Zhangzhou

Zhangzhou (/ˈdʒæŋˈdʒoʊ/),[2] formerly romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen. During the 2010 census, the entire area of Zhangzhou was home to 4,809,983 inhabitants. Along with the 1.9 million people of central Xiamen, its urban districts of Longwen and Xiangcheng, together with Longhai, form a single metropolitan area of about 5 million people (2010).

Name

Zhangzhou is the atonal pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name 漳州, using its pronunciation in Standard Mandarin. The name derives from the city's former status as the seat of the imperial Chinese Zhang Prefecture. The same name was romanized as "Changchow" on the Chinese Postal Map and Chang-chou in Wade-Giles. Other romanizations include Chang-chow.[3]

It also appears as Chang-chu,[4] Chiang-chiu,[5] Chiang-chew, or Chiang Chew from the city's local Hokkien name Chiang-chiu. This name appeared in Spanish and Portuguese Jesuit sources as Chincheo, which was anglicized as Chinchew. By the 19th century, however, this name had migrated and was used to refer to Quanzhou, a separate port about 65 miles (105 km) east-northeast of central Zhangzhou.[6]

Geography

Zhangzhou proper lies on the banks of the Jiulong River in southern Fujian about 35 miles (56 km) from central Xiamen,[3] whose urban core has grown to form a single urbanized area with it. The prefecture of Zhangzhou comprises the southeastern corner of the province, surrounding Xiamen. The prefecture of Quanzhou lies to its northeast, Longyan to its northwest, and Shantou in Guangdong to its southwest.

Climate

Zhangzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with mild to warm winters and long, very hot and humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 13.2 °C (55.8 °F) in January to 28.8 °C (83.8 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 21.3 °C (70.3 °F). The frost-free period lasts 330 days.

Climate data for Zhangzhou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
30.3
(86.5)
33.7
(92.7)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
37.6
(99.7)
38.6
(101.5)
38.1
(100.6)
37.1
(98.8)
34.6
(94.3)
35.2
(95.4)
29.1
(84.4)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
20.3
(68.5)
24.6
(76.3)
27.8
(82.0)
31.0
(87.8)
33.6
(92.5)
33.1
(91.6)
31.2
(88.2)
28.2
(82.8)
24.4
(75.9)
20.3
(68.5)
25.9
(78.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
13.5
(56.3)
15.9
(60.6)
20.2
(68.4)
23.7
(74.7)
26.8
(80.2)
28.8
(83.8)
28.3
(82.9)
26.7
(80.1)
23.5
(74.3)
19.3
(66.7)
15.1
(59.2)
21.3
(70.3)
Average low °C (°F) 10.0
(50.0)
10.7
(51.3)
13.0
(55.4)
17.1
(62.8)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
25.3
(77.5)
25.1
(77.2)
23.5
(74.3)
20.1
(68.2)
15.6
(60.1)
11.4
(52.5)
18.0
(64.5)
Record low °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.3
(34.3)
3.0
(37.4)
7.3
(45.1)
12.3
(54.1)
17.0
(62.6)
21.0
(69.8)
21.3
(70.3)
16.8
(62.2)
7.6
(45.7)
4.8
(40.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 41.0
(1.61)
84.8
(3.34)
114.0
(4.49)
168.4
(6.63)
207.2
(8.16)
278.6
(10.97)
171.9
(6.77)
232.8
(9.17)
170.0
(6.69)
63.0
(2.48)
38.2
(1.50)
34.5
(1.36)
1,604.4
(63.17)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.5 12.2 14.9 15.2 16.9 17.7 12.5 14.3 11.2 5.5 5.1 5.6 139.6
Source: Weather China

History

During the early Qing, Zhangzhou was the primary Fujianese port trading with Portuguese Macao and Spanish Manila. For a time, the Portuguese maintained a factory in the city.[6]

During the late Qing, Zhangzhou remained a center of silk, brick, and sugar production with about a million people and extensive internal and maritime trade. Its city wall had a circumference of about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) but included a good deal of open ground and farmland. Its streets were paved with granite but badly maintained. The 800-foot (240 m) bridge across the Jiulong River consisted of wooden planks laid between 25 piles of stones at roughly equal intervals.[3] The port of Xiamen in an island at the mouth of the Jiulong principally functioned as a trading center for the produce and wares of Zhangzhou and its hinterland;[4] both suffered economically when Indian tea plantations cratered demand for Fujianese tea in the late 19th century.[7]

The old city of Zhangzhou (now Xiangcheng District) was occupied in April and May 1932 by a column of Communist guerrillas under Mao Zedong. Due to the presence of Western gunboats in Xiamen Bay, arms shipments from the Soviet Union were unable to get up the Jiulong River to Mao's forces and the main Communist bases. Discovering this, Mao retreated from the city, according to some accounts with a substantial amount of loot taken from its residents.[8]

Administrative divisions

Zhangzhou comprises 2 urban districts, 1 county-level city, and 8 counties.

