Zhores Alferov

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (Russian: Жоре́с Ива́нович Алфёров, [ʐɐˈrɛs ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ɐɫˈfʲɵrəf]; Belarusian: Жарэс Іва́навіч Алфёраў; 15 March 1930 – 1 March 2019) was a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He was the inventor of the heterotransistor and shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. He also became a politician in his later life, serving in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the State Duma, as a member of the communist party since 1995.

Zhores Alferov
Zhores Alfyorov 2012
Alferov in 2012
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov

15 March 1930
Died1 March 2019 (aged 88)
NationalitySoviet (until 1991) / Russian (since 1991)
Alma materSaint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University "LETI" (old name V. I. Ulyanov Electrotechnical Institute "LETI")
Known forHeterotransistors
Spouse(s)Tamara Darskaya (m. 1967–2019; his death)
AwardsGlobal Energy Prize (2005)
Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology (2001)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2000)
Demidov Prize (1999)
Ioffe Prize (Russian Academy of Sciences, 1996)
USSR State Prize (1984)
Lenin Prize (1972)
Stuart Ballantine Medal (1971)
Order of Lenin (1986)
Scientific career
FieldsApplied physics
InstitutionsIoffe Physico-Technical Institute

Early life and education

Alferov was born in Vitebsk, Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Union, to a Belarusian father, Ivan Karpovich Alferov, a factory manager, and a Jewish mother, Anna Vladimirovna Rosenblum.[1][2] He was named after French socialist Jean Jaurès while his older brother was named Marx after Karl Marx.[1] In 1947 he completed high school 42 in Minsk and started Belarusian Polytechnic Academy. In 1952, he graduated from V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Starting in 1953 he worked in the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. From the Institute, he earned several scientific degrees: a Candidate of Sciences in Technology in 1961 and a Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics in 1970. He was director of the Institute from 1987 to 2003. He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1972, and a full member in 1979. From 1989, he was Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center. Starting in 1995 he was a member of the State Duma on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. In 2000 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics together with Herbert Kroemer, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics".[3]

Alferov invented the heterotransistor. This coped with much higher frequencies than its predecessors, and apparently revolutionised the mobile phone and satellite communications. Alferov and Kroemer independently applied this technology to firing laser lights. This, in turn, revolutionised semiconductor design in a host of areas, including LEDs, barcode readers and CDs.[3]

Hermann Grimmeiss of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards Nobel prizes, said: "Without Alferov, it would not be possible to transfer all the information from satellites down to the Earth or to have so many telephone lines between cities."[4]

Research area

After 1962 Alferov worked in the area of semiconductor heterostructures. His contributions to physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures, especially investigations of injection properties, development of lasers, solar cells, LEDs, and epitaxy processes, have led to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.[3]

He had an almost messianic conception of heterostructures, writing: "Many scientists have contributed to this remarkable progress, which not only determines in large measure the future prospects of solid state physics but in a certain sense affects the future of human society as well."[5]

Political activity

Vladimir Putin 12 October 2000-2
Alferov with Vladimir Putin

Alferov was elected to the Russian Parliament, the State Duma, in 1995 as a deputy for the political party Our Home is Russia, generally considered to be supportive of the policies of President Boris Yeltsin. In 1999 he was elected again, this time on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He was re-elected in 2003 and again in 2007, when he was placed second on the party's federal electoral list behind Gennady Zyuganov and ahead of Nikolai Kharitonov, even though he was not a member of the party.[6]

He was one of the signers of the Open letter to the President Vladimir V. Putin from the Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences against clericalisation of Russia.[7] Alferov was an atheist and expressed objections to religious education, although he was not against religion as such.[8]

Non-profit service

Alferov served on the advisory council of CRDF Global.[9]

Illness and death

Since November 2018, Alferov suffered from hypertensive emergency. He died at the age of 88 on 1 March 2019.[10][11]


