Zaynab bint ʿAli (Arabic: الـسَّـيّـدة زَيـنـب بـنـت عـلي, Also: 'Zainab') was the daughter of the Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah bint Muhammad. The Islamic Nabi (Arabic: نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad was her maternal grandfather, and thus she is a member of his Bayt (Arabic: بَـيـت, Household). Therefore, she is often revered not only for her characteristics and actions, but also for her membership in, and continuation of, the biological line of Muhammad. Like other members of her family she became a great figure of sacrifice, strength, and piety in Islam – in the Sunni and Shia sects of the religion.
Zaynab married ‘Abdullah ibn Ja‘far, and had three sons and two daughters with him. When her brother, Husayn, fought against Yazid ibn Mu‘awiyah in 680 CE (61 AH), Zaynab accompanied him. She played an important role in protecting her nephew, ‘Ali ibn Al-Husayn, and because of this, she became known as the "Heroine of Karbala". Zaynab died in 681 CE, and her Masjid is located in Damascus, Syria.
Zaynab bint ʿAli
زینب بنت علی
(named on) Wednesday, 5 Jumada I, 5 AH |
October 2, 626/627 CE
|Died||15 Rajab, 62 AH [aged 57 years] (682 CE)|
Damascus, Umayyad Empire
|Resting place||Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque, Damascus, the Levant or Al-Sayeda Zainab Mosque, Cairo, Egypt|
|Known for||Leading of the caravan of Al-Husayn after his death at the Battle of Karbala in Iraq, Umayyad Empire|
|Spouse(s)||‘Abdullah ibn Ja'far|
Zaynab was the third child of Ali ibn Abi Talib and his wife Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad. Sources suggest she was born in Medina in the 5th year of the Hijrah (Wednesday, 5 Jumada al-awwal, 5 AH/October 2, 626 CE Julian calendar). There is some debate over whether she was born on the 5th of Jumada al-awwal or the 1st of Sha'aban of the Islamic calendar.
Like her two elder brothers, Hasan and Husayn, Zaynab was named by Muhammad. It is described that she resembled both her father and her grandfather. The name "Zaynab" means "the adornment of her father". Three of ‘Ali's daughters were in fact named Zaynab, so sometimes this Zaynab was referred to as "Zaynab the Elder".
Fatimah died when Zaynab was seven years old. As per her mother's request, Zaynab took on somewhat of a maternal role to her brothers. As a result, the siblings developed an especially close relationship.
When Zaynab came of age, she was married to her first cousin ‘Abdullah ibn Ja'far, a nephew of ‘Ali, in a simple ceremony. Although Zaynab's husband was a man of means, the couple is said to have lived a modest life. Much of their wealth was devoted to charity. He maintained a reputation for liberality and patronage in Medina, earning him the nickname “the Ocean of Generosity” (Bahr al jud in Arabic).
The marriage of Zaynab did not diminish her strong attachment to her family. Ali felt a great affection for his daughter and son-in-law, so much so that in 37 AH (657/65/8) when he became caliph and moved the capital from Medina to Kufa, Zaynab and Abdullah moved with him. Zaynab bore four sons – ‘Ali, Aun, Muhammad, and Abbas – and one daughter, Umm Kulthum.
Some sources suggest that Zaynab held sessions to help other women study the Quran and learn more about Islam. According to one of her biographies, The Victory of Truth, she started this practice in Medina and later continued it when she moved with her father and family to Kufa.
Sometime after the death of the Muawiyah I, Husayn went to Kufa by the invitation of the people of Kufa for him to claim the leadership of the Muslim community. Zaynab accompanied him, as did most of his household. By the time Husayn's army arrived, the people of Kufa had changed their minds and betrayed and did not join Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala.
In many ways, Zaynab functioned as a model of defiance against oppression and other forms of injustice. When her nephew, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, was sentenced to death by the governor of Kufah (Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad), she threw herself over him in a protective embrace yelling "By God, I will not let go of him. If you are going to kill him, you will have to kill me along with him." Moved by Zaynab's action, the captors spared Zayn al-Abidin's life. Because Zayn al-Abidin was the only one of Husayn's sons to survive the Battle of Karbala, this courageous action was pivotal in preserving the survival of an important part of Ali genetic line and thus the future Imams in Shia Islam.
Zaynab and the other survivors of Husayn's army, most of them women and children, were marched to Damascus, Yazid's capital, where they were held captive. Tradition says that Zaynab, already in anguish due to the death of her brother Husayn and her sons Aun and Muhammad, was forced to march unveiled. This was an extreme indignity to inflict on a high-ranking Muslim woman, the granddaughter of Muhammad.