  1. Xiangcheng District (芗城区)
  2. Longwen District (龙文区)
  3. Longhai City (龙海市)
  4. Changtai County (长泰县)
  5. Dongshan County (东山县)
  6. Hua'an County (华安县)
  7. Nanjing County (南靖县)
  8. Pinghe County (平和县)
  9. Yunxiao County (云霄县)
  10. Zhangpu County (漳浦县)
  11. Zhao'an County (诏安县)
Map

Demographics

The main language of the Zhangzhounese is the local dialect of Min Nan, part of the Southern Min branch of Min Chinese. Government, education, and official business, however, are carried out in Mandarin.

Hakka is also spoken parts of hilly and rural parts of western and southern Zhangzhou

Economy

Babao seal paste was invented by the druggist Wei Changan as a traditional medicine in 1673. It was repurposed for artistic use a few years later and gained imperial favor under the Qianlong Emperor. It remains prized for its bright color and pleasant smell.

A major petrochemical plant, producing paraxylene, owned by Taiwan-based Xianglu Group is located in Zhangzhou's Gulei Peninsula. The plant suffered major fires in 2013 and 2015.[9]

Transportation

Two passenger stations serve Zhangzhou:

Education

Notable residents

  • Chen Yuanguang (657–711), a leader of the movement to sinicize Fujian and northern Guangdong
  • Khaw Soo Cheang (1786–1882), merchant and governor of a Thai province
  • Lim Gu Tong (1895–1976), international author, cultural ambassador and inventor.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b 漳州市2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in Chinese). Zhangzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
  2. ^ "Zhangzhou". Collins English Dictionary.
  3. ^ a b c EB (1878).
  4. ^ a b Wikisource Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 748.
  5. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 33.
  6. ^ a b Wikisource Yule, Henry (1878), "Chinchew", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 673
  7. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 878.
  8. ^ Zhang Rong; et al. (2005), Mao: The Unknown Story, p. 117.
  9. ^ A contentious chemical plant in China has exploded for the second time in two years

References

External links

Changtai County

Changtai County is a county in Zhangzhou Prefecture in southern Fujian Province in the People's Republic of China. It is located just outside the Zhangzhou's central urban area.

Glove puppetry

Glove puppetry (Chinese: 布袋戲; pinyin: bùdàixì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: pò͘-tē-hì) is a type of opera using cloth puppets that originated during the 17th century in Quanzhou or Zhangzhou of China's Fujian province, and historically practised in the Min Nan-speaking areas such as Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, the Chaoshan region of Guangdong, and other parts of southern China. It had since established itself contemporarily as a popular art form in Taiwan.

The puppet's head uses wood carved into the shape of a hollow human head, but aside from the head, palms, and feet, which are made of wood, the puppet's torso and limbs consist entirely of cloth costumes. At the time of the performance, a gloved hand enters the puppet's costume and makes it perform. In previous years the puppets used in this type of performance strongly resembled "cloth sacks," hence the name, which literally means "cloth bag opera."

Han Yue

Han Yue (Chinese: 韩悦; pinyin: Hán Yùe; Wade–Giles: Han Yue; born 18 November 1999) is a Chinese badminton player.

Hokkien

Hokkien (; from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-ōe) or Minnan language (閩南語/闽南话), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, and spoken widely there. It is also spoken widely in Taiwan and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min.

It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Putian dialect, Hainanese and Leizhou dialect due to hitorical influences.

Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.

Hoklo Taiwanese

Hoklo Taiwanese (Chinese: 閩南裔臺灣人) are a major ethnic group in Taiwan whose ancestry is wholly or partially Hoklo. Being Taiwanese of Han origin, they are generally bilingual in Taiwanese Mandarin and Taiwanese Hokkien. Most descend from the Hoklo people of Quanzhou or Zhangzhou in Southern Fujian, China. The term as commonly understood signifies those whose ancestors immigrated to Taiwan before 1949.

List of administrative divisions of Fujian

Fujian is a province of China, with the vast majority administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the offshore islands of Kinmen (Jinmen/Quemoy) and Matsu (Mazu) administered by the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan.

The PRC-administered Fujian province is made up of the following three levels of administrative division.

All of these administrative divisions are explained in greater detail at Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China. This chart lists only prefecture-level and county-level divisions of Fujian as given by the PRC.

For the list of township-level divisions within each county, see List of township-level divisions of Fujian.

