Zacatecas

Zacatecas (American Spanish: [sakaˈtekas]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas City.

Zacatecas is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Durango to the northwest, Coahuila to the north, Nayarit to the west, San Luis Potosí and Nuevo León to the east, and Jalisco, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes to the south.

The state is best known for its rich deposits of silver and other minerals, its colonial architecture and its importance during the Mexican Revolution. Its main economic activities are mining, agriculture and tourism.

Zacatecas
Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas
Flag of Zacatecas

Flag
Official seal of Zacatecas

Seal
Motto(s): 
Labor Vincit Omnia
(Work Conquers All)
Anthem: Marcha de Zacatecas
(English: "Zacatecas March")
State of Zacatecas within Mexico
State of Zacatecas within Mexico
Coordinates: 23°18′N 102°42′W / 23.300°N 102.700°WCoordinates: 23°18′N 102°42′W / 23.300°N 102.700°W
CountryMexico
CapitalZacatecas City
Largest CityZacatecas
Municipalities58
AdmissionDecember 23, 1823[1]
Order10th
Government
 • GovernorAlejandro Tello Cristerna PRI
 • Senators[2]María Soledad Luévano Cantú Morena
José Narro Céspedes Morena
Claudia Edith Anaya Mota PRI
 • Deputies[3]
Area
 • Total75,284 km2 (29,067 sq mi)
 Ranked 8th
Highest elevation3,200 m (10,500 ft)
Population
 (2015)[6]
 • Total1,579,209
 • Rank25th
 • Density21/km2 (54/sq mi)
 • Density rank25th
Demonym(s)Zacatecano (a)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
98, 99
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-ZAC
HDIIncrease 0.760 high Ranked 24th
GDPUS$ 5,171,913.8 th[a]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was 66,200,496 thousand of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 5,171,913.8 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

Geography and environment

Zacatecas is located in the center-north of Mexico, and covers an area of 75,284km2, the tenth largest state in the country.[9][10][11] It borders the states of Jalisco, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí, Coahuila and Durango and is divided into fifty-eight municipalities and 4,882 towns, cities and other communities.[11][12]

SombrereteMountain03
Sombreretillo Mountain in the northwest

The state has an average altitude of 2230 meters above sea level, with the capital at 2,496 masl.[11] The state has three main geographical regions, the Sierra Madre Occidental in the west, the Mexican Plateau and the Sierra Madre Oriental. Most of it is in the Sierra Madre Occidental with highly rugged peaks of over 2,500 meters above sea level. The mountains of the southeast and northeast are lower but there are large valleys such as the Juchipila and Tlaltenango. Most of the territory has only small mesas and other areas of flat land. In the center of the state there is a small mountain chain called the Sierra de Fresnillo, from which much of the state's mineral wealth comes. In the extreme northwest there is another important mountain chain called the Sierra de Sombrerete, marked by a mountain called Sombreretillo, which is an important source of mineral wealth. Near this chain is another called the Sierra de Órganos.[12]

Arroyo en Sierra de Cardos
Stream in the Sierra de Cardos, part of the Sierra Madre Occidental.

No major rivers run through the state and most of the waterways run only during the rainy season. The state is part of two water basins. The southeast of the state belongs to the Lerma River basin, which eventually empties in the Pacific Ocean. Rivers belonging to this basin include the San Pedro, Juchipila, Jerez and Tlaltenango. The other basin is smaller and endorheic, and does not empty into any ocean. The state has eighty dams with a total capacity of 595,337 million cubic meters. The largest of these are the Leobardo Reynoso in Fresnillo, Miguel Aleman in Tepechitlan and El Chique in Tabasco. Much of the state's water is underground divided into twenty hydraulic zones. These are accessed by over 5,800 wells, mostly for agricultural use.[12]

Most of the territory has a cool, dry climate, although areas in the south have more moisture, with most rain falling between June and September. The driest and coldest areas are in the northeast, known as the Salado because of its saltwater lakes.[11][12] 75% of the state is arid or semi arid. 14% is arable and 79% is apt for the grazing of livestock.[12]