Another illustration of Zaynab's pious defiance was when a Syrian in Yazid's court demanded that he be given one of the younger captive girls, Fatimah bint Husayn.* Zaynab countered by suggesting that Syrian man was not worthy and did not have that type of authority. When Yazid claimed he had the authority to decide either way, Zaynab issued a scathing retort, answering “You, a commander who has authority, are vilifying unjustly and oppress with your authority."
This comment is representative of a larger sermon attributed to Zaynab in which she condemns Yazid and many of his actions, specifically focusing on his treatment of the household of Muhammad. The sermon is very eloquent and is reminiscent of the work in the Quran's exegesis, Zaynab did with other women in Medina and Kufa. The full text of this sermon is linked in the external links section below.
Eventually, Yazid released his captives and allowed them to return to Medina. On the way back, the party stopped once again at Karbala to mourn the loss of Husayn and the others that died there.
At the first day of Safar, according to a narration of Turabi, when they arrived at Damascus, they and the heads of fallen ones were taken into Yazid's presence. The identity of each head and killed persons were explained to him. Then he paid attention to an objecting woman. Yazid asked: "Who is this arrogant woman?" The woman rose to answer and said: "Why are you asking them [the women]? Ask me. I will tell you. I am the granddaughter of Muhammad. I am the daughter of Fatimah." People at the court were impressed and amazed by her. At this time, Zaynab gave her khutbah (Arabic: خـطـبـة, sermon).
The exact date and place of her death are not clear but it is probable that she died in the year 62 AH (681/682) some six months after her return to Medina. Some sources state that she died of illness during a journey with her family from Medina to Syria, at a location known as "Zaynabia". Others suggest she was assassinated by Yazid's soldiers while being extradited from Egypt.
The anniversary of her death is said to be either the 11th or 21st of Jumada al-Thani, the 24th of Safar, or the 16th of Dhu al-Hijjah. Some suggest that her grave can be found within Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque in Sayyidah Zaynab, Syria. Alternatively, many Sunnis believe her grave can be found within Al-Sayeda Zainab Mosque, a different mosque that is located in Cairo. The Fatimid/Dawoodi Bohra support the claim that Zaynab is buried in Cairo. Their 52nd Dai, Mohammed Burhanuddin, made zarih (a cage-like structure surrounding the tomb) for the shrine in Cairo. The Fatimids and some others believe that the Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque in Damascus is actually the burial site of one of her sisters, Umm Kulthum bint Ali (perhaps caused by confusion between "Sugra" and "Kubra"). There is some historical evidence suggesting Zaynab lived in Cairo near the end of her life.
From the first days of the month of Muharram up to the tenth day of Ashura, during the mourning custom which includes sermons, reviewing narrations of the Battle of Karbala, not only the death of people who were killed in Karbala is commemorated but also the role of women in battle particularly Zaynab as "transmitter of Husayn ibn Ali's message" is done in Shia towns.
The ritual of majlis, or lamentation assembly mourning the deaths of the Prophetic line, is still practiced as an integral part of Shia Islam.
According to Rawand Osman, during the Battle of Karbala Zaynab is introduced as a woman who stood against cruelty, so this role has been practiced by women in the Iranian Revolution and also in the Lebanon in the last three decades.
In Iran, her birthday is recognized as Nurse's Day because she nursed children such as Husayn's son Ali among others but also because of her taking care of those wounded in the Battle of Karbala. As Rawand Osman mentioned, Zaynab's caring for Ali, who was among the survivors, shows the unusual role her she took on which went against traditional behavior. In addition to this, the author noted her devotional and political role.
