken post in the Negev desert. The story's stream of consciousness focuses on the inner worlds of the soldiers, both during and between battles. The story is based on the real-life battle for Horbat Ma'achaz fought by the Yiftach Brigade in October 1948, although the battle is never mentioned by name.

Yizhar received the Israel Prize in 1959 for his novel.

Elkanah (name)

Elkanah is a figure in the Book of Samuel, the husband of Hannah and father of Samuel.

Elkanah may also refer to:

A Levite, ancestor of a certain Berechiah. (1 Chronicles 9: 16)

A Levite, son of the rebellious Korah and brother of Abiasaph. (Exodus 6: 24)

A Levite, descendant of Korah, who "came to David at Ziklag while he was still under restrictions because of Saul." (1 Chronicles chapter 12)

A Levite, descendant from Korah through Abiasaph, mentioned as the great grandfather of the next. (1 Chronicles chapter 6)

A Levite, mentioned as the great great great grandfather of Elkanah, Samuel's father.

One of the gatekeepers of the Ark of the Covenant, when David transferred it to Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles chapter 15)

An official in king Ahaz' court. (2 Chronicles chapter 28)See also Elkana or Elqana, Jewish settlement in the northern West Bank.

Elknanah/Elkana can also be a surname or a male forename.

Some notable people with the first name Elkanah:

Elkanah Settle (1648-1724) English poet and playwright

Elkanah Billings (1820-1876) Canada's first paleontologist

Elkanah Watson (1758-1842) American writer, agriculturalist and canal promoter

Elkanah Angwenyi (1983) Kenyan 1500m runner

Elkanah Armitage (1794-1876) British industrialist and Liberal politician.

Elkanah Greer (1825-1877) American cotton planter and general

Elkanah Young (1804-1876) Nova Scotia merchant and politician

Elkanah Onyeali (died 2008) Nigerian footballer

Elkanah Tisdale (1768-1835) American engraver and cartoonist

Elkanah Kelsey Dare (1782-1826) American hymn composers

Gat, Israel

Gat (Hebrew: גַּת) is a kibbutz in southern Israel. Located near Kiryat Gat, it falls under the jurisdiction of Yoav Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 779.


Jesiah (also Ishiah, Ishijah, Isshiah, Isshijah, Jeshaiah) is a name found in the Bible. The Hebrew form of the name is yishshayah (in one case yishshayahu), meaning "man of Jah." The Bible contains five figures by this name.

Jesiah son of Izrahiah, son of Uzzi, son of Tola, son of Issachar, found in a genealogy of the Tribe of Issachar.

Jesiah, a Korahite and member of the Tribe of Benjamin, listed among the warriors who came to David at Ziklag.

Jesiah, leader of the "sons of Rehabiah," a Levite in the time of David.

Jesiah, son of Uzziel, son of Kohath, son of Levi. This Jesiah is recorded as being the father of Zechariah.

Jesiah, one of the "descendants of Harim," found in a list of men who took foreign wives in the time of Nehemiah.

Kiryat Gat

Kiryat Gat (Hebrew: קִרְיַת גַּת), is a city in the Southern District of Israel. It lies 56 km (35 miles) south of Tel Aviv, 43 km (27 mi) north of Beersheba, 45 km (28 mi) from Gaza, and 68 km (42 mi) from Jerusalem. In 2017 it had a population of 53,487.


Lahav (Hebrew: לַהַב, lit. blade) is a kibbutz in southern Israel. Located around 20 km north of Beersheba and covering 33,000 dunams, it falls under the jurisdiction of Bnei Shimon Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 520.

List of biblical names starting with Z

This page includes a list of biblical proper names that start with Z in English transcription. Some of the names are given with a proposed etymological meaning. For further information on the names included on the list, the reader may consult the sources listed below in the References and External Links.

A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T – U – V –

X --

Y – Z


Meconah (Mekonah in the King James Version) was a biblical town near Ziklag. It was occupied by the Jews under Nehemiah. It has been equated with Madmannah by Simsons but this is not always agreed with. The present day site is unknown.


According to the 1st Book of Samuel Chapter 25, Nabal (Hebrew: נָבָל‎ Nāḇāl, "fool"), was a rich Calebite, described as harsh and surly. He is featured in a story in which he is threatened by David over an insult, and ultimately killed by God.


Philistia (Hebrew: פלשת, Pleshet) was a geo-political region occupied by the Philistines. Its northern boundary was the Yarkon River with the Mediterranean on the west, Judah to the east and the Wadi El-Arish to the south. Philistia consisted of the Five Lords of the Philistines, described in Joshua 13:3 and 1 Samuel 6:17, comprising Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza, in the south-western Levant.The Five Lords of the Philistines are described in the Hebrew Bible as being in constant struggle and interaction with the neighbouring Israelites, Canaanites and Egyptians, being gradually absorbed into the Canaanite culture.The Philistines were no longer mentioned following the conquest of the Levant by the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC). Genetic results proved that the Philistines immigrated from South Europe to Canaan, and mixed with the native Canaanites during the first couple of centuries.

Tel Zayit

Tel Zayit (Hebrew: תל זית‎, Arabic: Tell Zeita, Kirbat Zeita al Kharab‎) is an archaeological tell in the Shephelah, or lowlands, of Israel, about 30km east of Ashkelon. It may have been the site of the biblical city of Libnah (Joshua 10:32, 2 Kings 19:8) or of Ziklag (1 Samuel 27:6).


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