Zhangzhou

Zhangzhou (/ˈdʒæŋˈdʒoʊ/),[2] formerly romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen. During the 2010 census, the entire area of Zhangzhou was home to 4,809,983 inhabitants. Along with the 1.9 million people of central Xiamen, its urban districts of Longwen and Xiangcheng, together with Longhai, form a single metropolitan area of about 5 million people (2010).

Zhangzhou
漳州市
Prefecture-level city
Zhangzhou Caishi Minju 20120225-06
Location of Zhangzhou City jurisdiction in Fujian
Location of Zhangzhou City jurisdiction in Fujian
Zhangzhou is located in China
Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 24°31′N 117°39′E / 24.517°N 117.650°ECoordinates: 24°31′N 117°39′E / 24.517°N 117.650°E
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceFujian
Area
 • Prefecture-level city12,888 km2 (4,976 sq mi)
 • Urban366 km2 (141 sq mi)
 • Metro3,257 km2 (1,258 sq mi)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city4,809,983
 • Density370/km2 (970/sq mi)
 • Urban596,165
 • Urban density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
 • Metro4,984,482
 • Metro density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code363000
Area code(s)596
ISO 3166 codeCN-FJ-06
GDP2016[1]
 - TotalCNY 312.534 billion (USD 47.052 billion)
 - Per capitaCNY 62,196 (USD 9,364)
 - GrowthIncrease 11.0%
License Plate闽E
Local dialectMin Nan: Zhangzhou dialect
City treesCinnamomum camphora
City flowersNarcissus tazetta
Websitezhangzhou.gov.cn
Zhangzhou
PostalChangchow
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhāngzhōu
Bopomofoㄓㄤ   ㄓㄡ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhJangjou
Wade–GilesChang¹-chou¹
IPA[ʈʂáŋ.ʈʂóu]
Southern Min
Hokkien POJChiang-chiu

Name

Zhangzhou is the atonal pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name 漳州, using its pronunciation in Standard Mandarin. The name derives from the city's former status as the seat of the imperial Chinese Zhang Prefecture. The same name was romanized as "Changchow" on the Chinese Postal Map and Chang-chou in Wade-Giles. Other romanizations include Chang-chow.[3]

It also appears as Chang-chu,[4] Chiang-chiu,[5] Chiang-chew, or Chiang Chew from the city's local Hokkien name Chiang-chiu. This name appeared in Spanish and Portuguese Jesuit sources as Chincheo, which was anglicized as Chinchew. By the 19th century, however, this name had migrated and was used to refer to Quanzhou, a separate port about 65 miles (105 km) east-northeast of central Zhangzhou.[6]

Geography

Zhangzhou proper lies on the banks of the Jiulong River in southern Fujian about 35 miles (56 km) from central Xiamen,[3] whose urban core has grown to form a single urbanized area with it. The prefecture of Zhangzhou comprises the southeastern corner of the province, surrounding Xiamen. The prefecture of Quanzhou lies to its northeast, Longyan to its northwest, and Shantou in Guangdong to its southwest.

Climate

Zhangzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with mild to warm winters and long, very hot and humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 13.2 °C (55.8 °F) in January to 28.8 °C (83.8 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 21.3 °C (70.3 °F). The frost-free period lasts 330 days.

Climate data for Zhangzhou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
30.3
(86.5)
33.7
(92.7)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
37.6
(99.7)
38.6
(101.5)
38.1
(100.6)
37.1
(98.8)
34.6
(94.3)
35.2
(95.4)
29.1
(84.4)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
20.3
(68.5)
24.6
(76.3)
27.8
(82)
31.0
(87.8)
33.6
(92.5)
33.1
(91.6)
31.2
(88.2)
28.2
(82.8)
24.4
(75.9)
20.3
(68.5)
25.9
(78.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
13.5
(56.3)
15.9
(60.6)
20.2
(68.4)
23.7
(74.7)
26.8
(80.2)
28.8
(83.8)
28.3
(82.9)
26.7
(80.1)
23.5
(74.3)
19.3
(66.7)
15.1
(59.2)
21.3
(70.3)
Average low °C (°F) 10.0
(50)
10.7
(51.3)
13.0
(55.4)
17.1
(62.8)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
25.3
(77.5)
25.1
(77.2)
23.5
(74.3)
20.1
(68.2)
15.6
(60.1)
11.4
(52.5)
18.0
(64.5)
Record low °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.3
(34.3)
3.0
(37.4)
7.3
(45.1)
12.3
(54.1)
17.0
(62.6)
21.0
(69.8)
21.3
(70.3)
16.8
(62.2)
7.6
(45.7)
4.8
(40.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 41.0
(1.614)
84.8
(3.339)
114.0
(4.488)
168.4
(6.63)
207.2
(8.157)
278.6
(10.969)
171.9
(6.768)
232.8
(9.165)
170.0
(6.693)
63.0
(2.48)
38.2
(1.504)
34.5
(1.358)
1,604.4
(63.165)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.5 12.2 14.9 15.2 16.9 17.7 12.5 14.3 11.2 5.5 5.1 5.6 139.6
Source: Weather China

