Zhengzhou

Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.[2] It is one of the National Central Cities in China,[3] and serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational center of the province, as well as a major transportation hub in China (highway, railway, aviation, communication).[4] The Zhengzhou metropolitan area (including Zhengzhou and Kaifeng) is the core area of the Central Plains Economic Zone.[5][6]

Zhengzhou is a National Civilized City, State-list Famous Historical and Culture City, one of the Eight Ancient Capital Cities, one of the significant birthplaces of Chinese Civilization,[7] and the birthplace of the Yellow Emperor. Historically, Zhengzhou was the capital of China for a thousand years (five times).[8] Currently, there are two World Cultural Heritage Sites (including 15 places) in Zhengzhou.[9] The Chinese Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (CZCE) is China's first futures exchange,[10] Zhengzhou Airport Economy Zone is China's first Airport Economy Zone.[11]

The city lies on the southern bank of the Yellow River, and is one of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China.[12] As a center of the national transportation, there are railways connecting Zhengzhou and Europe,[13] and a bustling international airport[14] (Asia, Europe, Africa, America, Oceania).[15]

Zhengzhou has a population of 9,378,000 inhabitants,[16] GDP 913 billion in 2017.[17] The city is one of the main built-up areas of Henan region.[18] Greater Zhengzhou was named as one of the 13 emerging mega-cities in China in a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit,[19] and officially named as the eighth National Central City in 2017 by the central government in Beijing.[20]

In 2011, a Journeyman documentary showcased the developments of the new district of Zhengzhou as a ghost city. However, by 2017, the buildings were found to be occupied in a thriving community.[21]

Zhengzhou
郑州市
Prefecture-level city
Clockwise from top left: Erqi Memorial Tower, Emperors Yan and Huang, Dengfeng Observatory, Shaolin Monastery, Zhengzhou Exhibition Center; and Center: The Pagoda Forest at the Shaolin Temple
Nickname(s): business city, green city
Motto(s): Partnership, Openness, Innovation, and Harmony (博大、开放、创新、和谐)
Location of Zhengzhou City; jurisdiction in Henan

Location of Zhengzhou City; jurisdiction in Henan
Zhengzhou is located in China
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 34°46′N 113°39′E / 34.767°N 113.650°ECoordinates: 34°46′N 113°39′E / 34.767°N 113.650°E
Country People's Republic of China
Province Henan
City seat Zhongyuan
Subdivisions
Government
 • Mayor Ma Yi
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 7,507 km2 (2,898 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,024 km2 (395 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,979 km2 (764 sq mi)
Population (2015)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 9,568,000
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
 • Urban 6,406,000
 • Urban density 6,300/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
GDP (2017)
 • Total GDP 913 billion
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code 450000
Area code(s) 371
ISO 3166 code CN-HA-01
Website www.zhengzhou.gov.cn
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou (Chinese characters)
"Zhèngzhōu" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 郑州
Traditional Chinese 鄭州
Literal meaning "Zhèng Settlement"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Zhèngzhōu
Bopomofo ㄓㄥˋ   ㄓㄡ
Wade–Giles Cheng4-chou1
IPA [ʈʂə̂ŋ.ʈʂóu]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanization Jehng-jāu
IPA [tsɛ̀ːŋ.tsɐ́u]
Jyutping Zeng6-zau1
Southern Min
Hokkien POJ Tēⁿ-chiu
Tâi-lô Tēnn-tsiu

History

The Shang dynasty established Aodu (隞都) or Bodu (亳都) in Zhengzhou.[22] This prehistorical city had become abandoned as ruins long before the First Emperor of China in BC 260. Since 1950, archaeological finds in a walled city in Eastern Zhengzhou have provided evidence of Neolithic Shang dynasty settlements in the area.[23][24] Outside this city, remains of large public buildings and a complex of small settlements have been discovered. The site is generally identified with the Shang capital of Ao and is preserved in the Shang dynasty Ruins monument in Guanchen District. The Shang, who continually moved their capital due to frequent natural disasters, left Ao at around 13th century BC. The site, nevertheless, remained occupied; Zhou (post-1050 BC) tombs have also been discovered.[25] Legend suggests that in the Western Zhou period (1111–771 BC) the site became the fief of a family named Guan. From this derives the name borne by the county (xian) since the late 6th century BC—Guancheng (City of the Guan). The city first became the seat of a prefectural administration in AD 587, when it was named Guanzhou. In 605 it was first called Zhengzhou—a name by which it has been known virtually ever since.[26]

