Zhongyuan (Chinese: 中原; pinyin: Zhōngyuán), Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu (Chinese: 中土; pinyin: Zhōngtǔ), Chungtu or Zhongzhou (Chinese: 中州; pinyin: Zhōngzhōu), Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization. It forms part of the North China Plain.
In its narrowest sense, the Central Plain covers modern-day Henan, the southern part of Hebei, the southern part of Shanxi, and the western part of Shandong province. A broader interpretation of the Central Plain's extent would add the Guanzhong plain of Shaanxi, the northwestern part of Jiangsu, and parts of Anhui and northern Hubei.
Since the beginning of recorded history, the Central Plain has been an important site for Chinese civilization.
In the pre-Qin era, present-day Luoyang and its nearby areas were considered the “Center of the World”, as the political seat of the Xia dynasty was located around Songshan and the Yi-Luo river basin.
Inscriptions on some bronze objects from this era contain references to the 'Central States' (Zhongguo), 'Eastern States', or 'Southern States'. This indicates that the Central Plain, which was referred to as the 'Central States' in these inscriptions, was considered to occupy the center of the world.
In a broader context, the term Zhongyuan refers to Chinese civilization and China proper, regions directly governed by centralized Chinese governments and dynasties. However, when used to describe the Chinese civilization, Zhongyuan often connotes Huaxia and Han Chinese cultural dominance.
Map showing the province of Henan and two definitions of the Central Plain or Zhongyuan
|Country||People's Republic of China|
The 2019 Zhengzhou Women's Tennis Open is an upcoming professional tennis tournament to be played on outdoor hard courts. It will be the sixth edition of the tournament and part of the Premier series on the 2019 WTA Tour, offering a total of $1,000,000 in prize money. It will take place at the Zhongyuan Tennis Training Base Management Center in Zhengzhou, China, on 9–15 September 2019.Beijing Renhe F.C.
Beijing Renhe Football Club (Chinese: 北京人和; pinyin: Běijīng Rénhé) is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Fengtai, Beijing and their home stadium is the Beijing Fengtai Stadium that has a seating capacity of 31,043. Their current majority shareholder is Chinese property developers of shopping centers Renhe Commercial Holdings Company Limited.
The club was founded in Pudong, Shanghai on February 3, 1995 and were originally known as Shanghai Pudong before they made their debut in the third tier of China's football league pyramid in the 1995 league season. They would work there way up to the top tier while changing name to accommodate their sponsors. In the 2006 league season the club would relocate the team to Shaanxi and rename themselves Xi'an Chanba International, however by the 2012 league season, the club relocated this time to Guizhou, and changed their name to Guizhou Renhe. In the 2016 league season the club relocated the team to Fengtai, Beijing, and changed their name to Beijing Renhe. Throughout the club's history their greatest achievement has been winning the 2013 Chinese FA Cup while the highest position they have ever finished was second within the 2003 league season.Campaign of the North China Plain Pocket
The Campaign of the North China Plain Pocket, also called the Breakout on the Central Plains (Chinese: 中原突围; pinyin: Zhongyuan Tuwei) by the Communist Party of China, was a series of battles fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War, resulting in a successful communist breakout from the nationalist encirclement. The campaign marked the beginning of the full-scale civil war fought between the communists and the nationalists in the post-World War II era.
The communist victory was largely attributed to their ability to surprise the nationalists with movements and avoid battle in locations with overwhelming Nationalist forces. In a sense, the Nationalists did not evenly distribute their forces, which created pocket holes in their encirclement. The Nationalists were also easily distracted by small Communist forces used to draw attention away from their main forces. The communist was able to locate the relatively weaker defended points of the Nationalist defense and break them. Communists also engaged in close-quarters combat in order to limit the power of the Nationalist artillery and air force, making them less effective than they could have been.Central Plains Economic Zone
Central Plains Economic Zone or Zhongyuan Economic Zone(simplified Chinese: 中原经济区; traditional Chinese: 中原經濟區; pinyin: zhōngyuán Jīngjì Qū) is the proposed economic development zone for the economic region in Henan Province and radiating to the surrounding areas by the Henan government and the Chinese central government.Central Plains Mandarin
Central Plains Mandarin, or Zhongyuan Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 中原官话; traditional Chinese: 中原官話; pinyin: zhōngyuán guānhuà), is a variety of Mandarin Chinese spoken in the central and southern parts of Shaanxi, Henan, southwestern part of Shanxi, southern part of Gansu, far southern part of Hebei, northern Anhui, northern parts of Jiangsu, southern Xinjiang and southern Shandong.The archaic dialect in Peking opera is a form of Zhongyuan Mandarin.
