Zhao Jiande

Zhao Jiande (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Jiàndé; Jyutping: Zīu6 Gīn3dek1, Vietnamese: Triệu Kiến Đức, ?–111 BC) was the last king of Nanyue. His rule began in 112 BC and ended in the next year.

King of Nam Việt
Reign112–111 BC
PredecessorZhao Xing
Successornone
DynastyTriệu Dynasty

Life

Zhao Jiande was the eldest son of Zhao Yingqi and a Yue woman. Although the eldest, Jiande was passed over for kingship in preference for his half-brother, Zhao Yingqi.[1]

Han War

During Zhao Xing's reign, Emperor Wu of Han sent missions to Nanyue to summon Zhao Xing to the Han court for an audience with the emperor. Xing and his mother decided to submit to the Han, but the prime minister Lü Jia (呂嘉), who held military power in Nanyue at that time, opposed this. Emperor Wu dispatched Han Qianqiu (韓千秋) with 2000 soldiers to arrest Lü Jia. After hearing of these developments, Lü Jia conducted a coup d'état, killing Xing and all of his supporters in 112 BC. Jiande was crowned king of Nanyue.[1]

The 2000 men led by Han Qianqiu defeated several small towns but were defeated as they neared Panyu, which greatly shocked and angered Emperor Wu. The emperor then sent an army of 100,000 to attack Nanyue. The army marched on Panyu in a multi-pronged assault. Lu Bode advanced from the Hui River and Yang Pu from the Hengpu River. Three natives of Nanyue also joined the Han. One advanced from the Li River, the second invaded Cangwu, and the third advanced from the Zangke River. In the winter of 111 BC Yang Pu captured Xunxia and broke through the line at Shimen. With 20,000 men he drove back the vanguard of the Nanyue army and waited for Lu Bode. However Lu failed to meet up on time and when he did arrive, he had no more than a thousand men. Yang reached Panyu first and attacked it at night, setting fire to the city. Panyu surrendered at dawn. Jiande and Lü Jia fled the city by boat, heading east to appeal for Minyue's aid, but the Han learned of their escape and sent the general Sima Shuang after them. Both Jiande and Lü Jia were captured and executed.[2]

Aftermath

When the neighboring kingdoms of Cangwu, Xiou (Western Ou), and Luoluo heard of the fall of Nanyue, they all submitted to the Han. Their kings were made marquises.[2]

Legacy

Based on many temples of Lü Jia (Lữ Gia), his wives, and soldiers scattering in Red River Delta of northern Vietnam, the war might have lasted until 98 BC.[3][4]

After the fall of Panyu, Tây Vu Vương (the captain of Tây Vu area of which the center is Cổ Loa) revolted against the First Chinese domination from Western Han dynasty.[5] He was killed by his assistant Hoàng Đồng (黄同).[6][7]

Neither Shiji nor Hanshu had mentioned his Temple name, but his Posthumous name was mentioned in some Vietnamese historical texts. He was called Dương Vương (陽王 Yáng Wáng) in Việt Nam sử lược, Thuật Dương Vương (術陽王 Shù Yáng Wáng) in Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, and Vệ Dương vương (衛陽王 Wèi Yáng Wáng) in Đại Việt sử lược.

His palace supposedly formed the grounds of Guangzhou's Guangxiao Temple.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Watson 1993, p. 214.
  2. ^ a b Watson 1993, p. 216.
  3. ^ "Lễ hội chọi trâu xã Hải Lựu (16-17 tháng Giêng hằng năm) Phần I (tiep theo)". 2010-02-03. Theo nhiều thư tịch cổ và các công trình nghiên cứu, sưu tầm của nhiều nhà khoa học nổi tiếng trong nước, cùng với sự truyền lại của nhân dân từ đời này sang đời khác, của các cụ cao tuổi ở Bạch Lưu, Hải Lựu và các xã lân cận thì vào cuối thế kỷ thứ II trước công nguyên, nhà Hán tấn công nước Nam Việt của Triệu Đề, triều đình nhà Triệu tan rã lúc bấy giờ thừa tướng Lữ Gia, một tướng tài của triều đình đã rút khỏi kinh đô Phiên Ngung (thuộc Quảng Đông – Trung Quốc ngày nay). Về đóng ở núi Long Động - Lập Thạch, chống lại quân Hán do Lộ Bác Đức chỉ huy hơn 10 năm (từ 111- 98 TCN), suốt thời gian đó Ông cùng các thổ hào và nhân dân đánh theo quân nhà Hán thất điên bát đảo."
  4. ^ "List of temples related to Triệu dynasty and Nam Việt kingdom in modern Vietnam and China". 2014-01-28.
  5. ^ Từ điển bách khoa quân sự Việt Nam, 2004, p564 "KHỞI NGHĨA TÂY VU VƯƠNG (lll TCN), khởi nghĩa của người Việt ở Giao Chỉ chống ách đô hộ của nhà Triệu (TQ). Khoảng cuối lll TCN, nhân lúc nhà Triệu suy yếu, bị nhà Tây Hán (TQ) thôn tính, một thủ lĩnh người Việt (gọi là Tây Vu Vương, "
  6. ^ Viet Nam Social Sciences vol.1-6, p91, 2003 "In 111 B.C. there prevailed a historical personage of the name of Tay Vu Vuong who took advantage of troubles circumstances in the early period of Chinese domination to raise his power, and finally was killed by his general assistant, Hoang Dong. Professor Tran Quoc Vuong saw in him the Tay Vu chief having in hands tens of thousands of households, governing thousands miles of land and establishing his center in Co Loa area (59.239). Tay Vu and Tay Au is in fact the same.
  7. ^ Book of Han, Vol. 95, Story of Xi Nan Yi Liang Yue Zhao Xian, wrote: "故甌駱將左黃同斬西于王,封爲下鄜侯"