The name Zhengzhou came from the Sui dynasty (AD 581), even though it was located in Chenggao, another town. The government moved to the contemporary city during the Tang dynasty. It achieved its greatest importance under the Sui (AD 581–618), Tang (618–907), and early Song (960–1127) dynasties, when it was the terminus of the New Bian Canal, which joined the Yellow River to the northwest. There, at a place called Heyin, a vast granary complex was established to supply the capitals at Luoyang and Chang'an to the west and the frontier armies to the north. In the Song period, however, the transfer of the capital eastward to Kaifeng robbed Zhengzhou of much of its importance. It was a capital during the five dynasties of Xia, Shang, Guan, Zheng, and Han, and a prefecture during the eight dynasties of Sui, Tang, Five Dynasties, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing.

In 1903 the BeijingHankou Railway arrived at Zhengzhou, and in 1909 the first stage of the Longhai Railway gave it an east–west link to Kaifeng and Luoyang; it later was extended eastward to the coast at Lianyungang, Jiangsu, and westward to Xi'an (Chang'an), Shaanxi, as well as to western Shaanxi. Zhengzhou thus became a major rail junction and a regional center for cotton, grain, peanuts, and other agricultural produce. Early in 1923 a workers' strike began in Zhengzhou and spread along the rail line before it was suppressed; a 14-story double tower in the center of the city commemorates the strike. On June 10, 1938, Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army opened up the dikes retaining the Yellow River at Huayuankou between Zhengzhou and Kaifeng, in an effort to stem the tide of invading Japanese; however, the ensuing 1938 Yellow River flood also killed hundreds of thousands of Chinese.[27]

Zhengzhou also has a locomotive and rolling-stock repair plant, a tractor-assembly plant, and a thermal generating station. The city's industrial growth has resulted in a large increase in the population, coming predominantly from industrial workers from the north. A water diversion project and pumping station, built in 1972, has provided irrigation for the surrounding countryside. The city has an agricultural university.

Administration and demography

Zhengzhou is divided into 6 urban districts, 5 county-level cities and 1 county. These subdivisions are likely to undergo significant changes in the near future due to increasingly rapid urban expansion and urban planning.

The municipality is home to 8,626,505 inhabitants (2010 census) and 6,35 million in its built up area made of 6 urban and suburban districts, Xingyang and Xinzheng cities and now Zhongmu county largely being urbanized, making the city one of the main built-up areas of the province.[18]

Map
Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km2)
City proper
Jinshui District 金水区 Jīnshuǐ Qū 1,588,611 242
Erqi District 二七区 Èrqī Qū 712,597 159
Huiji District 惠济区 Hùijì Qū 269,561 206
Guancheng Hui District 管城回族区 Guǎnchéng Huízú Qū 645,888 204
Zhongyuan District 中原区 zhōngyuán Qū 905,430 195
Suburban
Shangjie District 上街区 Shàngjiē Qū 131,540 64.7
Satellite cities
Xingyang 荥阳市 xíngyáng Shì 613,761 908
Xinzheng 新郑市 Xīnzhèng Shì 758,079 873
Dengfeng 登封市 Dēngfēng Shì 668,592 1220
Xinmi 新密市 Xīnmí Shì 797,200 1001
Gongyi 巩义市 Gǒngyì Shì 807,857 1041
Rural
Zhongmu County 中牟县 Zhōngmù Xiàn 727,389 1393

