Zeeland

Zeeland (/ˈziːlənd/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈzeːlɑnt] (listen), Zeelandic: Zeêland [ˈzɪə̯lɑnt], historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands and peninsulas (hence its name, meaning "Sealand") and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg. Its area is about 2,930 square kilometres (1,130 sq mi), of which almost 1,140 square kilometres (440 sq mi) is water, and it has a population of about 380,000.

Large parts of Zeeland are below sea level. The last great flooding of the area was in 1953. Tourism is an important economic activity. In the summer, its beaches make it a popular destination for tourists, especially German tourists. In some areas, the population can be two to four times higher during the high summer season. The coat of arms of Zeeland shows a lion half-emerged from water, and the text luctor et emergo (Latin for "Ik worstel en kom boven" (I struggle and emerge)).[2] The country of New Zealand was named after Zeeland after it was sighted by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman.

Zeeland
Coat of arms of Zeeland

Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Luctor et emergo
'Ik worstel en kom boven'
(I struggle and emerge)
Anthem: "Zeeuws volkslied"
"Zeelandic Anthem"
Location of Zeeland in the Netherlands
Location of Zeeland in the Netherlands
Coordinates: 51°34′N 3°45′E / 51.567°N 3.750°ECoordinates: 51°34′N 3°45′E / 51.567°N 3.750°E
CountryNetherlands
CapitalMiddelburg
Largest cityTerneuzen
Government
 • King's CommissionerHan Polman (D66)
Area
 • Total2,934 km2 (1,133 sq mi)
 • Land1,788 km2 (690 sq mi)
 • Water1,146 km2 (442 sq mi)
Area rank8th nationally
Population
(2014)
 • Total380,621
 • Rank12th nationally
 • Density130/km2 (340/sq mi)
 • Density rank11th nationally
Demonym(s)Zeelander
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNL-ZE
HDI (2017)0.904[1]
very high · 10th

History

1580 Zelandicarum v Deventer
The County of Zeeland in 1580.

Nehalennia is a mythological goddess of an ancient religion known around the province of Zeeland. Her worship dates back at least to the 2nd century BC,[3] and flourished in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.[3] She was possibly a regional god, either Celtic or pre-Germanic – but sources differ on the culture that first worshipped her. During the Roman era, her main function appeared to be the protection of travelers, especially seagoing travelers crossing the North Sea. Most of what is known about her mythology comes from the remains of carved stone offerings (votives) which have been dredged up from the Oosterschelde (Eastern Scheldt) since 1970. Two more Nehalennia offering stones have also been found in Cologne, Germany.[3]

Zeeland was a contested area between the counts of Holland and Flanders until 1299, when the last count of Holland died, the Counts of Hainaut gained control of the countship of Zeeland, followed by the counts of Bavaria, Burgundy and Habsburg. After 1585 Zeeland followed, as one of the 7 independent provinces, the fate of the Northern part of The Netherlands.

In 1432 it became part of the Low Countries possessions of Philip the Good of Burgundy, the later Seventeen Provinces. Through marriage, the Seventeen Provinces became the property of the Habsburgs in 1477. In the Eighty Years' War, Zeeland was on the side of the Union of Utrecht, and became one of the United Provinces. The area now called Zeeuws-Vlaanderen (or Zeelandic Flanders) was not part of Zeeland, but a part of the county of Flanders (still under Habsburg control) that was conquered by the United Provinces, hence called Staats-Vlaanderen (see: Generality Lands).

After the French occupation (see département Bouches-de-l'Escaut) and the formation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the present province Zeeland was formed.

During World War II, Zeeland was occupied by Nazi Germany between June 1940 and November 1944.[2] In 1944, Zeeland was devastated by the Battle of the Scheldt and the Walcheren Landings, which brought about the Inundation of Walcheren, between British and Canadian forces, and the occupying Germans.[4]

The catastrophic North Sea flood of 1953, which killed over 1800 people in Zeeland, led to the construction of the protective Delta Works.

Geography

2013-P09-ZD-b
A map of Zeeland.

The province of Zeeland is a large river delta situated at the mouth of several major rivers, namely Scheldt ('Schelde'), Rhine ('Rijn') and Meuse ('Maas'). Most of the province lies below sea level and was reclaimed from the sea by inhabitants over time. What used to be a muddy landscape, flooding at high tide and reappearing at low tide, became a series of small man-made hills that stayed dry at all times. The people of the province would later connect the hills by creating dikes, which led to a chain of dry land that later grew into bigger islands and gave the province its current shape. The shape of the islands has changed over time at the hands of both man and nature.