Bibliography

  • Taylor, Jay (1983), The Birth of the Vietnamese, University of California Press
  • Watson, Burton (1993), Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian: Han Dynasty II (Revised Edition, Columbia University Press
Zhao Jiande
 Died: 111 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Zhào Xīng
(Triệu Hưng)
King of Nanyue
112–111 BC
Position abolished
Nanyue Kingdom was annexed by the Han Dynasty
111 BC

Year 111 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Serapio and Bestia (or, less frequently, year 643 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 111 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Army of the Han dynasty

The army of the Han dynasty was the primary military apparatus of China from 202 BC to 220 AD, with a brief interregnum by the reign of Wang Mang and his Xin dynasty from 9 AD to 23 AD, followed by two years of civil war before the refounding of the Han.

Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157 BC – 29 March 87 BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC. His reign lasted 54 years — a record not broken until the reign of the Kangxi Emperor more than 1,800 years later. His reign resulted in a vast territorial expansion and the development of a strong and centralized state resulting from his governmental reorganization, including his promotion of Confucian doctrines. In the field of historical social and cultural studies, Emperor Wu is known for his religious innovations and patronage of the poetic and musical arts, including development of the Imperial Music Bureau into a prestigious entity. It was also during his reign that cultural contact with western Eurasia was greatly increased, directly and indirectly.

As a military campaigner, Emperor Wu led Han China through its greatest expansion. At its height, the Empire's borders spanned from modern Kyrgyzstan in the west, to Korea in the east, and to northern Vietnam in the south. Emperor Wu successfully repelled the nomadic Xiongnu from systematically raiding northern China, and dispatched his envoy Zhang Qian in 139 BC to seek an alliance with the Yuezhi of Kangju (Sogdia, modern Uzbekistan). This resulted in further missions to Central Asia. Although historical records do not describe him as being aware of Buddhism, emphasizing rather his interest in shamanism, the cultural exchanges that occurred as a consequence of these embassies suggest that he received Buddhist statues from Central Asia, as depicted in the murals found in the Mogao Caves.

Emperor Wu is considered one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history, due to his effective governance which made the Han dynasty one of the most powerful nations in the world. Michael Loewe called the reign of Emperor Wu the "high point" of "Modernist" (classically justified Legalist) policies, looking back to "adapt ideas from the pre-Han period." His policies and most trusted advisers were Legalist, favouring adherents of Shang Yang. However, despite establishing an autocratic and centralised state, Emperor Wu adopted the principles of Confucianism as the state philosophy and code of ethics for his empire and started a school to teach future administrators the Confucian classics. These reforms had an enduring effect throughout the existence of imperial China and an enormous influence on neighbouring civilizations.

Guangxiao Temple (Guangzhou)

Guangxiao Temple (Chinese: 光孝寺) is one of the oldest Buddhist temples in Guangzhou, the capital of China's Guangdong Province. As the special geographical position, Guangxiao Temple often acted as a stopover point for Asian missionary monks in the past. It also played a central role in propagating various elements of Buddhism, including precepts school, Chan (Zen), Shingon Buddhism, and Pure Land. In this temple, Huineng, the sixth Chinese patriarch of Chan Buddhism, made his first public Chan lecture and was tonsured, and Amoghavajra, a Shingon Buddhist master, gave his first teaching of esoteric Buddhism. Many Buddhist scriptures were also translated here, including those translated by Yijing and the Shurangama-sūtra translated by Paramitiin (般剌密諦).

Guangzhou

Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: 广州; traditional Chinese: 廣州; Cantonese pronunciation: [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ̂u] or [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ́u] (listen); Mandarin pronunciation: [kwàŋ.ʈʂóu] (listen)), also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a rapidly increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa. This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World".The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis.Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years (2013–2015), Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.

