Zechariah ben Jehoiada

Zechariah ben Jehoiada[a] is a figure in the Hebrew Bible described as a priest who was stoned to death by Jehoash of Judah and may possibly have been alluded to in the New Testament.

Zechariah ben Jehoiada
ZechBenJeho
The Murder of Zechariah by William Brassey Hole.
Venerated inJudaism
Christianity
Islam

Lineage

Zechariah was the son of Jehoiada, the High Priest in the times of Ahaziah and Jehoash of Judah. After the death of Jehoiada, Zechariah condemned both King Jehoash and the people for their rebellion against God (2 Chronicles 24:20). This so stirred up their resentment against him that at the king's commandment they stoned him, and he died "in the court of the house of the Lord" (24:21).

In rabbinical literature

In rabbinical literature, Zechariah was the son-in-law of the king, and, being also a priest, prophet, and judge, he dared censure the monarch. He was killed in the priests' courtyard of the Temple on a Sabbath which was likewise the Day of Atonement. Later, when Nebuzar-adan, the captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard, came to destroy the Temple, he saw Zechariah's blood which had been boiling since his murder. The Assyrian asked the Jews what that phenomenon meant, but when they replied that it was the blood of sacrifices, he proved the falsity of their answer. The Jews then told him the truth, and Nebuzar-adan, wishing to appease Zechariah's blood, slew in succession the Great and Small Sanhedrins, the young priests, and school-children, till the number of the dead was 940,000. Still the blood continued to boil, whereupon Nebuzar-adan cried: "Zechariah, Zechariah! for thee have I slain the best of them; wouldst thou that I destroy them all?" And at these words the blood ceased to effervesce.[1]

In apocryphal literature

According to the ancient apocryphal Lives of the Prophets, after the death of Zechariah Ben Jehoiada, the priests of the Temple could no more, as before, see the apparitions of the angels of the Lord, nor could make divinations with the Ephod, nor give responses from the Debir.

Possible allusion by Jesus

Most modern Christian commentators identify this Zechariah with the one whose murder Jesus alluded to in Matthew 23:35 and Luke 11:50-51.[2] Zechariah is then understood as representing the last of the martyrs recorded in the Masoretic Text (since the Hebrew sequence of books ends with 2 Chronicles). D. C. Allison notes that Luke 11:49-51 echoes 2 Chron 24:17-25 by referring to the sending of the prophets, the blood of Zechariah and the temple precinct.[3]

The Gospel of Matthew records his name as "Zechariah son of Berechiah". This identification can be reconciled if Jehoiada was Zechariah's grandfather, and Berechiah his father. However, the prophet Zechariah is listed as the son of Berechiah (Zech. 1:1) and some therefore make this identification. The Book of Zechariah is commonly dated to c. 520-518 BC, several hundred years after the reign of Jehoash of Judah, and in this interpretation Zechariah is chronologically the last of the martyrs.

Other identifications of the person Jesus was referring to include the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which considers "Zechariah son of Berechiah" as Zechariah the father of John the Baptist, and his slaying is understood as taking place during the slaughter of the Innocents by Herod.[4]

The venerable theologian Adam Clarke suggests that this allusion by Jesus was actually to Zacharias Baruch, who was indeed slaughtered 'in the middle of the Temple' in the late AD 60s. Clarke says of this: "Some think that Jesus refers ... to the murder of Zacharias son of Baruch ... They gave him a mock trial, and when no evidence could be brought against him ... two of the stoutest of the zealots fell upon him and slew him in the middle of the temple." [5] Clarke has taken this possible allusion from Josephus Flavius' Jewish War 4:343.

Monument

Zetomb
Tomb of Zechariah

According to Jewish tradition, an ancient monument in the Kidron Valley outside the Old City of Jerusalem is identified as the tomb of Zechariah.

Notes

  1. ^ /zɛkəˈraɪ.ə/ (Hebrew: זְכַרְיָה בן יהוידע, Modern: Zekharya ben Yehoyada, Tiberian: Zəḵaryā; Arabic: زكريّا بن يهوياداعZakariya bin Yehuyada)

References

  1. ^ Giṭ. 57b; Sanh. 96b; Lam. R. iv. 13.
  2. ^ Craig Blomberg in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, 2007.
  3. ^ D. C. Allison, The Intertextual Jesus: Scripture in Q. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2000. Cited in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament on Luke 11:49-51.
  4. ^ John MacPherson, Zacharias: A Study of Matthew 23:35, The Biblical World, Jan 1897. Available at JSTOR (subscription required)
  5. ^ Adam Clarke, A Commentary on the Bible [1]

External links

Amoz

Amoz (Hebrew: אָמוֹץ, Modern: ʼAmōṣ, Tiberian: ʼĀmōṣ), also known as Amotz, was the father of the prophet Isaiah, mentioned in Isaiah 1:1; 2:1 and 13:1, and in II Kings 19:2, 20; 20:1. Nothing else is known for certain about him.