Al-Sayeda Zainab Mosque is a historic mosque in Cairo, Egypt, and constitutes one of the most important and biggest mosques in the history of Egypt. The name is an honor to Sayyida Zaynab bint Ali, one of the daughters of 'Ali, fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam, and his first wife Fatimah, the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.Dukayniyya Shia
The Dukayniyya Shia (named for one of its leaders, Abu Nu'aym al-Fadl ibn al-Dukayn) were a sect of the Zaidi branch of Shia Islam. The Dukayniyya Shia were led by Abu Nu'aym al-Fadl ibn al-Dukayn and Ibrahim ibn al-Hakam.Fatimah bint Hasan
Fātimah bint al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī (Arabic: فاطمة بنت الـحسن بن علي) was a daughter of Hasan ibn ‘Alī and Umm Ishaq bint Talha. She was married to ‘Alī ibn Husayn (fourth Twelver Imām), and became the mother of Muhammad al-Bāqir (fifth Twelver Imām). Her kunya was Umm ‘Abd Allāh and she was referred to as, "as-Siddīqa" ("the very truthful one") by ‘Alī ibn Husayn. It has also been reported that her features were such, that no one in the family of Hasan ibn ‘Alī looked like her.Hakimah Khātūn
Hakimah bint Muhammad al-Jawād (Arabic: حکیمه بنت محمد) Hakimah Khatun or Lady Hakimah was the daughter of Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad, and the aunt of Imam Hasan al-Askari. She is a prominent narrator in Shia hadith and history, especially for her narration of the birth of Al-Mahdi.Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba
Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba (HHN; Arabic: حركة حزب الله النجباء Ḥaraka Ḥizballāh an-Nujabā’, "Movement of the Party of God's Nobles") is an Iraqi Shi'ite paramilitary group. The group take its name from a speech by Zaynab bint Ali, an early Islamic Shia holy figure who is believed to have said the following after she was taken to the court of the Ummayad caliph Yazid I, as a prisoner following the Battle of Karbala: "It's a wonder and the greatest one that the nobles of the Party of God are murdered by the freed slaves of the Party of Satan" The group has a TV channel named Alnujaba TV.Holy Shrine Defender
Holy Shrine Defenders or as known in Persian Modafean-e-Haram (مدافعان حرم) is a phrase that Iran uses for their advisers and military personals, who are fighting in Iraq and Syria.
Tehran claims that Holy Shrine Defenders guarantee their security by fighting against Iran's enemies, namely ISIS, outside Iran's borders.Imambaras of Lucknow
Lucknow is a city of imambaras as it has a large number of imambaras among which are some very famous.Imamzadeh
An Imāmzādeh (Persian: امامزاده) refers to an immediate descendant of a Shi'i Imam in the Persian language. This Persian term is also used in Urdu and Azeri.
Imamzadeh means "offspring" or descendant of an imam. There are many other different ways of spelling this term in the English language. Some of these are imamzada, imamzadah, and emamzadah. These all have the same meanings.
Imamzadeh are basically the Syed's or Syeda's as they have descended from the Imams.
Imamzadeh is also a term for a shrine-tomb of the descendants of Imams, who are directly related to Muhammad. These shrines are only for the descendants of imams and they are not for imams themselves. Imamzadehs are also sayyids, though not all sayyids are considered imamzadehs. These shrine-tombs are used as centers of Shi’i devotion and pilgrimages. These shrine-tombs are also believed to have miraculous properties and the ability to heal. Many of these are located in Iraq, Medina, India and Iran.
There are many important imamzadehs. Two of these are Fātimah bint Mūsā, the sister of Imam Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Twelver Imam, and Zaynab bint Ali, daughter of Ali, considered by Shi'i Muslims to be the first Imam and by Sunni Muslims as the fourth Rashid. Imamzadehs are not traditionally women.Many people visit the imamzadehs that are relatively close to them. There are also special ziyarat-namas (pilgrimages) for many of the imamzadehs. Some of these pilgrimages even happen annually during the certain time of year. Some of the imamzadehs are not as well kept as others. According to Reinisch an imamzadeh that he saw was mostly in ruins, though it is still important.List of Shia titles for Fatimah
Muslims express their love and devotion to pivotal figures in Islamic history by giving these figures titles. Shi'a Muslims hold Fatimah Zahra, Muhammad's daughter, in special reverence, and give her these titles:
Aadila (Lady who Judges right)
Aalia (Lady of High Rank)
Aalima (The Intelligent Lady)
Aamila (Doer, An Active Lady)
Afzal-ul-Nisa (The most supreme of the women)
Azhra (The chaste)
Aziza (Respected Lady)