Among Hui people, Zhongyuan Mandarin is sometimes written with the Arabic alphabet, called Xiao'erjing ("Children's script").Central Plains War
The Central Plains War (simplified Chinese: 中原大战; traditional Chinese: 中原大戰; pinyin: Zhōngyúan Dàzhàn) was a series of military campaigns in 1929 and 1930 that constituted a Chinese civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders and warlords that were former allies of Chiang.
After the Northern Expedition ended in 1928, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren and Zhang Fakui broke off relations with Chiang shortly after a demilitarization conference in 1929, and together they formed an anti-Chiang coalition to openly challenge the legitimacy of the Nanjing government. The war was the largest conflict in the Warlord Era, fought across Henan, Shandong, Anhui and other areas of the Central Plains in China, involving 300,000 soldiers from Nanjing and 700,000 soldiers from the coalition.Ghost Festival
The Ghost Festival, also known as the Hungry Ghost Festival, Zhongyuan Jie (中元節), Gui Jie (鬼節) or Yulan Festival (traditional Chinese: 盂蘭盆節; simplified Chinese: 盂兰盆节; pinyin: Yúlánpénjié; Cantonese Jyutping: jyu4 laan4 pun4 zit3) is a traditional Buddhist and Taoist festival held in certain Asian countries. According to the Chinese calendar (a lunisolar calendar), the Ghost Festival is on the 15th night of the seventh month (14th in parts of southern China). In Chinese culture, the fifteenth day of the seventh month in the lunar calendar is called Ghost Day and the seventh month in general is regarded as the Ghost Month (鬼月), in which ghosts and spirits, including those of deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm. Distinct from both the Qingming Festival (or Tomb Sweeping Day, in spring) and Double Ninth Festival (in autumn) in which living descendants pay homage to their deceased ancestors, during Ghost Festival, the deceased are believed to visit the living.On the fifteenth day the realms of Heaven and Hell and the realm of the living are open and both Taoists and Buddhists would perform rituals to transmute and absolve the sufferings of the deceased. Intrinsic to the Ghost Month is veneration of the dead, where traditionally the filial piety of descendants extends to their ancestors even after their deaths. Activities during the month would include preparing ritualistic food offerings, burning incense, and burning joss paper, a papier-mâché form of material items such as clothes, gold and other fine goods for the visiting spirits of the ancestors. Elaborate meals (often vegetarian meals) would be served with empty seats for each of the deceased in the family treating the deceased as if they are still living. Ancestor worship is what distinguishes Qingming Festival from Ghost Festival because the latter includes paying respects to all deceased, including the same and younger generations, while the former only includes older generations. Other festivities may include, buying and releasing miniature paper boats and lanterns on water, which signifies giving directions to the lost ghosts and spirits of the ancestors and other deities.North China Plain
The North China Plain (Chinese: 華北平原; pinyin: Huáběi Píngyuán) is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in late Paleogene and Neogene and then modified by the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China. The plain is bordered to the north by the Yanshan Mountains, to the west by the Taihang Mountains, to the south by the Dabie and Tianmu Mountains, and to the east by the Yellow Sea. The Yellow River flows through the middle of the plain into the Bohai Sea.
Below the Sanmenxia Dam is the multipurpose Xiaolangdi Dam, located in the river's last valley before the North China Plain, a great delta created from silt dropped at the Yellow River's mouth over the millennia. The North China Plain extends over much of Henan, Hebei, and Shandong provinces, and merges with the Yangtze Delta in northern Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. The Yellow River meanders over the fertile, densely populated plain emptying into the Bohai Sea. The plain is one of China's most important agricultural regions, producing corn, sorghum, winter wheat, vegetables, and cotton. Its nickname is "Land of the yellow earth".
The southern part of the plain is traditionally referred to as the Central Plain (pinyin: Zhōngyuán), which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.The plain covers an area of about 409,500 square kilometers (158,100 sq mi), most of which is less than 50 metres (160 ft) above sea level. This flat yellow-soil plain is the main area of sorghum, millet, maize, and cotton production in China. Wheat, sesame seed, and peanuts are also grown here. The plain is one of the most densely populated regions in the world.
Beijing, the national capital, is located on the northeast edge of the plain, with Tianjin, an important industrial city and commercial port, near its northeast coast. Shengli Oil Field in Shandong is an important petroleum base.Old Mandarin
Old Mandarin (Chinese: 古官話; pinyin: Gǔ Guānhuà) or Early Mandarin (Chinese: 早期官話; pinyin: Zǎoqí Guānhuà) was the speech of northern China during the Jin and Yuan dynasties (12th to 14th centuries). New genres of vernacular literature were based on this language, including verse, drama and story forms, such as the qu and sanqu.