Geography

Located just north of the province's centre and south of the Yellow River, Zhengzhou borders Luoyang to the west, Jiaozuo to the northwest, Xinxiang to the northeast, Kaifeng to the east, Xuchang to the southeast, and Pingdingshan to the southwest. With the land within its administrative borders generally sloping down from west to east, Zhengzhou is situated at the transitional zone between the North China Plain to the east and the Song Mountains and Xionger Mountains to the west, which are part of the greater Qinling range. The city centre is situated to the south of the middle reach of the Yellow River, where its valley broadens into the great plain. Zhengzhou is at the crossing point of the north–south route skirting the Taihang Mountains and the mountains of western Henan. The prefecture spans 34° 16' ~ 34° 58 N latitude and 112° 42' ~ 114° 14' E longitude, covering a total area of 7,446.2 square kilometres (2,875.0 sq mi), including the metropolitan area, which covers 1,013.3 km2 (391.2 sq mi), and the city centre, which occupies 147.7 square kilometres (57.0 sq mi).

The section of the Yellow River flowing through the prefecture extends 150.4 km (93.5 mi). Mountains loom over the western counties of Gongyi and Dengfeng while the easternmost county of Zhongmou is a vast, fertile floodplain, with the counties in between being hilly transitions.

Climate

Zhengzhou experiences a monsoon-influenced, four-season humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa), with cool, dry winters and hot, humid summers. Spring and autumn are dry and somewhat abbreviated transition periods. The city has an annual mean temperature of 14.35 °C (57.8 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 0.1 °C (32.2 °F) in January to 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) in July. The frost-free period lasts on average 220 days. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −17.9 °C (0 °F) on 2 January 1955, 27 December 1971 and 1 February 1990 to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 19 July 1966.[28][29]

Rainfall is primarily produced by the monsoonal low during summer; in winter, when the vast Siberian High dominates due to radiative cooling from further north, the area receives little precipitation. During the summer season, the city is also often affected by tropical depressions, which bring additional amounts of rain. The annual precipitation is about 630 millimetres (25 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 45 percent in February and March to 54 percent in May, the city receives 2,182 hours of sunshine per year, which is just under half the possible total.

Climate data for Zhengzhou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
25.2
(77.4)
29.2
(84.6)
37.2
(99)
38.5
(101.3)
42.3
(108.1)
43.0
(109.4)
40.1
(104.2)
37.9
(100.2)
34.6
(94.3)
27.0
(80.6)
23.8
(74.8)
43
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
8.6
(47.5)
14.0
(57.2)
21.7
(71.1)
27.2
(81)
31.6
(88.9)
31.8
(89.2)
30.5
(86.9)
26.7
(80.1)
21.5
(70.7)
14.1
(57.4)
8.0
(46.4)
20.1
(68.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
2.7
(36.9)
8.0
(46.4)
15.5
(59.9)
21.0
(69.8)
25.7
(78.3)
27.0
(80.6)
25.6
(78.1)
21.0
(69.8)
15.1
(59.2)
8.0
(46.4)
2.2
(36)
14.3
(57.7)
Average low °C (°F) −4.3
(24.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
2.9
(37.2)
9.5
(49.1)
14.7
(58.5)
19.8
(67.6)
22.8
(73)
21.7
(71.1)
16.2
(61.2)
9.9
(49.8)
3.1
(37.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
9.3
(48.8)
Record low °C (°F) −17.9
(−0.2)
−17.9
(−0.2)
−7.5
(18.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.1
(37.6)
10.3
(50.5)
15.1
(59.2)
13.2
(55.8)
5.0
(41)
−1.5
(29.3)
−13.1
(8.4)
−17.9
(−0.2)
−17.9
(−0.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.8
(0.346)
12.0
(0.472)
28.5
(1.122)
39.6
(1.559)
58.0
(2.283)
62.8
(2.472)
155.5
(6.122)
112.5
(4.429)
77.4
(3.047)
45.1
(1.776)
22.3
(0.878)
9.8
(0.386)
632.3
(24.892)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.3 4.3 6.2 6.6 6.8 7.7 11.6 9.9 8.2 6.8 5.0 3.5 79.9
Average relative humidity (%) 61 61 63 61 62 62 78 81 75 70 66 61 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.3 139.0 164.8 202.8 234.0 229.5 199.9 199.6 179.2 182.4 158.3 148.1 2,181.9
Percent possible sunshine 46 45 45 52 54 53 45 48 48 52 51 49 49
Source #1: China Meteorological Administration[30]
Source #2: Weather China[31]