The average annual temperature is 16C with most of the state being temperate. The coldest months are from November to January, with frost not uncommon. The warmest month is June. The state gets an average rainfall of 400mm per year mostly in the summer, with the warmest and wettest part of the state is along the Sierra Madre Occidental.[11][12]

Yucca decipiens 3
Yucca decipiens in the state

Ecosystems vary depending on relief, soil and temperature, leading to a wide variety of vegetation, including forests, scrub and grasslands. Arid areas are dominated by various species of cactus. In the far south there are deciduous trees that lose their leaves in winter and spring. Statewide the most common trees are mesquite, ironwood and palo verde (Parkinsonia). In the highest altitude, near the Jalisco border, there are mixed forests of pine and holm oak, with the latter dominating along the border with Durango and some along the border with San Luis Potosí.[12] One interesting tree that occurs in Zacatecas is the elephant tree (Bursera microphylla).[13] In the sierras there are many wild boar, white-tailed deer and hares; in the valleys and plains it is common to find coyote, badgers, quails and ducks. The extreme northern part of the state is the southern fringe of the Chihuahuan Desert and as such is rich and diverse in biology. This desert is home to a large amount of cacti and is one of the most ecologically diverse deserts on earth.[14]

History

The state name derives from the name of its capital, Zacatecas. This word is derived from Nahuatl and means "where there is abundant zacate (grass)" .[12][15] The state seal depicts the Cerro de la Bufa, a landmark of the capital, surrounded by the weapons of the original inhabitants. Above is the motto "Work conquers all."[12][16]

Seated male and female, Mexico, Zacatecas, 2nd century AD, earthenware and pigment - De Young Museum - DSC00511
Earthenware and pigment female and male figurines, 2nd century AD

Before the arrival of the Spanish, dominant ethnic groups included the Caxcans, Zacatecos, and Guachichils, with a probable rivalry between the Guachichils and the Caxcans. The history of these peoples is sketchy and it is not known when the first settlements were founded in the region. Between the fourth and tenth centuries in the Christian era, several large settlements developed such as Altavista, Chalchihuites and La Quemada, considered to be part of Greater Mesoamerica .[16][15] Areas in the north of the state, without major settlements, were part of what is called Aridoamerica, where inhabitants lived off hunting and gathering.[12] The first of the major population centers emerged along the Suchil, Graceros and Guadiana Rivers. The archaeological sites of today are all ceremonial centers and/or observatories in the center of metropolises.[12]

The first Spanish settlement in the state's current borders was in what is now Nochistlan in 1531, the original Guadalajara. This settlement was later moved to its current location in Jalisco because of water supply problems and indigenous attacks.[12] The capital was founded by Juan de Tolosa with the support of Cristobal de Oñate and Pedro Almendez Chirinos in 1546, after the discovery of one of the world's richest silver veins.[12][16][17] However, shortly afterwards most Spanish attention turned back south because of indigenous uprisings. The area remained dangerous for Spanish settlement because of the fierce opposition of the native peoples. In 1541, an indigenous leader named Tenamextle, also known as Francisco Tenamaztle and Diego the Aztec, rebelled, capturing and executing Spanish leader Miguel de Ibarra. The Spanish defeated the Caxcans during the Mixtón War in the 1540s. Tenamextle escaped the battle and continued to organize rebellions against the Spanish. However, the Spanish continued to push into Zacatecas because of its silver wealth, making it a province of New Galicia. Although able to establish mining towns, convoys transporting the metal were regularly attacked.[16]

Nebel Voyage 28 Vista general de Zacatecas
View of Zacatecas City by Carl Nebel, 1836.
Hacienda Nueva de Fresnillo
Depiction of silver refinement during the patio process at the Hacienda Nueva de Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Pietro Gualdi, 1846.