History

During the early Qing, Zhangzhou was the primary Fujianese port trading with Portuguese Macao and Spanish Manila. For a time, the Portuguese maintained a factory in the city.[6]

During the late Qing, Zhangzhou remained a center of silk, brick, and sugar production with about a million people and extensive internal and maritime trade. Its city wall had a circumference of about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) but included a good deal of open ground and farmland. Its streets were paved with granite but badly maintained. The 800-foot (240 m) bridge across the Jiulong River consisted of wooden planks laid between 25 piles of stones at roughly equal intervals.[3] The port of Xiamen in an island at the mouth of the Jiulong principally functioned as a trading center for the produce and wares of Zhangzhou and its hinterland;[4] both suffered economically when Indian tea plantations cratered demand for Fujianese tea in the late 19th century.[7]

The old city of Zhangzhou (now Xiangcheng District) was occupied in April and May 1932 by a column of Communist guerrillas under Mao Zedong. Due to the presence of Western gunboats in Xiamen Bay, arms shipments from the Soviet Union were unable to get up the Jiulong River to Mao's forces and the main Communist bases. Discovering this, Mao retreated from the city, according to some accounts with a substantial amount of loot taken from its residents.[8]

Administrative divisions

Zhangzhou comprises 2 urban districts, 1 county-level city, and 8 counties.

  1. Xiangcheng District (芗城区)
  2. Longwen District (龙文区)
  3. Longhai City (龙海市)
  4. Changtai County (长泰县)
  5. Dongshan County (东山县)
  6. Hua'an County (华安县)
  7. Nanjing County (南靖县)
  8. Pinghe County (平和县)
  9. Yunxiao County (云霄县)
  10. Zhangpu County (漳浦县)
  11. Zhao'an County (诏安县)
Map

Demographics

The main language of the Zhangzhounese is the local dialect of Min Nan, part of the Southern Min branch of Min Chinese. Government, education, and official business, however, are carried out in Mandarin.

Hakka is also spoken parts of hilly and rural parts of western and southern Zhangzhou

Economy

Babao seal paste was invented by the druggist Wei Changan as a traditional medicine in 1673. It was repurposed for artistic use a few years later and gained imperial favor under the Qianlong Emperor. It remains prized for its bright color and pleasant smell.

A major petrochemical plant, producing paraxylene, owned by Taiwan-based Xianglu Group is located in Zhangzhou's Gulei Peninsula. The plant suffered major fires in 2013 and 2015.[9]

Transportation

Two passenger stations serve Zhangzhou:

Education

Notable residents

  • Chen Yuanguang (657–711), a leader of the movement to sinicize Fujian and northern Guangdong
  • Khaw Soo Cheang (1786–1882), merchant and governor of a Thai province
  • Lin Yutang (1895–1976), international author, cultural ambassador and inventor.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b 漳州市2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in Chinese). Zhangzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
  2. ^ "Zhangzhou". Collins English Dictionary.
  3. ^ a b c EB (1878).
  4. ^ a b Wikisource Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 748.
  5. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 33.
  6. ^ a b Wikisource Yule, Henry (1878), "Chinchew", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 673
  7. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 878.
  8. ^ Zhang Rong; et al. (2005), Mao: The Unknown Story, p. 117.
  9. ^ A contentious chemical plant in China has exploded for the second time in two years

References

External links

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