Sister cities

Main sights

Dongfeng canal
Dongfeng canal in Zhengdong New Area
Zhengzhou East Railway Area
Commercial area around Zhengzhou East Railway Station west plaza, with the tallest twin towers being Zhengzhou Greenland Central Plaza

Zhengzhou was the capital of China during the Shang dynasty. Parts of the Shang-era capital city wall that were built 3,600 years ago still remain in Downtown Zhengzhou (see Zhengzhou Shang City).[26] Zhengzhou maintains abundant cultural heritages that reflect its glorious history as well as the culture of Henan Province. Zhengzhou Confucius Temple, initially built during the Eastern Han dynasty 1900 years ago, is one of the oldest Confucian Temples in China. Other important architectural heritage sites in the city center include Town God Temple and Erqi Memorial Tower.

The internationally known tourist attraction is the Shaolin Monastery, which is in Dengfeng, more than 50 miles (80 kilometres) southwest of downtown Zhengzhou (1.5 hours by coach). The Shaolin Monastery is not only known as one of China's most important Buddhist shrines, but also as the ancient center of Chinese Kung-fu. Shaolin Monastery and its famed Pagoda Forest were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010.[32]

The Henan Museum is one of China's most important museums. It has a collection of more than 130,000 pieces of cultural relics includes exhibitions from prehistoric times, including dinosaur fossils and prehistoric human remains, up through the modern eras.

Zhengzhou's most developed and modern area is the Zhengdong New Area, literally means East Zhengzhou New Area. Established in 2003, it is one of the most rapidly growing areas of China. It is mainly constituted by the CBD area, the Longhu commercial and residential area, the Longzihu college area, and the Zhengzhou East railway station commercial area. Zhengdong New Area is home to some of the tallest skyscrapers in Zhengzhou, including the 280 metres (918.6 ft) tall Zhengzhou Greenland Plaza ("Big Corn"), which is one of the most prominent landmarks in Zhengzhou, and the twin towers of Zhengzhou Greenland Central Plaza (285 metres (935.0 ft)), which are currently the tallest skyscrapers in the city.

The tallest stucture in Zhengzhou is the 388-meter height Zhongyuan Tower, located on Hanghai East Road in the south of Zhengdong New Area. It is used as a television tower, with a revolving restaurant and an observation deck. The tower is among the tallest towers in the world.

Zhengzhou Zoo (郑州动物园) is located on Huayuan Road (花园路).

The newly built Zhengzhou Botanic Garden is at the western edge of Zhengzhou city.

Main attractions of Zhengzhou include:

%E5%B0%91%E6%9E%97%E5%AF%BA
Shaolin Tample (birthplace of Chinese Kungfu)
%E7%82%8E%E9%BB%84%E4%BA%8C%E5%B8%9D%E5%B7%A8%E5%9E%8B%E5%A1%91%E5%83%8F%E6%AD%A3%E9%9D%A2%E8%A7%86%E8%A7%92
The statues of the Yan Emperor and the Yellow Emperor at Zhengzhou Yellow River Scenic Area
  • Kang Baiwan's Mansion
China 2006 8-41
Kang Baiwan's Mansion (Historical site)

Economy

Zhengzhou, along with Xi'an, Chengdu, Chongqing and Wuhan, is one of the most important cities in inland China. It is the economic center of the province and the surrounding areas such as southeastern Shanxi and southwestern Shandong. Due to its strategic location in one of the most populous areas in the world (nearly 100 million people in Henan alone) and in China's railway, road and aviation transport networks, Zhengzhou is increasingly attracting domestic and international investment as well as migrants from other areas, transforming the city into one of the largest economic centers in China. In 2017, total GDP of Zhengzhou was ¥ 900 billion,[33] ranked 17th in China.