The North Sea flood of 1953 inundated vast amounts of land that were only partially reclaimed. The subsequent construction of the Delta Works also changed the face of the province. The infrastructure, although very distinct by the number of bridges, tunnels and dams, has not shaped the geography of the province so much as the geography of the province has shaped its infrastructure. The dams, tunnels and bridges that are currently a vital part of the province's road system were constructed over the span of decades and came to replace old ferry lines. The final touch to this process came in 2003 when the Western Scheldt Tunnel was opened. It was the first solid connection between both banks of the Western Scheldt and ended the era of water separating the islands and peninsulas of Zeeland.

Zeeland consists of several islands and peninsulas. These are, from north to south, Schouwen-Duiveland, Tholen, Noord-Beveland, Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland. It also includes a strip of land bordering the Belgian region of Flanders, the Zeelandic Flanders.

Municipalities

The province of Zeeland has 13 municipalities:

Municipalities in Zeeland

The largest cities are: Middelburg: 41.000, Vlissingen: 34.000, Goes: 27.000 and Terneuzen: 25.000 inhabitants.

Demographics

As of 1 January 2014, Zeeland has a population of 380,621[5] and a population density of 210/km2 (540/sq mi). It is the 12th most populous or least populous province and the 2nd least densely populated province of the Netherlands.

Religion

Zeeland is mainly a Protestant region; Calvinism is dominant.

There are also adherents of the Roman Catholic Church. After being long part of the vast Franco-Flemish Roman Catholic Diocese of Cambrai, Zeeland got its own bishopric, the Diocese of Middelburg, on 5 December 1559, which was suppressed in 1603, its territory being merged into the Apostolic Vicariate of Batavia, only to be 'restored' on March 22, 1803 as the Apostolic Vicariate of Breda, which was promoted to the present large (yet counting few faithful) Diocese of Breda, whose See is in the other part, western North Brabant, and enlarged further in 1955, gaining territory from the Roman Catholic Diocese of Haarlem-Amsterdam.

Politics

Middelburg Abdij R01
The States of Zeeland are located in a former abbey in Middelburg.

Provincial council

The States-Provincial (Provinciale Staten) of Zeeland are the provincial council, called the States of Zeeland.

Parties 2007 2011 2015
CDA 10 6 6
VVD 6 7 6
SGP 5 4 6
SP 5 3 4
PVV - 5 4
PvdA 6 7 4
D66 0 2 3
ChristianUnion 3 2 2
Zeeland Local - - 1
Party for Zeeland 2 2 1
GreenLeft 2 1 1
50PLUS - 0 1
Total 39 39 39

Provincial executive

The Provincial-Executive (Gedeputeerde Staten) of Zeeland and the King's Commissioner (Commissaris van de Koning) of Zeeland are the provincial executive.

Han Polman, member of D66, has been the King's Commissioner of Zeeland since 2013.

As of the 2007 provincial election a coalition consisted of CDA, SGP, ChristianUnion and GreenLeft, with 20 of 39 seats.

As of the 2011 provincial election a coalition consisted of VVD, PvdA, CDA and SGP, with 24 of 39 seats.

As of the 2015 provincial election the same coalition consists of CDA, VVD, SGP and PvdA, with 22 of 39 seats.

Transportation

There is one passenger railway, here with municipalities and official station abbreviations:

Vlissingen (vs, vss) – Middelburg (mdb, arn) – Goes (gs) – Kapelle (bzl) – Reimerswaal (krg, kbd, rb) – connecting to Bergen op Zoom (bgn) (Noord-Brabant).

Bus connections (of Connexxion, except # 395) include:

Media

Provinciale Zeeuwse Courant and BN/De Stem are the regional daily newspapers in the province.

Namesakes

The first westerners to sight New Zealand were captained by Dutch navigator Abel Tasman in 1642, although he did not land there. Tasman named it Staten Landt, believing it to be part of the land of that name off the coast of Argentina that is now known as Isla de los Estados. When that was shown not to be so, Dutch authorities named it Nova Zeelandia in Latin, Nieuw Zeeland in Dutch. The two major seafaring provinces of the Netherlands in its Golden Age were Holland and Zeeland, and originally the Dutch explorers named the largest landmass of Oceania and the two islands to the southeast respectively Nieuw Holland and Nieuw Zeeland. The former was eventually replaced by the name Australia, but the name New Zealand remained in place for the latter. Captain James Cook of Britain later Anglicised the name to New Zealand and, after British settlers arrived in New Zealand, English became the main language.

The city of Zeeland in the US state of Michigan was settled in 1847 by Dutchman Jannes van de Luyster and was incorporated in 1907. The city still maintains a distinctive Dutch flavour. Flushing, a neighborhood within the borough of Queens, New York, is named after the city Flushing (Vlissingen in Dutch) in Zeeland. This dates from the period of the colony of New Netherland, when New York was still known as New Amsterdam. The Dutch colonies of Nieuw Walcheren and Nieuw Vlissingen, both on the Antillian island of Tobago, were both named after parts of Zeeland. The Canadian town of Zealand, New Brunswick, was named for the Zeeland birthplace of Dutchman Philip Crouse who settled in the area in 1789.[6] Zeeland, North Dakota is another town named for this province and whose earliest settlers were of Dutch heritage.