RIAN archive 793190 Opening of Nanotechnology International Forum, Moscow
Alferov speaking at the opening of the Nanotechnology International Forum in Moscow, November 2010.
Russian and Soviet awards
  • Order of Merit for the Fatherland:
    • 1st class (14 March 2005) – for outstanding contribution to the development of national science and active participation in legislative activities;[12]
    • 2nd class (2000);[12]
    • 3rd class (4 June 1999) – for outstanding contribution to the development of national science and training of highly qualified personnel in connection with the 275th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences;[12]
    • 4th class (15 March 2010) – for services to the state contribution to the development of national science and many years of fruitful activity[12]
  • Order of Lenin (1986)[12]
  • Order of the October Revolution (1980)[12]
  • Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1975)[12]
  • Order of the Badge of Honour (1959)[12]
  • State Prize of the Russian Federation (2001) in Science and Technology (5 August 2002) for his work, "Fundamental studies of the formation and properties of heterostructures with quantum dots and the creation of lasers based on them"[12]
  • Lenin Prize (1972) – for basic research in semiconductors and heterojunction development of new devices based on them[12]
  • USSR State Prize (1984) – for developing isoperiodic heterostructures based on quaternary solid solutions of A3B5 semiconductor compounds[12]
Foreign awards
  • Order of Francisc Skorina (Belarus, 17 May 2001) – for his great personal contribution to the development of physical science, the organization of the Belarusian-Russian scientific and technical cooperation, strengthening the friendship between the peoples of Belarus and Russia
  • Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 5th class (Ukraine, 15 May 2003) – for personal contribution to the development of cooperation between Ukraine and the Russian Federation in the socio-economic and humanitarian spheres
  • Officer of the Legion of Honour (France)
Other awards
  • Nobel Prize in Physics (Sweden, 2000; with Herbert Kroemer and Jack Kilby) – for the development of semiconductor heterostructures for high-speed optoelectronics
  • Nick Holonyak Award (Optical Society of U.S., 2000)
  • EPS Europhysics Prize (European Physical Society, 1978) – for new works in the field of heterojunctions
  • AP Karpinsky Prize (Germany, 1989) – for his contributions to physics and technology of heterostructures
  • AF Ioffe award (RAN, 1996) – for work, "Photoelectric converters of solar radiation on the basis of heterostructures"
  • Demidov Prize (Scientific Demidov Foundation, Russia, 1999)
  • Kyoto Prize (Inamori Foundation, Japan, 2001) – for success in creating semiconductor lasers operating in continuous mode at room temperature – a pioneer step in optoelectronics
  • Vernadsky Award (NAS, 2001)
  • "Russian National Olympus". The title "living legend" (Russia, 2001)
  • International "Global Energy Prize" (Russia, 2005)
  • H. Welker Gold Medal (1987) – for pioneering work on the theory and technology of devices based on III-V compounds of groups
  • Stuart Ballantine Medal (Franklin Institute, USA, 1971) – for the theoretical and experimental studies of double-heterostructure laser, which were created by laser light sources of small size, operating in continuous mode at room temperature
  • Popov Gold Medal (Academy of Sciences, 1999)
  • SPIE Gold Medal (2002)
  • Award Symposium on GaAs (1987) – for pioneering work in semiconductor heterostructures based on III-V compounds and group development of diode lasers and photodiodes
  • Awarded "Golden Plate" (Academy of Achievement, USA, 2002)
  • XLIX Mendeleev Reader – 19 February 1993
  • Honorary Doctorate from Tampere University of Technology (2007)
  • Honorary Professor of the medal and MIPT (2008)
  • Honorary Member of the Moscow Society of Naturalists (2009)[13]
  • Honorary Doctor of the Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (State Educational Institution of the Russian-Armenian (Slavic) University, Armenia, 2011)

See also


  1. ^ a b Алферов, Жорес. Lenta (in Russian). 24 December 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  2. ^ Zhores Alferov – Facts
  3. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  4. ^ Staff writers (10 October 2000). "Russian and Americans share hi-tech Nobel". BBC News. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  5. ^ Lib.semi.ac.cn Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (PDF)
  6. ^ Communists, Patriots Name Their Leaders Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kommersant, 7 September 2007.
  7. ^ "«Великий по всем меркам»: умер Жорес Алферов". Газета.Ru. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  8. ^ "Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov". RT.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012. In public life the scientist was a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future.
  9. ^ "Dr. Zhores I. Alferov". CRDF Global. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  10. ^ "Умер нобелевский лауреат Жорес Алферов" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  11. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/02/obituaries/zhores-alferov-dead.html
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Алферов Жорес Иванович". Атомная энергия 2.0 (in Russian). Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  13. ^ Moscow Society of Naturalists official site (in Russian)

External links

2000 in science

The year 2000 in science and technology involved some significant events.

2019 in Russia

Events in the year 2019 in Russia.