There is a Talmudic tradition that when the name of a prophet's father is given, the father was also a prophet, so that Amoz would have been a prophet like his son. Though it is mentioned frequently as the patronymic title of Isaiah, the name Amoz appears nowhere else in the Bible. The rabbis of the Talmud declared, based upon a rabbinic tradition, that Amoz was the brother of Amaziah (אמציה), the king of Judah at that time (and, as a result, that Isaiah himself was a member of the royal family). According to some traditions, Amoz is the "man of God" in 2 Chronicles 25:7–9 (Seder Olam Rabbah 20), who cautioned Amaziah to release the Israelite mercenaries that he had hired.

Azariah (prophet)

Azariah (Hebrew: עֲזַרְיָה‎‎ ‘Ǎzaryāh, "Yah has helped") was a prophet described in 2 Chronicles 15. The Spirit of God is described as coming upon him (verse 1), and he goes to meet King Asa of Judah to exhort him to carry out a work of reform. In response to Azariah's encouragement, Asa carried out a number of reforms including the destruction of idols and repairs to the altar of Yahweh in the Jerusalem Temple complex. The Bible records that a period of peace followed the carrying out of these reforms (verse 19).

Azariah is described as being the "son of Oded" (verse 1), but the Masoretic Text omits Azariah's name in verse 8, suggesting that the prophecy is from Oded himself.

Beeri

There are two biblical figures named 'Beeri.' The etymology of Beeri (Hebrew: בְּאֵרִי‎, Bə’êrî) is given as "belonging to a fountain" by Wilhelm Gesenius, but as "expounder" by the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia and "well" according to the Holman Bible Dictionary.According to the Book of Hosea, Beeri was the father of the prophet Hosea. Jewish tradition says that he only uttered a few words of prophecy, and as they were insufficient to be embodied in a book by themselves, they were incorporated in the Book of Isaiah, viz., verses 19 and 20 of the 8th chapter. As such, Beeri is considered a prophet in Judaism. Beeri was sometimes identified with Beerah (1 Chronicles 5:6), who was taken into exile by the Assyrians. He is also considered holy by Muslims.

The other Beeri was the father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau (Genesis 26:34).

Buzi

Buzi or was the father of Ezekiel the kohen (Jewish priest). (Ezek. 1:3). Ezekiel, like Jeremiah, is said to have been a descendant of Joshua by his marriage with the proselyte Rahab (Talmud Meg. 14b; Midrash Sifre, Num. 78).

Eliezer

Eliezer (Hebrew: אֱלִיעֶזֶר, Modern: Eli'ezer, Tiberian: ʼĔlîʻézer, "Help/Court of El") was the name of at least three different individuals in the Bible.

Elkanah

Elkanah (Hebrew: אֱלְקָנָה‎ ’Elqānāh "El has purchased") was, according to the Books of Samuel, the husband of Hannah, and the father of her children including her first, Samuel. Elkanah practiced polygamy; his other wife, less favoured but bearing more children, was named Peninnah. The names of Elkanah's other children apart from Samuel are not given. Elkanah plays only a minor role in the narrative, and is mostly a supporting character to Eli, Hannah, and Samuel.

Hanani

The word Hanani (Hebrew: חנני‎ Ḥănānî) means "God has gratified me", or "God is gracious".

Hanani is the name of four men mentioned in the Hebrew Bible

One of the sons of Heman (1 Chronicles 25:4, 25).

A prophet who was sent to rebuke king Asa of Judah for entering into a league with Ben-Hadad I, king of Syria, against the northern kingdom of Israel. Hanani was imprisoned by Asa (2 Chr. 16:7-10). This Hanani was also probably the father of the prophet Jehu, who rebuked Baasha, king of the northern kingdom (1 Kings 16:7). The Pulpit Commentary suggests both "belonged to the Kingdom of Judah".

A member of the priestly family of Immer, listed in Ezra 10:20 as having married a foreign wife.

Probably a brother of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 1:2; 7:2), who reported to him the melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah afterwards appointed him to have charge of the city gates.

Iddo (prophet)

Iddo (Hebrew: עדו ‘Iddō; also Jedo; Greek: Αδει, Αδδω, Adei, Addō) or was a minor biblical prophet. According to the Books of Chronicles, he lived during the reigns of King Solomon and his heirs, Rehoboam and Abijah, in the Kingdom of Judah.