Agriculture

By the end of 2006, Zhengzhou had a total population of over 7 million, of which 2.88 million lived in rural areas.[34] Its main products include apples, paulownia, tobacco, maize, cotton, and wheat. In addition, Zhengzhou also produces Yellow River carp, Zhengzhou watermelons, Xinzheng jujube, Xingyang dried persimmons, Guangwu Pomegranate and Zhongmu garlic, all of which are specialties that are rarely found outside the region.

Mining and manufacturing

Zhengzhou and the surrounding area have large reserves of coal and other minerals. Coal mining and electricity generation are traditionally important in the local economy.

Zhengzhou has been one of the major industrial cities in The People's Republic of China since 1949. The city's staple industry is textiles. Others manufactured items include tractors, locomotives, cigarettes, fertilizer, processed meats, agricultural machinery, and electrical equipment. Some high-tech companies in new material, electronics and biotechnology are also growing rapidly during the recently years, especially in the high-tech industrial park in the northwest of the city.

  • Yutong, China's largest bus producer.
  • Shaolin Bus, a well-known small-to-medium-sized bus producer.[35]
  • Zhengzhou Nissan, a subsidiary of Dongfeng Nissan, specializing in the manufacture of SUVs and pickup trucks. In 2010, Nissan opened its second plant in the city.[36]
  • Haima Automobile Zhengzhou, an automobile manufacturer specializing in manufacturing microvans and light passenger vehicles.
  • Zhengzhou Unique Industrial Equipment Co., Ltd., a large tractor and agricultural equipment manufacturer.
  • Foxconn Zhengzhou, located in Zhengzhou Airport Economy Zone, is the largest smartphone production site in the world and is also known as "iPhone City".[37]
  • Mural Painting of a Banquet Scene from the Han Dynasty Tomb of Ta-hu-t%27ing
    Mural Painting from Han Dynasty
    Sanquan Food, a frozen food company. With over 20000 employees,Sanquan produced the first frozen dumplings and rice balls in China.
  • Synear Food Holdings Limited, along with Sanquan Food, is one of the largest producers of frozen food in China. The market share is over 20% in China[38]
Mural Painting of a Banquet Scene from the Han Dynasty Tomb of Ta-hu-t%27ing
Mural Painting from Han Dynasty

Services

The service industries of Zhengzhou include retail, wholesale, hospitality, finance, exhibition, transport and delivery, tourism, and education. With a number of domestic and international institutions having regional offices in the city, Zhengzhou is becoming the financial center in central China. Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE) is one of the only three future exchanges (inc. Shanghai Futures Exchange and Dalian Commodity Exchange) in China and is becoming an important global player specialised in agricultural future exchange. Equipped with newly built facilities such as Zhengzhou International Conference and Exhibition Center. Third party logistics (3PL) in Zhengzhou has also been experiencing industrial boom during the past few years. As a transit and tourist center of Henan Province and central China, Zhengzhou is the center of Henan cuisine.

Economic development zones

The Zhengdong New Area, also known as Zhengzhou Eastern New District (郑东新区), similar to Hangzhou Bay New Area in Ningbo and Hengqin New Area in Zhuhai, is just one of dozens of major economic zones that are currently developing in various regions of China.[39]

The provincial and municipal governments established and developed Zhengdong New Area, Mr. Kisho Kurokawa, a Japanese world-renowned planner and architect, was appointed to design the overall planning scheme for Zhengdong New Area.[40] He brought in advanced ideas including ecological city, co-existing city, metabolic city and ring city ideas. The scheme won the "Prominent Award for City Planning Design" at the first session of Annual Meeting of the World Architects Alliance in 2002.