Alfyorov or Alferov (Russian: Алфёров, Russian pronunciation: [ɐlˈfʲɵrəf]) is a Russian masculine surname derived from the given name Yelevfery; its feminine counterpart is Alfyorova or Alferova. The surname may refer to:

Aleksandr Alfyorov (born 1962), Russian football player and coach

Irina Alfyorova (born 1951), Russian actress

Viktor Alfyorov (born 1977), Russian theatrical director and actor

Yevgeni Alfyorov (born 1995), Russian football player

Zhores Alferov (1930–2019), Russian physicist

3884 Alferov (1977 EM1), asteroid named after Zhores

Dmitri Z. Garbuzov

Dmitri Z. Garbuzov (October 27, 1940, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg) – August 20, 2006, Princeton, New Jersey) was one of the pioneers and inventors of room temperature continuous-wave-operating diode lasers and high-power diode lasers.

The first room-temperature, continuous-wave diode lasers were successfully invented, developed, and almost simultaneously demonstrated at the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad, Russia by a team including Garbuzov and Zhores Alferov (winner of the 2000 Nobel Prize for Physics), and by the competing team of I. Hayashi and M. Panish at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Both teams attained this accomplishment in 1970. Garbuzov was also responsible for the development of practical high-power, high-efficiency, diode lasers at a variety of wavelength bands from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths.

Following perestroika, Garbuzov, who had served as an accomplished and respected scientist and manager within the Soviet scientific research system, established a research group in the West which employed multiple Russian émigré scientists and simultaneously contributed to three American for-profit enterprises.

Electoral history of Pavel Grudinin

Electoral history of Pavel Grudinin, Russian politician and entrepreneur. Communist party presidential candidate 2018.

Father of the House

Father of the House is a title that has been traditionally bestowed, unofficially, on certain members of some legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. In some legislatures the title refers to the longest continuously-serving member, while in others it refers to the oldest member. Recently, the title Mother of the House or Mother of Parliament has also been used, although the usage varies between countries; it is simply the female alternative to Father of the House, being applied when the relevant member is a woman.

Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic. It is a III-V direct bandgap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure.

Gallium arsenide is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows.GaAs is often used as a substrate material for the epitaxial growth of other III-V semiconductors, including indium gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide and others.

Great Russian Encyclopedia

The Great Russian Encyclopedia (GRE; Russian: Большая российская энциклопедия, БРЭ, transliterated as Bolshaya rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or academically as Bolšaja rossijskaja enciklopedija) is a universal Russian encyclopedia, completed in 36 volumes, published between 2004 and 2017 by Great Russian Encyclopedia, JSC (Russian: Большая Российская энциклопедия ПАО, transliterated as Bolshaya Rossiyskaya Entsiklopediya PAO). It is released under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) after President Vladimir Putin signed a presidential decree №1156 in 2002. The complete edition was released by 2017.The chief editor of the encyclopedia is Yury Osipov, the president of the RAS. The editorial board has more than 80 RAS members, including the Nobel Prize laureates Zhores Alferov and Vitaly Ginzburg.The first, introductory volume, released in 2004, is dedicated to Russia. Thirty-five volumes were released between 2005 and 2017, covering the range from "A" to "Яя" (Yaya). The RAS plans to publish an updated version every five years, although it may not be issued in print after the first edition.

Index of physics articles (Z)

The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.

To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.

Ioffe Institute

The Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (for short, Ioffe Institute, Russian: Физико-технический институт им. А. Ф. Иоффе) is one of Russia's largest research centers specialized in physics and technology. The institute was established in 1918 in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) and run for several decades by Abram Ioffe. The Institute is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Klaus Riedle

Klaus Riedle (born (1941-08-12)12 August 1941 in Innsbruck) is a German power engineering scientist who has contributed to the development of more efficient gas turbines for power generation.

List of Belarusian Jews

Presented below are lists of notable Belarusians of Jewish descent, Jewish people born on the territory of present-day Belarus or of full or partial Belarusian Jewish origin.

List of Chairmen of the State Duma

This page contains the list of Chairmen of the State Duma of Russia.

The post of Chairman of the State Duma existed in Russia two times. First time in the Russian Empire from 1906 to 1917, during this period the post of Chairman was occupied by 5 people. The second time, in the Russian Federation since 1993.

By party affiliation are:

One: Agrarian Party, Communist Party and Party of Russia's Rebirth

Two: Constitutional Democratic Party

Three: Union of October 17 and United RussiaCurrent Chairman Vyacheslav Volodin was elected October 5, 2016.

List of honorary professors of Moscow State University

This is the list of Honorary Professors of Moscow State University.