Much of the state's colonial history to the present has been related to its mineral production, especially of silver. The first boom was from the Conquest to the mid 17th century.[16] The riches drew settlers from the south, and in 1586, Phillip II gave the city the name of Noble and Loyal City of Nuestra Señora de los Zacatecas. In 1588, he authorized its coat of arms. Most of the state was evangelized by the Franciscans, who founded a hospice in the city in 1558 and by 1567 had built a large monastery. They officially took possession of its religious functions in 1603. Later other orders arrived, founding monasteries; but they did not evangelize the indigenous.[12]

The next boom was in the early 18th century, with the state producing one-fifth of the world's silver.[16] These riches supported the establishment of new settlements along with the building of elegant churches and mansions as the area became one of the most important of New Spain .[15]

During the Mexican War of Independence, Miguel Hidalgo's troops marched through Zacatecas twice, once when they were attacking royalist troops and later when fleeing them. The war ended in 1821 and Zacatecas formally became a state in 1824, with the city of Zacatecas as its capital. Zacatecas continued to grow.[12][16]

The state's history during the rest of the 19th century was tumultuous, as it was in the rest of the country. From Independence until the 1860s, Liberal and Conservative elements occupied the capital at one time or another, until Liberal leader Jesús González Ortega seized control of the state permanently in 1859. This leader's decrees against Conservative sympathizers drove many Catholic priests out of the state. In 1861, French troops occupied Zacatecas but only for two years before being driven out.[16] For the rest of the century, the state was mostly controlled by local strongmen, such as González Ortega, Trinidad García de la Cadena and Genero Codina.[12] The fighting depressed silver production until near the end of the century, but it recovered enough to account for sixty percent of the state's export revenue.[16]

TakingofZacatecas
Painting of the Toma de Zacatecas

At the end of the century, technological innovations such as the telegraph, telephone, electricity and rail lines connected the state with the rest of Mexico. Trains provided direct links to Ciudad Juárez, Aguascalientes and Chihuahua, which led to emigration out of the state, primarily to the United States in the 20th century.[12][16]

Zacatecas was again a battleground with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century. One of the largest and most decisive battles of this conflict took place outside the capital and is called the Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas). This battle pitted the troops of Francisco Villa against those of Victoriano Huerta, resulting in the deaths of 7,000 soldiers and the wounding of 5,000. Civilian casualties were not recorded.[16][15] The battle led to the naming of the city as a "Ciudad Heroica" (Heroic City).[12]

In 1993, UNESCO named the historic center of Zacatecas as a World Heritage Site .[12]

From 1998-2004, the state undertook a major project to expand the highway system.[12]

Demographics

Huichol indian
Huichol woman and child
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895[18] 456,241—    
1900 462,190+1.3%
1910 477,556+3.3%
1921 379,329−20.6%
1930 459,047+21.0%
1940 565,437+23.2%
1950 665,524+17.7%
1960 817,831+22.9%
1970 951,462+16.3%
1980 1,136,830+19.5%
1990 1,276,323+12.3%
1995 1,336,496+4.7%
2000 1,353,610+1.3%
2005 1,367,692+1.0%
2010 1,490,668+9.0%
2015[19] 1,579,209+5.9%

As of 2010, the state had a population of 1,490,668. Forty-one percent of the population lives in rural areas, with a population density of 18.13 per square kilometer.[12][20] Fifty-nine percent of the population lives in urban areas such as Fresnillo (pop. 213,139), Guadalupe (159,991), Zacatecas (138,176), Pinos, and Sombrerete.[9][16][21] Ninety four percent of the population is Roman Catholic.[22] In the year 2008, Zacatecas had the smallest indigenous population percentage-wise in Mexico: 0.3%. Only the state of Aguascalientes has a smaller number of indigenous people.[23][24] Only four in 1,000 speak an indigenous language, compared to the national average of 60/1000.[9] Indigenous languages spoken in the state include Huichol (1000 speakers), Nahuatl (500), Tepehuan (just under 500) and Tlapanec (about 400).[22]