Industrial zones

  • Zhengzhou New & Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

Zhengzhou High & New Technology Industries Development Zone was established in 1988, and approved by the state Council of PRC to be a state development zone on Mar.6,1991. It was appraised to be advanced high tech zone of China respectively in 1993, 1998 and 2002. The Zone currently covers a total area of 18.6 square kilometres (7.2 square miles). An extension plan was approved by Zhengzhou Municipal Government, the various construction work started in 2004. Under the development strategy of “multiple parks in one zone”, the Zone has been making great efforts to promote the development of software,information technologies, new materials, bio-pharmaceutical and photo-machinery-electronic industries.[41]

  • Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone

Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved as state-level development zone on February 13, 2000. The zone has a developed area of 7 square kilometres (3 square miles) Industries encouraged include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics and Heavy Industry.[42]

  • Zhengzhou Export Processing Area

Zhengzhou (Henan) Export Processing Zone was established on June 21, 2002 with approval by the state council. Its planned area is 2.7 square kilometres (1.0 square mile). Zone A is located in Zhengzhou National Economic & technological Development Area and began to operate on June 1, 2004. The area of land developed is 0.893 square kilometres (0.345 square miles) at present. Zone B is located in Zhengzhou Airport Area and is adjacent to Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport on the north and it covers a planned area of 5 square km with bonded logistics zone, bonded processing zone and supporting industry zone, etc.[43]

Transport

Public transport

Metro

Zhengzhou-Metro zh-cn

Zhengzhou Metro (2016)

Zhengzhou-Metro-Plan zh-cn

Zhengzhou Metro (2020 plan)

Great Zhengzhou Metro

Zhengzhou Metro (2050 plan)

Train of Zhengzhou Metro Line 2, 20180112 135737

A train of Zhengzhou Metro running on Chengjiao line

An entrance of Longzihu station

Longzihu station (metro entrance)

Zhengzhou Metro is a rapid transit metro rail network serving urban and suburban districts of Great Zhengzhou metropolitan. The Zhengzhou Metro currently has 3 lines in operation, creating a 93.7 km (58.2 mi) long network. The first 2 lines (Line 1 and Line 2) were approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in Feb. 2009.[44] The two projects started in 2009 and were finished in 2013 and 2015 respectively.[45] The Chengjiao Line (planned to be part of Line 9), which is now in through operations with Line 2, allows the system to serve the Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport.[46] A total of 21 metro lines have been planned to connect all areas in Great Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area.[47]

Bus

07327D at Dongzhao Depot, 20180403 105540
A Yutong battery electric bus of Zhengzhou Bus charging at a depot

Zhengzhou has a bus system with over 5,700 bus vehicles, operated by Zhengzhou Bus Communication Corporation (ZZB).[48]

The operations of Zhengzhou Bus Rapid Transit commenced in 2009. The system consists of 5 main routes(B1, B2, B3, B5 and B6) with dedicated bus lanes and dozens of branch routes that serve most areas of the city.

The App "郑州公交查询" "郑州公交实时查询"on App Store (iOS) and the Andriod App "郑州行"[49] could be used for schedule search.

Railway

Zhengzhou is the junction of Longhai Railway (Lianyungang, JiangsuLanzhou, Gansu) and Beijing–Guangzhou Railway as well as a major national railway hub.[50] Zhengzhou Railway Station, opened in 1904, is one of the most important railway stations in China.

Zhengzhou is also located on the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong high-speed railway and Xuzhou–Lanzhou High-Speed Railway. The high-speed rail network provides fast train services to most major cities in China, including Beijing (2.5 hours), Guangzhou (6 hours), Xi'an (2 hours), Wuhan (2 hours), Shanghai (4 hours), Nanjing (3 hours), Hangzhou (5 hours), and Hong Kong (7 hours, start from 23 September 2018). The Zhengzhou East Railway Station, which is dedicated for high-speed trains, is one of the largest in Asia.

Zhengzhou is the hub of intercity railways in Henan. Currently, the intercity trains from Zhengzhou to Kaifeng, Jiaozuo and Xinzheng Airport are in operation.

Proposed high-speed railways from Zhengzhou to Chongqing, Hefei, Jinan and Taiyuan, together with Zhengzhou South railway station, a new high-speed railway hub, are under construction.

Zhengzhou North Railway Station (郑州北站), over 6,000 m long and over 800 m wide, has been described as Asia's largest marshalling yard[51]

Expressways and highways

The surrounding area of Zhengzhou, along with the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and the Bohai Economic Rim, has the highest highway density nationwide. Zhengzhou is the center of Henan expressway network that provides 1–2 hours road trip to surrounding cities of Kaifeng, Xinxiang, Xuchang, Jiaozuo and Luoyang. Other major cities within the province can be reached in 3 hours. The expressway network and national highways also links Zhengzhou to all major cities in the country.

