Zeleia (Ζέλεια) was a town of the ancient Troad, at the foot of Mount Ida and on the banks of the river Aesepus, at a distance of 80 stadia from its mouth.[1][2] It is mentioned by Homer in the Trojan Battle Order in the Iliad, and later when Homer calls it a holy town.[3] Zeleia led a force of warriors to aid Troy during the Trojan War, led by Pandarus, son of Lycaon (the latter Lycaon not to be confused with Lycaon, son of Priam. It is later related that the people of Zeleia are "Lycians", though the Zeleians are distinct from the Lycians who come from Lycia in southwestern Asia Minor, led by Sarpedon and Glaucus. The connection between the 'Lycians' of Zeleia and these Lycians is unclear—if there is any connection at all. Arrian mentions it as the head-quarters of the Persian army before the Battle of the Granicus, in May 334 BCE, where the Persian satraps held a council at Zeleia where they discussed how best to confront Alexander the Great.[4] It existed in the time of Strabo; but afterwards it disappears.[1]

Its site is located near Sarıköy, Asiatic Turkey.[5][6]


  1. ^ a b Strabo. Geographica. xii. p.565, xiii. pp. 585, 587, 603. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  2. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v.
  3. ^ Homer. Iliad. 2.824, 3.103.
  4. ^ Arrian Anabasis Alexandri 1.13
  5. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 56, and directory notes accompanying.
  6. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Zeleia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 40°12′13″N 27°35′42″E / 40.2035643°N 27.5950731°E

334 BC

Year 334 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caudinus and Calvinus (or, less frequently, year 420 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 334 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Aesepus River

The Aesepus River or Aisepos River (Ancient Greek: ἡ Αἴσηπος) was a river of Northern Mysia, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad as flowing past Zeleia, at the foot of Ida; and in another passage as one of the streams that flow from Ida. According to Strabo's interpretation of Homer, the Aesepus was the eastern boundary of Mysia. The Aesepus is the largest river of Mysia. According to Strabo, it rises in Mount Cotylus, one of the summits of Ida, and the distance between its source and its outlet is near 500 stadia. It is joined on the left bank by the Caresus, another stream which flows from Cotylus; and then taking a northeasterly and northerly course, it enters the Propontis, between the mouth of the Granicus River and the city of Cyzicus. The modern name is Gönen Çay.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Caresene or Karesene (Ancient Greek: Καρησήνη) was a mountainous tract in the ancient Troad, which contained many villages, and was well cultivated. It bordered on the Dardanice as far as the parts about Zeleia and Pityeia. It was named from the Caresus River, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, which flows into the Aesepus River. The Caresus has a considerable valley (αὐλῶν), but less than that of the Aesepus. Strabo says that the Andrius or Andirus River (the modern Kursak Çay), which flows into the Scamander River, also rises in the Caresene, part of which is therefore probably a high plateau, on which the Andrius and Caresus rise. The Caresus springs between Palaescepsis and Achaeum, which is opposite to the island of Tenedos. There was a city Caresus, but it was ruined before Strabo's time.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

List of Homeric characters

This is a list of principal characters in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.

List of ancient Greek tyrants

This is a list of tyrants from Ancient Greece.

Lycaon (Greek myth)

In Greek mythology, Lycaon (/laɪˈkeɪɒn/; Greek: Λυκάων) was the name of the following personages:

Lycaon or Lycon, son of the giant Aezeius, one of the first Peloponnesian kings, by a nymph. He was the father of Deianira, mother of the impious Lycaon below.

Lycaon, king of Arcadia and son of Pelasgus.

Lycaon, son of Ares and possibly Pelopia or Pyrene, and thus, the brother of Cycnus. Like his brother, he was also killed by Heracles in one of his adventures.

Lycaon, also called Lycus, son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno. He was the brother of King Eurypylus of Cyrene.

Lycaon, son of the above Eurypylus and Sterope, daughter of Helios, and thus, brother of Leucippus.

Lycaon, a Trojan prince and son of Priam and Laothoe. He lent his cuirass to Paris when he duelled against Menelaus. On another occasion Apollo took the shape of Lycaon to address Aeneas. During the third year of the war, Lycaon was captured and eventually killed by Achilles.

Lycaon, father of Pandarus and Eurytion, a companion of Aeneas in Italy. He was a resident of Zeleia in Lycia and together with his son, Lycaon responded to the call of King Priam in Troy when the city was attacked by a large army of the Greeks.Lycaon of Gnossos, one who fashioned the sword that Ascanius, son of Aeneas, gave to Euryalus.

Lycaon, father of Erichaetes, one of the soldiers of Aeneas in Italy.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Niphates (Persian general)

Niphates (Greek: Νιφάτης) was one of the Persian generals in the battle of the Granicus in 334 BC in Asia Minor. He was stationed on the Persian right during the battle formation, along with Rheomithres and Petenes, and faced the Thessalians, which according to Arrian did heavy damage to the Persians. The scarcity of the details regarding his participation is attributed to the focus of the available sources on Alexander, who fought the Lydians, Rhoesaces and Spithridates in the center. An earlier timeline, put him in a council with other Persian generals and the Persian cavalry near the city of Zeleia. Niphates was killed during the battle at Granicus.


Pandarus or Pandar (Ancient Greek: Πάνδαρος Pándaros) is a Trojan aristocrat who appears in stories about the Trojan War.

In Homer's Iliad he is portrayed as an energetic and powerful warrior, but in medieval literature he becomes a witty and licentious figure who facilitates the affair between Troilus and Cressida.

In Shakespeare's play Troilus and Cressida, he is portrayed as an aged degenerate and coward who ends the play by telling the audience he will bequeath them his "diseases".


Sarıköy may refer to:

Sarıköy, Balıkesir, a village in Balıkesir Province, Turkey, site of ancient Zeleia

Sarıköy, Başmakçı, a village in the District of Başmakçı, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey

Sarıköy, Çine, a village in the District of Çine, Aydın Province, Turkey

Sarıköy, Merzifon, a village in the District of Merzifon, Amasya Province, Turkey


Sillyon (Greek: Σίλλυον), also Sylleion (Σύλλειον), in Byzantine times Syllaeum or Syllaion (Συλλαῖον), was an important fortress and city near Attaleia in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of modern Turkey. The native Greco-Pamphylian form was Selyniys, possibly deriving from the original Hittite Sallawassi. Its modern Turkish names are Yanköy Hisarı or Asar Köy.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Trojan Battle Order

The Trojan Battle Order or Trojan Catalogue is an epic catalogue in the second book of the Iliad listing the allied contingents that fought for Troy in the Trojan War. The catalogue is noted for its deficit of detail compared to the immediately preceding Catalogue of Ships, which lists the Greek contingents, and for the fact that only a few of the many Trojans mentioned in the Iliad appear there.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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