The phonology of Old Mandarin has been inferred from the 'Phags-pa script, an alphabet created in 1269 for several languages of the Mongol empire, including Chinese, and from two rime dictionaries, the Menggu Ziyun (1308) and the Zhongyuan Yinyun (1324). The rhyme books differ in some details but show many of the features characteristic of modern Mandarin dialects, such as the reduction and disappearance of final stops and the reorganization of the four tones of Middle Chinese.Puyang
Puyang is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow River, it borders Anyang in the west, Xinxiang in the southwest, and the provinces of Shandong and Hebei in the east and north respectively.Shiguang Road station
Shiguang Road (Chinese: 市光路; pinyin: Shìguāng Lù) is a Shanghai Metro station in the city's Yangpu District. The station is the current northern terminus of Line 8 and is located on Zhongyuan Road between Kailu Road and Shiguang Road.
The station was opened on 29 December 2007 as part of the first phase of Shanghai Metro Line 8 from Shiguang Road to Yaohua Road. There are two side platforms, one for passengers boarding trains, and the other for disembarking trains. As the station is the northern terminus of the line, all passengers must exit the train. The train then travels north on a section of track to the depot at Zhongyuan Road and Guowei Road, where it is reversed and sent back into service southbound.Ying Shao
Ying Shao (140-206), courtesy name Zhongyuan, was a Chinese politician, writer and historian who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty. He was an author of the Fengsu Tongyi, an encyclopedic work about the folk customs and legends that existed in the Eastern Han dynasty. Ying Shao occupied official posts in the Han government, and in his official position he was an active participant in imperial politics. He was a long-time close associate of Cao Cao, and in that connection he was extensively covered in volumes 9, 35, 71 and 103 of the historical text Book of the Later Han.ZPEB
The Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau (or ZPEB) is a Chinese oilfield services company. It is a subsidiary of Sinopec, one of China's national oil companies.Zhongyuan District
Zhongyuan District (simplified Chinese: 中原区; traditional Chinese: 中原區; pinyin: Zhōngyuán Qū; literally: 'central plain') is one of 6 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan Province, South Central China. The city government is located in this district.
Zhongyuan is the second most populous district in Zhengzhou with a population of over 900,000. It is the city's industrial center especially in textiles, though many factories are closing and moving into more remote areas due to pollution. Zhengzhou University is located in the district as well as many of Henan's best middle schools. Zhongyuan is undergoing a construction boom though not as intense as the eastern area of the city.Zhongyuan Tower
Zhongyuan Tower is a 388-metre (1,273 ft) tall steel tower in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China. It was completed in February, 2011. It is used as a television tower, 200-guest revolving restaurant, and observation tower. It is the tenth tallest towers in the world,Zhongyuan University of Technology
Zhongyuan University of Technology (Simplified Chinese: 中原工学院 Zhōngyuán gōng xuéyuàn), formerly Zhengzhou Textile Institute (郑州纺织学院 Zhèngzhōu fǎngzhī xuéyuàn), is a public university in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China. It has three campuses: central, south, and west.
It has 12,000 students and 565 faculty members.Zhongyuan Yinyun
Zhongyuan Yinyun (simplified Chinese: 中原音韵; traditional Chinese: 中原音韻; pinyin: Zhōngyuán Yīnyùn), literally meaning "Rhymes of the central plain", is a rime book from the Yuan dynasty compiled by Zhou Deqing (周德清) in 1324. An important work for the study of historical Chinese phonology, it testifies many phonological changes from Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin, such as the reduction and disappearance of final stop consonants and the reorganization of the Middle Chinese tones. Though often termed a "rime dictionary", the work does not provide meanings for its entries.Zhongyuan culture
Zhongyuan culture (中原文化) refers to the culture of Zhongyuan, the "Central Plains" of China; centered in much of Henan province and parts of nearby provinces like Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei and Shaanxi. It is widely held to be one of the main cradles of modern Chinese civilization. Historically, the region has spent much of the past two millennia being the political core of successive Chinese dynasties, resulting in it having significant cultural influences across the entire East Asia. It is also constantly evolving and changing throughout history.Zhongyuan railway station
The Zhongyuan railway station (Chinese: 中原站) is a railway station of Longhai railway located in Zhongyuan District, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
The station is currently out of passenger services.