There are several controlled access express roads in the city center to relieve traffic problems. However, heavy congestion is still common in rush hours.

Expressways

National highways

Urban express roads

Air

Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport Terminal 2 Departure Concourse
Xinzheng International Airport Terminal 2 Departure Concourse

Zhengzhou is primarily served by Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport (IATA: CGO, ICAO: ZHCC), which is 37 km (23 mi) southeast of the city centre.

The airport is a focus city of China Southern Airlines, Lucky Air, West Air and Shenzhen Airlines. It used to be the headquarter for Henan Airlines. In 2017, it was the busiest airport in central China in both passenger and cargo traffic.[52] It is also one of the eight air hubs nominated by the Civil Aviation Administration of China.

Other airports in Zhengzhou include Shangjie Airport (IATA: HSJ, general aviation use) and Matougang Airbase (military use).

Colleges and universities

Zzdxz
Zhengzhou University

Public

Military

Private

Notable people

Zi Chan
Portrait of Zichan

Politics

The current mayor is Wu Tianjun from February 2006.

List of the CPC Party Chiefs of Zhengzhou:

  1. Gu Jingsheng (谷景生): October 1948-December 1948
  2. Wu Defeng (吴德蜂): December 1948-June 1949
  3. Zhao Wucheng (赵武成): June 1949 - April 1953
  4. Song Zhihe (宋致和): April 1953-August 1956
  5. Wang Lizhi (王黎之): August 1956-January 1968
  6. Wang Hui (王辉): March 1971-January 1974
  7. Zhang Junqing (张俊卿): January 1974-December 1977
  8. Yu Yichuan (于一川): December 1977-December 1979
  9. Li Baoguang (李保光): December 1979-May 1983
  10. Jiang Jinfei (蒋靳非): May 1983-September 1984
  11. Yao Minxue (姚敏学): September 1984-August 1987
  12. Cao Lei (曹磊): August 1987-July 1990
  13. Song Guochen (宋国臣): July 1990-May 1992
  14. Zhang Deguang (张德广): May 1992-December 1995
  15. Wang Youjie (王有杰): December 1995-June 2001
  16. Li Ke (李克): June 2001-

