Zaramo language

Zaramo is a Niger-Congo language, formerly primary language of the Zaramo people of eastern Tanzania. Zaramo is also known as Zalamo, Kizaramo, Dzalamo, Zaramu, Saramo and, Myagatwa. The language is critically endangered. The ethnic population of the Zaramo people reaches about 200,000, yet there are only a few elderly speakers remaining.[4]

These speakers are mostly located in the villages surrounding the city of Dar es Salaam. Zaramo is thought to be passed down matrilineally to the children in these villages, while it remains critically endangered in the city.[5]

There are very few translations of the language in existence except for a few native speakers' documented translations, and the publication of the New Testament from 1975.

Zaramo
Native toTanzania
RegionPwani Region
Ethnicity657,000 (2000)[1]
Native speakers
("few" cited 1991)[1]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3zaj
Glottologzara1247[2]
G.33[3]

Classification

Zaramo is genetically tied to the Niger-Congo language family. It is classified under the Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, and Zigula-Zaramo families. (G.33)[6]

History

Zaramo is the official language of a Bantu tribe located in the coastal area surrounding the former capital city of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. Linguistic evidence supports the theory that Zaramo originated from the Luguru tribe. A migration of the Zaramo people eastward from their original location in Tanzania has been the source of slight changes in their cultural language.

The Zaramo as they are known today are made up of clans that migrated from the Kutu and the Luguru around 1700. Their common ancestry with the Luguru is substantiated, in that they have the same common language with only slight dialectal variations. The language of the Zaramo is mutually intelligible with those of the Jutu, the Luguru, the Kwere, and the Kami. Most Zaramo people of today chose to speak the lingua franca of Tanzania.[7]

While the ethnic population of the Zaramo people reaches about 200,000, today there are only a few elderly speakers of Zaramo language. Most Zaramo people speak Swahili as their first language today and have adopted Swahili-Arabic names. They favor the Swahili over their endangered dialect for its broad use in communication and trade.

Geographic Distribution

Official Status

Zaramo is not the official language of any country or region. Currently, the only locations where Zaramo still exists is Pwani region of eastern Tanzania. This area is located between two cities - Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam. The rural, costal area is home to the Zaramo people who are the only ethnic group to speak the language.

Dialects Varieties

There are no known dialects of Zaramo. It shares a lexical similarity: 68% with Kutu [kdc], 65% with Kami [kcu], 61% with Kwere [cwe] and Doe [doe].[6] This connection is substantiated by the historical relationship between the tribes.

Examples

There are very few examples of Zaramo language available. A list of words and phrases was provided by a native speaker to the author of Short Specimens of the Vocabularies of Three Unpublished African Languages: Gindo, Zaramo, and Angazidja.[8]

English word or phrase Zaramo translation
Basket Mgelo
Chair Kigoda
Friend Mbwiga
House Ng'anda
Town Kayi
I do not know Sitangile
What is your name? Tagwa lako nani?

Writing System

The Zaramo language uses latin script for its writing system.[9] Latin script is the most widely used writing system in the world. Some languages adapted the alphabet by the addition of entirely new letters such Zaramo, and other languages from the Niger-Congro orthographies.

See also

  1. Zaramo people
  2. Languages of Tanzania
  3. Zaramo Ethnologue

References

  1. ^ a b Zaramo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zaramo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ "Did you know Zaramo is critically endangered?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  5. ^ "OLAC resources in and about the Zaramo language". www.language-archives.org. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  6. ^ a b "Zaramo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  7. ^ "Zaramo - Dictionary definition of Zaramo | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  8. ^ Steere, Edward (1859-01-01). Short Specimens of the Vocabularies of Three Unpublished African Languages: Gindo, Zaramo, and Angazidja. C. Cull.
  9. ^ "ScriptSource - Latin". scriptsource.org. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
List of endangered languages in Africa

An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of biboy washere

, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native people, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":

Vulnerable

Definitely endangered

Severely endangered

Critically endangeredAfrica is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area. With about 922 million people (as of 2005) in 61 territories, it accounts for about 16.1% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. There are 64 countries, including Madagascar and all the island groups.

Zaramo people

The Zaramo people, also referred to as Dzalamo or Saramo, are an East African ethnic group found along the coast of Tanzania, particularly in its Pwani Region. They are the largest ethnic group in and around Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania. Estimated to be about 0.7 million, over 98% of them are Muslims, more specifically the Shafi'i school of Sunni Islam.

Official languages
Indigenous
languages

Languages

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