Han conquest of Nanyue

The Han conquest of Nanyue was a military conflict between the Han empire and the Nanyue kingdom in modern Guangdong, Guangxi, and Northern Vietnam. During the reign of Emperor Wu, the Han forces launched a punitive campaign against Nanyue and conquered it in 111 BC.

List of monarchs of Vietnam

This article lists the monarchs of Vietnam.

List of monarchs who lost their thrones before the 13th century

This is a list of monarchs who lost their thrones before the 13th century.

List of state leaders in the 2nd century BC

State leaders in the 3rd century BC – State leaders in the 1st century BC – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 2nd century BC (200–101 BC).

Lü Jia (Nanyue)

Lü Jia (Chinese: 呂嘉; Wade–Giles: Lü Chia; died 111 BC), or Lữ Gia in Vietnamese, also called Bảo Công (保公), was the prime minister of Nanyue (Nam Việt) during the reigns of its three last kings (Zhao Yingqi, Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande).

The Shiji only mentions that Lü Jia served as prime minister during three kings; members of his clan often intermarried with the royal family, over 70 of his kinsmen served as officials in various parts of the Nanyue government. Lü had high prestige in Nanyue, and was overshadowing the king. According to Vietnamese legend, he was a Lạc Việt chief born in Lôi Dương, Cửu Chân (mordern Thọ Xuân District, Thanh Hóa Province, Vietnam).

In 113 BC, Emperor Wu of Han sent Anguo Shaoji (安國少季) to Nanyue to summon Zhao Xing and the Queen Dowager Jiu to Chang'an for an audience with the Emperor. The Queen Dowager was a Han Chinese from Handan. Before she married Zhao Yingqi, she had affair with Anguo Shaoji. Nanyue people did not trust the Queen Dowager; and at that time, king Zhao Xing was young. Fearful of losing her position of authority, the Queen Dowager decided to fully submit to the Han dynasty. It was strongly opposed by Lü and other ministers. Lü decided to revolt; he said he was ill and did not meet with Han envoy. The Queen Dowager wanted to kill Lü, but was stopped by the king. Lü gathered soldiers and planned to revolt. Getting the information, in 112 BC, Emperor Wu dispatched Han Qianqiu (韓千秋) with 2000 soldiers to arrest him. During this time, Lü staged a coup and executed the queen dowager and the king. He crowned Prince Zhao Jiande as new king, and declared war on the Han dynasty.In 111 BC, Han generals Lu Bode and Yang Pu attacked Nanyue and captured the capital Panyu (mordern Guangzhou). Lü fled with Zhao Jiande, but was captured and executed.Lü's tomb was in mordern Ân Thi District, Hưng Yên Province, Vietnam where he is worshipped by local people together with his brother Lang Công.

Nanyue

Nanyue or Nam Viet (南越, Chinese pinyin: Nányuè, Vietnamese: Nam Việt, Zhuang: Namzyied) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan. Nanyue was established in 204 BC at the collapse of the Qin dynasty by Zhao Tuo, then Commander of Nanhai. At first, it consisted of the commanderies Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang.

In 196 BC, Zhao Tuo paid obeisance to the Emperor Gaozu of Han, and Nanyue was referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state. Around 183 BC, relations between the Nanyue and the Han dynasty soured, and Zhao Tuo began to refer to himself as an emperor, suggesting Nanyue's sovereignty. In 179 BC, relations between the Han and Nanyue improved, and Zhao Tuo once again made submission, this time to Emperor Wen of Han as a subject state. The submission was somewhat superficial, as Nanyue retained autonomy from the Han, and Zhao Tuo was referred to as "Emperor" throughout Nanyue until his death. In 113 BC, fourth-generation leader Zhao Xing sought to have Nanyue formally included as part of the Han Empire. His prime minister Lü Jia objected vehemently and subsequently killed Zhao Xing, installing his elder brother Zhao Jiande on the throne and forcing a confrontation with the Han dynasty. The next year, Emperor Wu of Han sent 100,000 troops to war against Nanyue. By the year's end, the army had destroyed Nanyue and established Han rule. The kingdom lasted 93 years and had five generations of kings.

The Kingdom of Nanyue's founding preserved the order of the Lingnan region during the chaos surrounding the collapse of the Qin dynasty. It allowed the southern region to avoid much of the hardship experienced by the northern, predominantly Han Chinese regions. The kingdom was founded by leaders originally from the Chinese heartland, and was responsible for bringing Chinese bureaucracy and more advanced agriculture and handicraft techniques to the inhabitants of the southern regions, as well as knowledge of the Chinese language and writing system. Nanyue leaders promoted a policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue Tribes" (Chinese: 和集百越), and encouraged fellow Han Chinese to immigrate from their Yellow River homeland to the south. They supported mutual assimilation of the two cultures and peoples, and promulgated Han culture and the Chinese language throughout the region, though many elements of original Yue culture were preserved.In Vietnam, the rulers of Nanyue are referred to as the Triệu dynasty. The name "Vietnam" is derived from Nam Việt, the Vietnamese pronunciation of Nanyue.