Basita (Given of Prosperity)
Batool (The pure one)
Bazaat e Mustafa ( Part of our Prophet Muhammad e Mustafa ( Peace be on HIM and his HOLY Progeny)
Daniya (Liberal Lady)
Durra An-noor (Path of light)
Fakhr-e-Hajra (Pride of Lady Hajra)
Fateha (Soorah Alhamd of Qur'an)
Fatima-tuz-Zehra Salamulaah Allehe
Hajiya (Pilgrim who have performed Hajj)
Halima (Gentle Lady)
Hazira (Ready, Present)
Hissan (Comely & Beautiful)
Iftikhar-e-Hawwa (Pride of Lady Eve First Women)
Ihleya (Wife of Imam Ali)
Umm-ul-Aaima (Mother of Imams)
Umm-ul-Abeeha (Mother of her Father)
Umm-ul-Hasan (Mother of Hasan ibn Ali)
Umm-e-Mujtaba (Mother of Hasan ibn Ali)
Umm-ul-Hussein (Mother of Husayn ibn Ali)
Umm-e-Sayyid-us-Shohada (Mother of Husayn ibn Ali)
Umm-e-Zainab (Mother of Zaynab bint Ali)
Umm-e-Umme-Kulsoom (Mother of Umm Kulthum bint Ali)
Umm-ul-Kitab (Mother of the Book)
Umm-ul-Masaib (Mother of Sufferings)
Umm-ul-Mohsin (Mother of Al Muhsin)
Umm-ul-Sibtain (Mother of Sibtain i.e. Hasan ibn Ali & Husayn ibn Ali)
Jaleela (Great Woman)
Jamila (Beautiful Woman)
Khatoon-e-Junat (The Lady of Paradise)
Lailat-ul-Qadr (19th, 21st & 23rd Night of Ramadan)
Malik-e-Tatheer (Owner of Tatheer(purity))
Mardhiah (The one who pleases God)
Maryam-e-Kubra (Greater Mary)
Mastora (The Lady)
Mehroosa (the defender)
Mubarakah (The blessed)
Nooriya (The Light)
Qaima (The Everlasting)
Radhiah (The gratified)
Rashk-e-Aseeya (Pride of Lady Aseeya)
Razia (Contented, Agreed)
Sajida (Worshipper, Adorer)
Sayyeda-Tun-Nisa-el-Alameen (Leader of all women of the Universe)
Shajra-e-Tayyiba (Lady with Clean Genealogical Tree)
Shahzadi-e-Kounain (Princess of the Universe)
Siddiqa (The Truthful)
Soora Kausr (Sorrah Kausur of Qur'an)
Tahira (The Virtuous)
Taqqya (Pious Lady)
Wali-e-Khuda (friend of God)
Zahida (A devout lady)
Zahira (Visible Lady)
Zahra (The Lady of light)
Zakiyah (The chaste)
Zoja e Murtaza ( Wife of Imam Ali Allehy Salam )List of casualties in Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala
This article contains the list of casualties of Husayn ibn Ali's companions in the Battle of Karbala. The battle took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, situated in present-day Iraq.The battle was between cruel Yazid's army from Syria reinforced by troops from Kufa, and the caravan of families and friends of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is claimed that 72 men (including Husayn's 6 months old baby son) of Husayn's companions were killed by the forces of Yazid I.Lohoof
Lohoof (Arabic: لُهوف) is a book by Sayyed Ibn Tawus, a Shia jurist, theologian, and historian. It is kind of Maqtal al-Husayn (Arabic: مقتل الحسين), narrating the Battle of Karbala, the death of Husayn ibn Ali, and subsequent events.Rubab bint Imra al-Qais
Rubāb bint Imra’ al-Qays (Arabic: ربـاب بـنـت إمـرئ الـقـيـس), or Umm Rubāb (Arabic: أم ربـاب) was a wife of Al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī, and the mother of ‘Alī al-Asghar (also known as ‘Abdullāh) and Ruqayyah. Her father was Imra’ al-Qays ibn ‘Adī bin Aws (Arabic: إمـرئ الـقـيـس ابـن عـدي بـن أوس).Sermon of Ali ibn Husayn in Damascus
The Sermon of Ali ibn Husayn in Damascus are the statements of Ali ibn Husayn in the presence of Umayyad caliph Yazid I. After Battle of Karbala, the captured family of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, and the heads of those killed were moved to the Levant by the forces of Yazid. By order of Yazid, a pulpit was prepared, and a public speaker gave a lecture that placed blame on Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. With the permission of Yazid, Ali ibn Husayn seized the opportunity to speak. He introduced himself and his descendants. Also, he recounted the events leading to the death of Husayn ibn Ali.Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in the court of Yazid
Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in the court of Yazid are the statements made by Zaynab bint Ali in the presence of Yazid I in the aftermath of the Battle of Karbala when the captive family members of Muhammad, prophet of Islam, and the heads of those murdered were moved to the Levant (it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria Arabic: شام) by the forces of Yazid I. Zaynab delivered a defiant sermon in the court of Yazid in which she humiliated Yazid and exposed his army's atrocities while honoring the Ahl al-Bayt and those killed in Karbala and expounding upon the eternal consequences of the battle.Tabuik
A Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, Indonesia, particularly in the city of Pariaman.Timeline of Ali's life
17 March 599 coincided with Thirteenth of Rajab, 24 BH: Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the Ka'ba, in the city of Mecca.