Chinghiz Aitmatov, Russian/Kyrgyz novelist (2004)

Askar Akayev, physicist, 1st President of Kyrgyzstan (1996)

Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow (1993)

Zhores Alferov, physicist, Nobel Prize winner (2001)

Heydar Aliyev, 3rd President of Azerbaijan (2008)

Ilham Aliyev, 4th President of Azerbaijan (2008)

Tatiana Anodina, aviation engineer, the chairperson of the Interstate Aviation Committee (2015)

Dario Antiseri, Italian philosopher (2002)

Irina Arkhipova, opera singer (2001)

Mykola Azarov, geologist, 14th Prime Minister of Ukraine (2014)

Ban Ki-moon, South Korean politician, 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations (2008)

Craig Barrett, American business executive, the CEO of Intel (2000)

Leonid Berlyand, American mathematician (2017)

John Bernal, British biophysicist and historian of science (1956)

Klaus von Beyme, German political scientist (2010)

Giovanni Fabrizio Bignami, Italian astrophysicist (2013)

Niels Bohr, Danish physicist, Nobel Prize winner (1961)

Irina Bokova, Bulgarian politician, former Director-General of UNESCO (2011)

Massimo Capaccioli, Italian astrophysicist (2010)

Yevgeniy Chazov, physician and healthcare executive (2002)

Viktor Chernomyrdin, industrialist and politician, 29th Prime Minister of Russia (1997)

James Franklin Collins, American diplomat, a former United States Ambassador to Russia (2001)

Arnaud Denjoy, French mathematician (1956)

Fidel Felix Castro Diaz-Balart, Cuban politician, son of Fidel Castro, graduate of the Moscow State University (2013)

Nikolai Dobronravov, poet (2015)

Werner Ebeling, German physicist (2006)

Terence Emmons, American historian, specialist in Russian history (2005)

Bertalan Farkas, Hungarian cosmonaut, first Esperantist in space (2015)

Vladimir Fedoseyev, conductor, People's Artist of the USSR (2006)

Gérard Férey, French chemist (2014)

William Z. Foster, American communist, a chairman of the American Communist Party (1961)

Juan Ramón de la Fuente, Mexican psychiatrist, healthcare and academic administrator (2006)

Hans-Georg Gadamer, German philosopher (2000)

Indira Gandhi, 3rd Prime Minister of India (1971)

Valery Gergiev, conductor and opera company director (2001)

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of France (2015)

Rolf Gleiter, German chemist (2003)

Stanislav Grof, Czech psychiatrist (2007)

Marek Halter, French writer and journalist (1998)

Dmitri Hvorostovsky, opera singer, People's Artist of Russia (2006)

Daisaku Ikeda, Japanese Buddhist philosopher (2002)

Paul Irwin, American Methodist minister and animal protection activist (2002)

Gjorge Ivanov, 4th President of Macedonia (2014)

Vladimir Jurowski, conductor (2016)

Sergey Kapitsa, physicist and a host of a popular scientific TV show (2010)

Islam Karimov, 1st President of Uzbekistan (2001)

Anatoly Karpov, chess grandmaster and former World Champion (2001)

Alyaksandr Kazulin, Belorussian mathematician, statesman and politician (2001)

Mohammad Khatami, Iranian statesman, 5th President of Iran (2001)

Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church (2011)

Aleksander Kwaśniewski, 3rd President of Poland (2004)

Václav Klaus, 2nd President of the Czech Republic (2007)

Rolf-Dieter Kluge, German Slavist (1995)

Joseph Kobzon, singer, People's Artist of the USSR (2008)

Andrei Konchalovsky, film director and screenwriter (2017)

Mikhail Kovalchuk, physicist, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2016)

Salomon Kroonenberg, Dutch geologist (2008)

Leonid Kuchma, 2nd President of Ukraine (1998)

Li Lanqing, Chinese politician (2000)

Alexander Lukashenko, President of Belarus (1996)

Yury Luzhkov, 2nd Mayor of Moscow (1996)

Carlos Alfredo Magariños, Argentine politician and UN official (1999)

Vladislav Malkevich, economist and business executive, donated his art collection to the University (2016)

Mirjana Marković, Yugoslav politician, widow of Slobodan Milošević (1996)

Denis Matsuev, classical pianist (2011)

Gérard Maugin, French engineering scientist (2001)

Ekaterina Maximova, ballerina (1995)

Dennis Meadows, American scientist and writer (2004)

Ruslan Medzhitov, American immunologist (2012)

Bernd Meyer, German fuel technologist (2015)