Paramaribo, the capital and largest city of Suriname, has a Fort Zeelandia, the former Fort Willoughby during the British colonization.

Fort Zeelandia was a fortress built over ten years from 1624–1634 by the Dutch East India Company, in the town of Anping (Tainan) on the island of Formosa, present day Taiwan, during their 38-year rule over the western part of it.

References

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b DeWaard, Dirk Marc (1983). Luctor et Emergo: The impact of the Second World War on Zeeland (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  3. ^ a b c Lendering, 2006.
  4. ^ "Operation Infatuate – Walcheren". Combinedops.com. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Regionale kerncijfers Nederland". CBS StatLine (in Dutch). Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Zealand, New Brunswick, Canada". University Educational Series, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2008.

External links

County of Zeeland

The County of Zeeland (Dutch: Graafschap Zeeland) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries. It covered an area in the Scheldt and Meuse delta roughly corresponding to the modern Dutch province of Zeeland. The County of Zeeland did not include the region of Zeelandic Flanders which was part of Flanders; conversely, the modern Province of Zeeland does not include Sommelsdijk, historically part of the County of Zeeland.

De Hoed

The De Hoed Mill is a post mill in Waarde, in the South Beveland region of the Netherlands. The structure was originally built as an oil mill in the town of Gent in 1550, and was converted to a corn mill in the late 17th century. The mill was moved to its current location in 1989. The windmill is listed as a protected structure under rijksmonument number 32419.

Eastern Scheldt

The Eastern Scheldt (Dutch: Oosterschelde) is a former estuary in the province of Zeeland, Netherlands, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen on the north and Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland on the south. It is also the largest national park in the Netherlands, founded in 2002.

Goes

Goes (pronunciation ) is a city and municipality in the southwestern Netherlands on Zuid-Beveland, in the province of Zeeland. The town of Goes has approximately 27,000 residents.

List of windmills in Zeeland

A list of windmills in the Dutch province of Zeeland.

Middelburg

Middelburg (Dutch: [ˈmɪdəlbʏrx] (listen)) is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland. Situated on the central peninsula of the Zeeland province, Midden-Zeeland (consisting of former islands Walcheren, Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland), it has a population of about 48,000.

In terms of technology, Middelburg played a role in the Scientific Revolution at the early modern period. The city was historically a center of lens crafting in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology. The invention of the microscope and telescope is often credited to Middelburg spectacle-makers (including Zacharias Jansen and Hans Lippershey) in the late 16th century and early 17th century.

Oude molen (Kruiningen)

The Oude molen does mean ''Old Mill'' in Dutch. Is a windmill in Kruiningen in the Dutch province of Zeeland.

The windmill was built in 1801 and remained in operation until 1953. In 1959 it was purchased by the municipality. Between 1964 and 1965, and between 1986 and 1992, the mill was completely restored. In 2001 the mill as a whole was moved a little after the windage on the old spot was affected. A voluntary miller, the mill is in operation regularly.

The rods of the mill are approximately 20.70 meters long and feature the traditional Dutch fencing with sails. The mill is equipped with two pairs of millstones.

Roosevelt Institute for American Studies

The Roosevelt Institute for American Studies (RIAS) is a research institute, graduate school, conference center, and library for the study of US history and transatlantic relations in the modern era located in the twelfth-century Abbey of Middelburg, the Netherlands. Up to 2017, it was known as the Roosevelt Study Center. The Institute is named after three famous Americans, whose ancestors emigrated from Zeeland, the Netherlands, to the United States in the seventeenth century: President Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945), and Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962).

Schouwen-Duiveland

Schouwen-Duiveland (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌsxʌuʋə(n)ˈdœyvəlɑnt] (listen)) is a municipality and an island in the southwestern Netherlands province of Zeeland. The municipality has 33 737 inhabitants (January 1, 2016) and covers an area of 488.94 square kilometres (188.78 square miles) (of which 257.87 square kilometres (99.56 square miles) is water).

The northside of the island has two fixed connections to Goeree-Overflakkee, the Brouwersdam and the Grevelingen. The southside has two fixed connections to cross the Oosterschelde to North Beveland, the Stormvloed Kering or Oosterscheldedam, part of the Delta Works and the Zeeland Bridge.

The island is mostly flat and is, besides a small area, below the sea level. On the western tip is a dune chose highest point is about 42 meters above sea level. The island is, in the summer, very popular with (German) tourists. The Renesse area is a popular holiday destination for young people.

The Brouwersdam is a dam, part of the Delta Works, from Schouwen-Duiveland to Goedereede, the west part of the island of Goeree-Overflakkee in South Holland.