The population of Zacatecas has more than tripled in a century; in 1900 its population was 462,190.[25] Since 1990, the state's population has grown by at least 1.3% per year. Average life expectancy is slightly above the national average at 74.1 years for men and 78.5 for women. Principal causes of death are heart problems, malign tumors and diabetes.[26]

The average number of years of schooling is 7.9 (second year of middle school), below the national average of 8.6.[9] 5.9% have had no schooling at all and 66.8% have finished primary school. Only 12.3% have finished university level studies. 6% are illiterate.[27]

Of those who leave the state permanently, most go to Aguascalientes, Jalisco and other northern states. Those who come to live in the state arrive from Jalisco, Aguacalientes and nearby northern states.[28] It is estimated that half of the people from Zacatecas do not reside in the state. Mexico's National Population Council estimates that 600,000 natives of Zacatecas now live in the United States, a figure that is equivalent to 40 percent of the state's resident population of 1.5 million.

Economy

Some minerals that were found in the state's mines. Clockwise from upper left: Silver; Topaz; Atacamite-Boleite-Malachite; Calcite.
See also: Minerals of Zacatecas

Silver-158794
Topaz-120187
Calcite-d06-37a
Atacamite-Boleite-Malachite-mrz301a

As in the past, the state's dominant sector is mining, accounting for 13% of the state's GDP and .9% of the entire country's.[9][29] The state is rich in mineral wealth include lead, zinc and copper with small quantities of gold and silver, along with non-metal mineral deposits such as kaolinite, wollastonite, fluorite and barite. The state has fifteen mining districts of which the most important are Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Concepción del Oro, Sombrerete and Chalchihuites, along with Nora de Angeles more recently.[12][16] Zacatecas accounts for 21% of the country's gold production and 53.2% of its silver.[30] Two of the largest silver mines in the world currently are operated in Zacatecas: former Peñoles subsidiary Fresnillo's Mina Proaño (also known as the Fresnillo Silver Mine), and the Peñasquito Polymetallic Mine.[31] Zacatecas silver mostly accounts for Mexico's status as the world's largest producer of silver, accounting for 17% of the world's output.[16]

Zacatecas's economy used to be almost completely centered on mining but has since diversified into cattle raising, agriculture, communications, food processing, tourism and transportation. Zacatecas is Mexico's main producer of beans, chili peppers, guavas and nopal, along with significant grain, sugar cane, grape and peach crops. It is also a major producer of rum, pulque and mezcal and even produces red wine.[16] These activities account for just over ten percent of the state's GDP.[29]

Manufacturing accounts for over twelve percent of the state's GDP and has attracted most of the state's foreign investment.[29][32] Traditional handcrafts include weaving in Villa Garcia, saddles and jewelry in Jerez as well as furniture, leatherworking, miniatures, macramé, ironwork and pottery in various locations.[12]

Tourism includes the capital along with the designation of "Pueblos Mágicos" such as Jerez, Teul de Gonzalez Ortega and Sombrerete, along with the shrine of the Santo Niño de Atocha, which is visited by thousands every year. It also includes archeological sites such as Alta Vista and La Quemada along with thermal springs such as Paraíso Caxcan.[12]

Commerce and services accounts for over 53% of the GDP, mostly small scale operations.[29]

Culture, festivals, and traditions

Troupe Mexique 07854
Zacatecan Danza de Matachines

Most of the state's festivities are in honor of local patron saints and many of the secular festivals have links to religious ones. Such festivals often focus on recitals of traditional dances such as the Mexicapan. Many of these are derived from waltzes and polkas because of the state's mining history. The Mexican Revolution took a toll on the state's local musical traditions, but one that has survived is the Tamborazo, especially in Jerez.[12]

In the state capital, September 8 is dedicated to the Virgen del Patrocinio on the Cerro de la Bufa, with various cultural and artistic events such as bullfighting, concerts, horse racing and culinary demonstrations. The last week of August is dedicated to the Morismas de Bracho, a theatrical production of the struggle between Moors and Christians.[12]