Rustam Minnikhanov, 2nd President of Tatarstan (2016)

Craig Mundie, American computer scientist, Microsoft executive (2006)

Arto Mustajoki, Finnish Slavist (1999)

Yasuhiro Nakasone, Japanese politician, Prime Minister of Japan (1993)

Nursultan Nazarbayev, 1st President of Kazakhstan (1996)

Zdeněk Nejedlý, Czech writer, national thinker and statesman (1953)

Claudio Nicolini, Italian biophysicist (2010)

Mikhail Nikolayev, 1st President of the Sakha republic in Russia (1996)

Keizō Obuchi, Japanese politician, 54th Prime Minister of Japan (1998)

Yury Osipov, mathematician and statesman, President of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1996)

Aleksandra Pakhmutova, composer, People's Artist of the USSR (2015)

Maya Plisetskaya, ballerina and choreographer (1993)

Martyn Poliakoff, British chemist (1999)

Yevgeny Primakov, arabist, foreign intelligence officer, politician (1998)

Ernö Pungor, Hungarian chemist (1999)

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian philosopher and statesman, 2nd President of India (1956)

Emomali Rahmon, 3rd President of Tajikistan (2009)

Giovanni Reale, Italian historian of philosophy (2002)

Maria José Ritta, First Lady of Portugal (2001)

Vladimir Resin, politician, Mayor of Moscow (2002)

Primo Rovis, Italian businessman, owner of a large collection of minerals; donated part of it to the University of Moscow (2005)

John William Ryan, American academic administrator (1999)

Serzh Sargsyan, Armenian politician, 3rd President of Armenia (2011)

Rodion Shchedrin, composer (2007)

Alexander Shokhin, politician (2007)

Manmohan Singh, 13th Prime Minister of India (2005)

Yury Solomin, actor and culture administrator (2013)

Sen Sōshitsu XV, Japanese master of tea ceremony (1990)

Valery Soyfer, Russian-American biophysicist and human rights advocate (2003)

Vladimir Spivakov, conductor and violinist (2002)

Klaus Steilmann, German industrialist and writer (2000)

Sukarno 1st President of Indonesia (1956)

Yevgeny Svetlanov, conductor, composer, and pianist (1995)

Oleg Tabakov, actor and theater administrator (2004)

Valentina Tereshkova, cosmonaut, first woman to fly in space(2013)

Zurab Tsereteli, sculptor and architect, President of the Russian Academy of Arts (2004)

Seiji Tsutsumi, Japanese business executive, politician and poet (honorary visiting professor, 1982)

Slobodan Unković, Serbian economist and academic administrator (1990)

Vladimir Vasiliev, ballet dancer and choreographer (1995)

Galina Vishnevskaya, opera singer (2007)

James Watson, biologist, Nobel Prize (1962)

Viktor Yanukovych, Ukrainian politician, 4th President of Ukraine (2010)

Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Spanish scientist, diplomat and poet (1998)

Xi-Cheng Zhang, Chinese-born American physicist and scientific executive (2012)

Yuri Zhdanov, chemist, son of Andrei Zhdanov (2003)

Peter Ziegler, Swiss geologist (1998)

Heiner Zieschang, German mathematician (1997)

Lyudmila Zykina, folk singer (2002)

List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Engineering sciences)

This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.

The designation (d) after the name means the member is deceased.


The Optogan group of companies is a vertically integrated producer of High Brightness LEDs based in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. The group is also active in Finland and Germany. Founded in 2004 by 3 graduates of Ioffe Phisico-Technical university it is currently owned by various private and government investment funds.

Saint Petersburg Academic University

St Petersburg Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (the Academic University, SPbAU RAS) was founded in 1997 as Research and Education Center of the Ioffe Institute to integrate science and education in the field of physics and information technologies. It is the only university in the Russian Academy of Sciences. The word "Academic" in its name stems from the Academy of Sciences, the organization that unites numerous research institutes in Russia. It was initiated by the director of the Ioffe Institute, vice-president of the RAS Academician and Nobel prize laureate Zhores Alferov, who has been its rector until his death on March 1, 2019.

Timeline of solar cells

In the 19th century, it was observed that the sunlight striking certain materials generates detectable electric current - the photoelectric effect. This discovery has laid the foundation of solar cells. Solar cells have gone on to be used in many applications. They have historically been used in situations where electrical power from the grid was unavailable.

2000 Nobel Prize laureates
Physiology or Medicine
Economic Sciences

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.