Sluis

Sluis (Dutch pronunciation: [slœys] (listen); Zeelandic: Sluus, Dutch pronunciation: [slys]) is the name of both a municipality and a town located in the west of Zeelandic Flanders, in the south-western part of the Netherlands.

The current incarnation of the municipality exists since on 1 January 2003. The former municipalities of Oostburg and Sluis-Aardenburg merged on that date. The latter of these two municipalities was formed from a merger between the previous municipality named Sluis and the former municipality of Aardenburg.

Terneuzen

Terneuzen (Dutch pronunciation: [tɛrˈnøːzə(n)] (listen)) is a city and municipality in the southwestern Netherlands, in the province of Zeeland, in the middle of Zeelandic Flanders. With over 55,000 inhabitants, it is the most populous municipality of Zeeland.

Tholen

Tholen (pronunciation ) is a 25,000 people municipality in the southwest of the Netherlands. The municipality of Tholen takes its name from the town of Tholen, which is the largest population center in the municipality.

The municipality consists of two peninsulas, formerly islands, the larger one on the south also called Tholen, the smaller one on the north called Sint Philipsland. The two are separated by the former strait, now bay, of Krabbenkreek. The municipality is bordered on the east by the Eendracht, once a Scheldt branch but now part of the Scheldt-Rhine Canal, crossed by three road bridges, by the Oosterschelde estuary to the south, the straits of Keeten-Mastgat to the west and the Krammer strait to the north.

The town has a small historical center partly surrounded by a "gracht" and partly bordered by a harbour for fishing boats and yachts.

Veere

Veere (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈveːrə] (listen); Zeelandic: Ter Veere) is a municipality with a population of 22,000 and a town with a population of 1,500 in the southwestern Netherlands, in the region of Walcheren in the province of Zeeland.

Vlissingen

Vlissingen (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈvlɪsɪŋə(n)] (listen); Zeelandic: Vlissienge; historical name in English: Flushing) is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren. With its strategic location between the Scheldt river and the North Sea, Vlissingen has been an important harbour for centuries. It was granted city rights in 1315. In the 17th century Vlissingen was a main harbour for ships of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). It is also known as the birthplace of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter.

Vlissingen is mainly noted for the yards on the Scheldt where most of the ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine) are built.

Walcheren

Walcheren (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋɑlxərə(n)] (listen)) is a region and former island in the Dutch province of Zeeland at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. It lies between the Eastern Scheldt in the north and the Western Scheldt in the south and is roughly the shape of a rhombus. The two sides facing the North Sea consist of dunes; the rest of its coastline is made up of dykes. Middelburg lies at its centre; this city is the provincial capital and Vlissingen 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) to the south is the main harbour. The third municipality is Veere.

Originally, Walcheren was an island, but polders and a dam across the Eastern Scheldt have connected it to the (former) island of Zuid-Beveland, which in turn has been connected to the North Brabant mainland.

Zeeland, Michigan

Zeeland ( ZEE-lənd) is a city in Ottawa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 5,504 at the 2010 census. The city is located at the western edge of Zeeland Charter Township. Its name is taken from the Dutch province of Zeeland.

Zeelandic

Zeelandic (Zeêuws; Zeeuws in Dutch) is a Low Franconian dialect of Dutch spoken in the southwestern parts of the Netherlands. More specifically, it is spoken in the southernmost part of South Holland (Goeree-Overflakkee) and large parts of the province of Zeeland, with the notable exception of eastern Zeelandic Flanders..

It has notable differences mainly in pronunciation but also in grammar and vocabulary, which separates it clearly from Standard Dutch. They make mutual intelligibility with speakers of Standard Dutch difficult.

Zeelandic Flanders

Zeelandic Flanders (Dutch: Zeeuws-Vlaanderen [ˌzeːu̯sˈflaːndərə(n)] (listen), Zeelandic: Zeêuws-Vlaonderen /ʑɪːws ˈvlɒ̃dr̩n/) is the southernmost region of the province of Zeeland in the south-western Netherlands. It lies south of the Western Scheldt that separates the region from the remainder of Zeeland and the Netherlands to the north. Zeelandic Flanders is bordered to the south by Belgium.

Zierikzee

Zierikzee (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈziːrɪkseː]) is a small city in the southwest Netherlands, 30 km southwest of Rotterdam. It is situated in the municipality of Schouwen-Duiveland, Zeeland. The city hall of Schouwen-Duiveland is located in Zierikzee, its largest city. Zierikzee is connected to Oosterschelde through a canal.

In 2001, the town of Zierikzee had 10,313 inhabitants. The built-up area of the town was 3.0 km², and contained 4,295 residences.

The statistical area "Zierikzee", which also can include the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 10,730.

Municipalities of Zeeland

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