Jahaziel

Jahaziel is the name of five characters in the Hebrew Bible. Jahaziel means "God sees" or "Yah looks." Four of the characters by this name are not credited with any independent action, but simply mentioned in passing as one of several priests (1 Chronicles 16:6, 23:19, 24:23; Ezra 8:5 KJV) or a member in a list of warriors (1 Chronicles 12:4). However, one Jahaziel, a Levite, is mentioned as delivering a divine message.

Jeduthun

Jeduthun - lauder; praising - the name of one or two men in the Bible.

A Levite of the family of Merari, and one of the three masters of music appointed by David. (1 Chr. 16:41, 42; 25:1-6) His office was generally to preside over the music of the temple service, Jeduthun’s name stands at the head of the 39th, 62nd and 77th Psalms, indicating probably that they were to be sung by his choir.

A Levite whose son or descendant Obed-Edom was a gatekeeper at the time David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem. (1. Chr 16:1)

Heman and Jeduthun were responsible for the sounding of the trumpets and cymbals and for the playing of the other instruments for sacred song. (1 Chronicles 16:42)

Jehoiada

Jehoiada (Hebrew: יְהוֹיָדָע‎ Yəhōyāḏā‘, "Yahweh knows") in the Hebrew Bible, was a prominent priest during the reigns of Ahaziah (reigned c. 842 - 841 BCE), Athaliah (reigned c. 841–835 BCE), and Joash(reigned c. 836–796 BC). Jehoiada became the brother-in-law of King Ahaziah as a result of his marriage with princess Jehosheba. Both Jehosheba and Ahaziah were children of King Jehoram of Judah (reigned c. 849 – 842 BCE) . Ahaziah died a year after assuming the throne, which was then usurped by his mother Athaliah, who ordered the execution of all members of the royal family.

Jehosheba and Jehoiada rescued Athaliah's one-year-old grandson, Joash, from Athaliah's slaughter. For six years, they hid the sole surviving heir to the throne within Solomon's Temple. Jehoiada was instrumental in the staging of the coup d'état that dethroned and killed Athaliah. Under Jehoiada's guidance, Baal-worship was renounced and the altar and temple of Baal were destroyed.Jehoiada is also noteworthy for the national covenant that he made "between him, and between all the people, and between the king, that they should be the LORD's people" (2 Chronicles 23:16). Jehoiada lived 130 years and was buried very honorably among the kings in the city of David. Jehoiada's son, Zechariah ben Jehoiada, was later martyred by King Joash.

Nathan (prophet)

For other biblical people with this name, see Nathan (given name).Nathan (Hebrew: נָתַן‎ Nāṯan; Syriac: ܢܬܢ‎ fl. c. 1000 BC) is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible.

Oded (prophet)

Oded (Hebrew: עוֹדֵד‎ ‘Ōḏêḏ) is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible, mentioned in 2 Chronicles 28. He was from Samaria, and met the army of the northern kingdom of Israel, who were returning with captives from Judah. In a speech from verse 9 to verse 11, he urged them to return the slaves. He was joined in this plea by some of the Samaritan leaders, and it was successful.William Schniedewind notes that Oded is the only prophet in the Book of Chronicles who does not address a king. Schniedewind argues that this is because "in the Chronicler's view there was no legitimate northern king to address".A different Oded is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 15, as being the father of the prophet Azariah.

Seraiah ben Neriah

Seriah ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat of the sixth century BCE. He was the son of Neriah and the brother of Baruch ben Neriah, the disciple of the biblical prophet Jeremiah.

Seriah served as chamberlain of King Zedekiah of Judah.

Tomb of Zechariah

The Tomb of Zechariah is an ancient stone monument adjacent to the Tomb of Benei Hezir that is considered in Jewish tradition to be the tomb of Zechariah ben Jehoiada. It is a few meters from the Tomb of Absalom and adjacent to the Tomb of Benei Hezir.

Uriah (prophet)

Uriah (or Urijah in some older English translations) is a prophet mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah. (26:20-23) He is described as being the son of Shemaiah from Kiriath-Jearim. During the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, he fled into Egypt from the cruelty of the king, but having been brought back he was beheaded and his body "cast into the graves of the common people."

Zechariah (Hebrew prophet)

Zechariah was a person in the Hebrew Bible and traditionally considered the author of the Book of Zechariah, the eleventh of the Twelve Minor Prophets. He was a prophet of the Kingdom of Judah, and, like the prophet Ezekiel, was of priestly extraction.

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