Liu Xiaolong

Liu Xiaolong (Chinese: 刘小龙; born 12 May 1988 in Zhangzhou) is a male Chinese badminton player who is a doubles specialist. A left hander, he is the former winner of the All England Championships.

Longhai City

Longhai is a county-level city within the prefecture-level city of Zhangzhou, in the south of Fujian province, People's Republic of China. Longhai comprises territory on both banks of the lower Jiulong River, although most of its area is on the right (southern) bank. The left bank yields to Xiamen before reaching the sea, the right bank becomes the south shore of Xiamen Bay and is home to the Zhangzhou Port tariff-free industrial export zone, in Longhai's Gangwei Town.

Longhai has a population of 801,100.

Medan Hokkien

Medan Hokkien is a local variant of Hokkien spoken among the Chinese in Medan, Indonesia. It is the lingua franca in Medan as well as other northern city states of North Sumatra surrounding it, and is a subdialect of Zhangzhou (漳州) dialect, together with widespread use of Indonesian and English borrowed words. It is predominantly a spoken dialect: it is rarely written in Chinese characters as Indonesia had banned the use of Chinese characters back in New Order era, and there is no standard romanisation.

Minnan Normal University

Minnan Normal University, ' (Chinese: 闽南师范大学; pinyin: Mǐnnán Shīfàn Xuéyuàn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bân-lâm-su-hōan-tāi-ha̍k) previously known as Zhangzhou Normal University (Chinese: 漳州师范学院; pinyin: Zhāngzhōu Shīfàn Xuéyuàn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chiang-chiu-su-hōan-tāi-ha̍k) is a public university located in Zhangzhou, Fujian, China.

Nanshan Temple (Zhangzhou)

Nanshan Temple (Chinese: 南山寺; pinyin: Nánshān Sì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lâm-soaⁿ-sī) is a Buddhist temple located in the foothills of Mount Danxia (丹霞山) to the south of Zhangzhou City, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the most important Chinese Buddhism temples on the Chinese mainland.

Philippine Hokkien

Philippine Hokkien (Chinese: 咱儂話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lán-lâng-ōe; literally: "our people's language"), is the variant of Hokkien as spoken by about 98.7% of the ethnic Chinese population of the Philippines. A mixed version that involves this language with Tagalog and English is Hokaglish.

Singaporean Hokkien

Singaporean Hokkien (Chinese: 新加坡福建话; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Sin-ka-pho Hok-kiàn-ōe; Tâi-lô: Sin-ka-pho Hok-kiàn-uē) is a local variant of the Hokkien language spoken in Singapore. In Chinese academic circles, this dialect is known as Singaporean Ban-lam Gu (新加坡閩南語, Sin-ka-pho Bân-lâm-gu). It is closely related to the Southern Malaysian Hokkien (南马福建话) spoken in Southern Malaysia, as well as to Riau Hokkien (廖内福建话) spoken in the Indonesian province of Riau. It also closely resembles Amoy (厦门话) spoken in Amoy, China, and Taiwanese Hokkien (台灣閩南語/台語/台灣話) which is spoken in Taiwan.

Hokkien, is the Min Nan pronunciation for Fujian province, China, and is generally the term used by the Chinese in South-East Asia to refer to the Banlam dialect (闽南语). Singaporean Hokkien generally uses Amoy as its standard, and its accent is predominantly based on a mixture of Quanzhou (泉州话) and Zhangzhou (漳州话) speech, with a greater inclination towards the former.

Like many spoken languages in Singapore, Singaporean Hokkien is influenced by other languages or dialects spoken in Singapore. For instance, Singaporean Hokkien is influenced to a certain degree by Teochew, and is sometimes regarded as a combined Hokkien-Teochew speech (福潮话). In addition, it has many loanwords from Malay and English.

Nevertheless, the grammar and tones of Singaporean Hokkien are still largely based on Minnan. When compared to Taiwanese's prestige accent (台语优势腔) spoken in Tainan (台南) and Kaohsiung (高雄), Singaporean Hokkien pronunciation inclines toward the Quanzhou accent (泉州腔), is also close to the pronunciation of Taipei and Amoy, and is less close to that of Tainan which has a greater inclination towards the Zhangzhou accent (漳州腔).

A Singaporean would likely not have trouble conversing with Taiwanese speakers in Singaporean Hokkien, with the exception of some Japanese loanwords. Similarly, Singaporean Hokkien is understood by Taiwanese speakers, with the exception of some Malay and English loanwords.