610: Ali converted to Islam soon after the first revelation of the Quran.
613: Yawm al-Inzar: Muhammad invited the Banu Hashim to Islam; Ali alone accepted his call.
617- 619: Meccan boycott of the Hashemites
619:Year of Sorrow:Death of Abu Talib, Ali's father.
September 622: Laylat al-mabit: Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot, so that Muhammad could escape from Mecca in safety and migrate to Medina.
622: Ali migrated with his mother, Fatima Zahra and Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad Muhammad's daughters, and another women.
622 or 623:The prophet chose him as his brother.
623: Ali married with Fatima Zahra, Muhammad's daughter.
March 17: Battle of Badr: Ali first distinguished himself as a warrior and killed about 20 to 22 pagans.
Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina.
Birth of Hasan ibn Ali, the second Shia Imam.
Battle of Uhud: Ali destroyed the standard bearers and when the army of Islam was defeated and most of the Muslims had fled Ali was one of the few Muslims who defended Muhammad.
Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Medina.
Birth of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Shia Imam.
Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.
Battle of the Trench: Ali ibn Abi Talib triumphed in combat over Arabs' hero, Amr ibn Wodd, and killed him.
Killing and enslavement of Banu Quraiza.
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Battle of Khaybar: Ali was the standard-bearer and conqueror of the Khaybar's castle.
Birth of Zaynab bint Ali
Participating in The first pilgrimage with the Prophet.
Death of Ali's brother Ja'far ibn Abi Talib in the Battle of Mu'tah
Conquest of Mecca:Ali was the standard-bearer.
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Autas
Siege of Ta'if
Operation against Banu Tayy
Mubahela with the Christian of Najran
Expedition against Banu Rumla
Operation against Banu Zubuda
Mission to Yemen
Participation in Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca.
Event of Ghadir Khumm
Death of Muhammad
Abu Bakr assumes power as the first Rashidun caliph
Death of Fatimah, Ali's wife.
644: Umar, the second Rashidun caliph, was assassinated. Ali was one of the electoral council to choose the third caliph
648: Birth of Al-Abbas ibn Ali
Siege and assassination of Uthman, the third Rashidun caliph.
Election of Ali as the fourth Rashidun caliph.
Beginning of the First Fitna(first Islamic civil war).
Battle of Bassorah
657:Ali shifted the capital of Rashidun empire from Medina to Kufa in Iraq.
May–July 657: Battle of Siffin
Revolt of Kharijits.
July 658: Battle of Nahrawan
Ali's governor of Egypt was defeated and Egypt was conquered by 'Amr ibn al-'As
Revolt of Khurrit ibn Rashid
Muawiyah I plundered Iraq
Muawiyah plundered Hijaz and Yemen, but later withdrew
Muawiyah I declared himself as caliph in Damascus
28 January 661 coincided with Twenty-first of Ramadan: Ali dead in Kufa and buried in Najaf two days after he was struck by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam in the Great Mosque of Kufa.Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim
Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim (Arabic: أم فروة بنت القاسم) or Umm Farwah Fatimah was the wife of Muhammad al-Baqir, and the mother of the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.Zaynab Fawwaz
Zaynab Fawwāz (Zaynab bint ʻAlī ibn Ḥusayn ibn ʻUbayd ʼAllāh ibn Ḥasan ibn ʼIbrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf Fawwāz ʼal-ʻĀmilī, 1860?–1914) was a Lebanese Shiite poet, novelist and historian of famous women.Ziyarat Ashura
Ziyarat Ashura (Arabic: زیارة عاشوراء) is a Shia salutatory prayer to Husayn ibn Ali and the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala. The prayer is part of the liturgy used in pilgrimages to the shrine of Husayn in Karbala. Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Shia Imam, recommended reciting Ziyarat Ashura on Ashura while facing Karbala, as a symbolic visit to the shrine.
Important women in Islam
|Generations of Adam|
|Generations of Ibrāhīm and his sons|
|Generation of Mūsa|
|Reign of Kings|
|House of Imran|
|Time of Muhammad|