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 郑州常住人口937.8万人 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2016-03-13.
  2. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  3. ^ "国家发展改革委关于支持郑州建设国家中心城市的复函" (in Chinese). Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. ^ "郑州定位国际性综合交通枢纽 年内实施52个交通项目-新华网". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  5. ^ "China's Central Plains Region". Stratfor. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  6. ^ 刘云中, 国务院发展研究中心发展战略和区域经济研究部部长、研究员 侯永志. "中原经济区规划逻辑 - 国务院发展研究中心". www.drc.gov.cn. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  7. ^ "河南省人民政府门户网站 河 南 简 介". www.henan.gov.cn. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  8. ^ "History of Zhengzhou". Wikipedia. 2017-11-30.
  9. ^ "List of World Heritage Sites in China". Wikipedia. 2018-02-17.
  10. ^ "Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange". Wikipedia. 2017-03-19.
  11. ^ "The Diplomat". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  12. ^ "Archived copy" 郑州市情 (in Chinese). 商都网. 2009-05-25. Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  13. ^ "第1000班郑欧班列满载"中国造"驰往汉堡_新华丝路". silkroad.news.cn. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  14. ^ "Continent". Wikipedia. 2018-03-23.
  15. ^ "郑州将开3条国际航线 直达五大洲将成为现实 _大豫网_腾讯网". henan.qq.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  16. ^ "郑州市统计局". www.zzstjj.gov.cn. Retrieved 2016-02-13.
  17. ^ "郑州市16个县(市)、区2017年GDP公布 金水区GDP最高 超1200亿元-大河网". news.dahe.cn. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  18. ^ a b 素芳, 焦 (18 May 2011). 郑州常住人口860多万 这是个啥概念 (in Chinese). 大河网. 河南商报. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  19. ^ Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises
  20. ^ "关于支持郑州建设国家中心城市的复函(发改规划[2017]154号)". ghs.ndrc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  21. ^ "China's empty cities house 64 million empty apartments". Journeyman pictures. 18 April 2011.
  22. ^ Liu Yue (劉岳) (2007). 商湯在鄭州筑城建都的原因追蹤)《尋根》 [Investigating the Reasons for Tang of Shang's Fortifications at Zhengzhou]. Xun Gen (尋根) (in Chinese). Zhengzhou Publishing. 5. ISSN 1005-5258.
  23. ^ A H Dani (1992), Critical Assessment of Recent Evidence on Mohenjo-daro, Second International Symposium on Mohenjo-daro, 24–27 February.
  24. ^ 豫现3600年前世界大都市 [Henan's 3,600 Year-old Metropolis] (in Chinese). Henan Weiwenpo (文汇报). December 24, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  25. ^ 郑州市地方史志编纂委员会 [Zhengzhou Region Historical Records Committee Compilation] (in Chinese). Zhongzhou Antiquarina Book Publishing (中州古籍出版社). 1999. ISBN 7-5348-1869-9.
  26. ^ a b "Archived copy" 隞都郑州与郑州小双桥遗址 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  27. ^ Epstein, Israel (2005). History Should Not Be Forgotten. China Intercontinental Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-7-5085-0694-4.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  29. ^ 经书威、郑州市地方史志办公室 (2002). 《郑州大辞典》. 中州古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-5348-1822-6.
  30. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16.
  31. ^ "郑州城市介绍以及气候背景分析". 中国天气网 (in Chinese). 中国气象局公共气象服务中心. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  32. ^ China's Shaolin Temple, Danxia Landform Added To World Heritage Sites
  33. ^ "2017中国城市GDP排名出炉!". www.sohu.com. 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  34. ^ (in Chinese) General information of Zhengzhou Archived May 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Zhengzhou Government official website.
  35. ^ Henan Shaolin Auto Co., Ltd. Archived June 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ http://www.stockmarketwire.com/article/3957438/Nissan-increases-production-capacity-in-China.html
  37. ^ Barboza, David (2016-12-29). "How China Built 'iPhone City' With Billions in Perks for Apple's Partner". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  38. ^ http://www.ystar.net.cn/. "思念食品". www.synear.cn. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  39. ^ "Zhengzhou New Area". Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
  40. ^ (in Chinese) "郑州的往世今生:50年考古确认中国第一古都" 新浪网 sina.com.cn Sep. 22, 2005
  41. ^ RightSite.asia | Zhengzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  42. ^ RightSite.asia | Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
  43. ^ RightSite.asia | Zhengzhou Export Processing Area
  44. ^ (in Chinese) "郑州地铁获国务院批准 每公里成本近6亿今年开工" 河南日报大河网 Dahe.cn Feb. 13, 2009
  45. ^ (in Chinese) "地铁未来将出现在郑州市" 中广网 CNR.cn Feb. 13, 2009
  46. ^ "Zhengzhou Metro". Wikipedia. 2018-01-06.
  47. ^ "郑州轨道交通2015~2050规划出炉 21条线路公布". news.ifeng.com. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  48. ^ "发展历程". www.zhengzhoubus.com. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  49. ^ "欢迎下载手机客户端". zzx.zhengzhoubus.com. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  50. ^ "Zhengzhou, City Information of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou Capital City of Henan Province". www.chinatoday.com. Retrieved 2015-05-22.
  51. ^ 郑州北站---亚洲最大的列车编组站 Archived May 31, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (Zhengzhou North Railway Station -- Asia's largest marshalling yard), 2016-04-08
  52. ^ 【货邮突破50万吨】郑州机场首成我国中部机场“双冠王”. www.sohu.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 2018-04-03.
  53. ^ "韩非 - 郑州市人民政府". www.zhengzhou.gov.cn. Retrieved 2015-11-10.

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