Swatow ware

Swatow ware or Zhangzhou ware is a loose grouping of mainly late Ming dynasty Chinese export porcelain wares initially intended for the Southeast Asian market. The traditional name in the West arose because Swatow, or present-day Shantou, was the South Chinese port in Guangdong province from which the wares were thought to have been shipped. The many kilns were probably located all over the coastal region, but mostly near Zhangzhou, Pinghe County, Fujian, where several were excavated in the mid-1990s, which has clarified matters considerably.Many authorities now prefer to call the wares Zhangzhou ware, as it seems that Swatow did not become an important export port until the 19th century, and the wares were actually probably exported from Yuegang, now Longhai City, Zhangzhou. The precise dates for the beginning and ending of production remain uncertain, but the evidence from archaeology suggests production between about 1575–1650, though an earlier start has been proposed. The peak levels of production may have ended around 1620.

Compared to contemporary Jingdezhen porcelain, Swatow ware is generally coarse, crudely potted and often under-fired. Decoration in underglaze blue and white using cobalt is the most common, and was probably the only type of decoration at first, but there are many polychrome wares, using red, green, turquoise, black and yellow overglaze enamels. Underglaze blue decoration had been common in Chinese ceramics for over two centuries, but polychrome enamels had been relatively unusual before this period. The pieces are mostly "large open forms such as dishes, painted with sketchy designs over the glaze in red, green, turquoise and black enamels". On the other hand, the "drawing has a spontaneity not found in the central tradition" of finer wares.While "Swatow ware" is typically reserved for pieces with the characteristic styles of decoration, "Zhangzhou ware" also covers other types of wares made in the same kilns, for export or not, including large stoneware storage jars, whitewares, and a few figurines of the blanc de Chine type.

Taiwanese Hokkien

Taiwanese Hokkien (; Chinese: 臺灣閩南語; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-oân Bân-lâm-gú; translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known simply as the Taiwanese language (臺灣話; Tâi-oân-oē / 臺灣語; Tâi-oân-gú), is a variety of Hokkien Chinese spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. It is spoken by the Taiwanese Hoklo people, who descended from immigrants from southern Fujian during the Qing dynasty. The Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) romanization is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien.

Taiwanese Hokkien is generally similar to the speeches of Amoy, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou (branches of Chinese Minnan), as well as their dialectal forms used in Southeast Asia and are generally mutually intelligible. The mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan has given prominence to the Taiwanese variety of Hokkien, especially since the 1980s.

Xiangcheng District, Zhangzhou

Xiangcheng District (simplified Chinese: 芗城区; traditional Chinese: 薌城區; pinyin: Xiāngchéng Qū; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hiang-sêng-khu), or Sin Kang District in Min Nan, is a district of Zhangzhou, Fujian province, People's Republic of China.

Xu Haifeng

Xu Haifeng (simplified Chinese: 许海峰; traditional Chinese: 許海峰; pinyin: Xǔ Hǎifēng, Born August 10, 1957 in Zhangzhou, Fujian) is a male Chinese pistol shooter, and the first person to win a gold medal for China in the Olympic Games. He specializes in the 50 metre pistol event. He is a native of He County, Anhui.

The first gold medal for China was won by Xu in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, while his teammate Wang Yifu won bronze. After retiring in 1995, he became a coach for the Chinese National Shooting Team.

Xu was the torchbearer to bring the Olympic Torch into the Beijing National Stadium, near the end of the 2008 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony.

Xu is married to Zhao Lei, the daughter of his coach in the Chinese National Shooting Team. They have a daughter, Xu Jia.

Xu is currently the Deputy Director of Chinese Cycling and Fencing Administration Centre.

Zhangzhou dialect

The Zhangzhou dialect (simplified Chinese: 漳州话; traditional Chinese: 漳州話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chiang-chiu-ōa), also known as Changchew dialect or Changchow dialect, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in southern Fujian province (in southeast China), centered on the city of Zhangzhou. It is the source of some former place names in English, including Amoy (from [ɛ˨˩ mui˩˧], now called Xiamen) and Quemoy (from [kim˨ mui˩˧], now called Kinmen).

Zhangzhou railway station

Zhangzhou railway station is the main train station of the Zhangzhou metropolitan area in China's Fujian Province. The station is located in Hongtang Village (洪塘村) of Longhai City, about 10 km south of downtown Zhangzhou. It is located on the common section of the Longxia Railway (Longyan-Xiamen; opened in mid-2012) and the Xiashen Railway (Xiamen-Shenzhen Railway; opened at the end of 2013).

Railway development plans also include the construction of a 45-km-long branch line from Zhangzhou railway station eastward, across most of Longhai City, to terminate at the China Merchants Group industrial area (招商局漳州开发区) on the southwestern shore of Xiamen Harbor, opposite Xiamen Island (24°24′31″N 118°01′037″E). The branch will be known as the Gangwei Railway (港尾铁路), and will support trains running at speeds up to 120 km/h. Its opening is planned for 2013.

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