Timeline of Vietnamese history

This is a timeline of Vietnamese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Vietnam and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Vietnam.

Triệu dynasty

The Triệu dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Triệu; 家趙) ruled the kingdom of Nányuè / Nam Việt ("South Yuè") (Chinese: 南越), which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam. Its capital was Panyu, in modern Guangzhou. The founder of the dynasty, called Triệu Đà or Zhao Tuo, was a military governor for the Qin Empire. He asserted his independence in 207 BC when the Qin collapsed. The ruling elite included both ethnic Chinese and native Yue, with intermarriage and assimilation encouraged. Triệu Đà conquered the Vietnamese state of Âu Lạc and led a coalition of Yuè states in a war against the Han Empire, which had been expanding southward. Subsequent rulers were less successful in asserting their independence and the Han conquered the kingdom in 111 BC.

Zhao Xing

Zhao Xing (Chinese: 趙興, pinyin: Zhào Xīng, Cantonese: Zīu6 Hing1, Vietnamese: Triệu Hưng, ? – 112 BC), was the second son of Zhao Yingqi and the fourth ruler of Nanyue (Vietnamese: Nam Việt). His rule began in 115 BC and ended with his death in 112 BC. In Vietnamese history, he is considered a king of Vietnam.

In 113 BC, Emperor Wu of Han sent Anguo Shaoji (安國少季) to summon Zhao Xing and the Queen Dowager Jiu to Chang'an for an audience with the Emperor. The Queen Dowager Jiu, who was Han Chinese, was regarded as a foreigner by the Nanyue people, and it was widely rumored that she had an illicit relationship with Anguo Shaoji before she married Zhao Yingqi. When Anguo arrived, quite a number of people believed the two resumed their relationship. The Queen Dowager feared that there would be a revolt against her authority so she urged the king and his ministers to seek closer times to the Han. Xing agreed to and proposed that relations between Nanyue and the Han should be normalized with a triennial journey to the Han court as well as the removal of custom barriers along the border.The prime minister Lü Jia (呂嘉) held military power and his family was more well connected than either the king or the Queen Dowager. According to the Shiji and Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Lü Jia was chief of a Lạc Việt tribe, related to King Qin of Cangwu by marriage, and over 70 of his kinsmen served as officials in various parts of the Nanyue court. Lü refused to meet the Han envoys which angered the Queen Dowager. She tried to kill him at a banquet but was stopped by Xing. The Queen Dowager tried to gather enough support at court to kill Lü in the following months, but her reputation this.When news of the situation reached Emperor Wu of Han in 112 BC, he ordered Zhuang Can to lead a 2,000 men expedition to Nanyue. However Zhuang refused to accept the mission, declaring that it was illogical to send so many men under the pretext of peace, but so few to enforce the might of the Han. The former prime minister of Jibei, Han Qianqiu (韓千秋), offered to lead the expedition and arrest Lü Jia. When Han crossed the Han-Nanyue border, Lü conducted a coup, killing Xing, Queen Dowager Jiu and all the Han emissaries in the capital. Xing's brother, Zhao Jiande, was declared the new king.The Temple name of Zhao Xing was not mentioned in both Shiji and Hanshu. But according to the Vietnamese historical text Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Zhao Xing's Posthumous name was Ai Vương (哀王, pinyin: Āi Wáng).

Zhao Yingqi

Zhao Yingqi (Chinese: 趙嬰齊; pinyin: Zhào Yīngqí; Jyutping: Zīu6 Ying1cei4; Vietnamese: Triệu Anh Tề, ? – 115 BC) was the son of Zhao Mo and the third ruler of the kingdom of Nanyue (Vietnamese: Nam Việt). His rule began in 122 BC and ended with his death in 115 BC.

After the Han dynasty aided Nanyue in fending off an invasion by Minyue, Zhao Mo sent his son Yingqi to the Han court, where he joined the emperor’s guard (宿衛, Sù wèi). Zhao Yingqi married a Han Chinese woman from the Jiu (樛氏) family of Handan, who gave birth to his second son, Zhao Xing. Yingqi behaved without any scruples and committed murder on several occasions. When his father died in 122 BC, he refused to visit the Han emperor to ask for his leave due to fearing that he would be arrested and punished for his behavior. Yingqi died in 115 BC and was succeeded by his second son, Zhao Xing, rather than the eldest, Zhao Jiande.

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