It hosts the International Folklore Festival in August, featuring dance and costumes from around the world. It is held during Holy Week, and features music, food, street performances, dancing and parties.[16]

Other major festivals include the Festival Cultural Zacatecas, the Feria Nacional de Zacatecas and the Internacional Festival de Teatro de Calle, Feria de Primavera de Jerez, the Feria del Libro, and the Cabalgata Turistica Revolucionaria.[33]

Traditional favorite foods include gorditas and panecillos, both made from corn and can be sweet or savory, depending on the filling. Wheat breads include panochas and semitas. Condoches are gorditas made with fresh corn cooked in corn husks. Gorditas de cuajada are representative of food on ranches. Meat is most typically prepared as part of a stew to which vegetables such as corn, chickpeas, squash, rice and more are added. One well-known meat preparation is asado de boda, which is pork in a sauce made with mild red chili peppers. Traditional beverages include pulque, aguamiel, aguardiente and mezcal as well as a purely local beverage called colonche, made by fermenting a cactus fruit.[12]

Archeological sites

La Quemada, Zacatecas
View of the Salón de las Columnas in La Quemada.

Altavista is located 229 km northwest of the city of Zacatecas. It was a ceremonial center, part of the Chalchihuite culture, active between 200 and 1000 CE. It is named after a local ranch, and was explored for the first time at the beginning of the 20th century by Manuel Gamio. Its main building is called the Labyrinth.[34]

La Quemada is located fifty km south of the city of Zacatecas, the state's largest pre Hispanic settlement.[12][16] It developed between 500 and 900 CE and covered an area of over 70,000m2 at its height. Its name, which means "the burnt" comes from evidence that the city was burned and abandoned. Who occupied the city is not known, with speculation relating to Teotihuacan, the Purépecha and the Toltecs.[34]

El Teúl is on a large hill overlooking the modern town of Teúl de González Ortega (municipality). The name comes from Nahuatl and means "of the gods." It was a ceremonial center, with residences located north of it. The site is noted for its pit burials as well as the oldest copper smelting facility in Mesoamerica. It was inhabited from 200 CE to 1531, when the Spanish destroyed it.[34] It is one of several religious and population centers created by the Caxcans, who were semi nomadic, along with others in Tlaltenango, Juchipila and Teocaltiche.[16]

Major communities

References

  1. ^ "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 15.
  2. ^ "Senadores por Zacatecas LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Zacatecas". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  4. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  6. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  7. ^ "Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
  8. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Resumen" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  10. ^ "Territorio" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Zacatecas, estado de clima generoso" (in Spanish). Government of Zacatecas. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Zacatecas". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y Delegaciones de México Estado de Zacatecas. (in Spanish). Instituto para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  13. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2009) Elephant Tree: Bursera microphylla, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Archived 2012-03-07 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Search - The Encyclopedia of Earth". Eoearth.org. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d "Nuestro Pasado" (in Spanish). Government of Zacatecas. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Zacatecas". History Channel. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  17. ^ West,Robert. Early Silver Mining in New Spain, 1531-1555 (1997). Bakewell, Peter (ed.). Mines of Silver and Gold in the Americas. Aldershot: Variorum, Ashgate Publishing Limited. p. 58.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  19. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  20. ^ "Densidad" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  21. ^ "Distribución" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  22. ^ a b "Diversidad" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  23. ^ John P. Schmal (2004). "The Hispanic Experience - Indigenous Identity in Mexico". Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  24. ^ Peter Katel (March 6, 2001). "The New Frontier". CNN. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2007.
  25. ^ In the Shadow of the Giant: The Americanization of Modern Mexico, Rutgers University Press, 2009.
  26. ^ "Dinamica" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  27. ^ "Educación" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  28. ^ "Movimientos Migratorios" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  29. ^ a b c d "Actividades económicas" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  30. ^ Edgar Sigler (October 22, 2013). "Zacatecas y Sonora brillan con impuestos" (in Spanish). CNN México. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  31. ^ Obel, Mike (15 December 2011). "10 Biggest Silver Mines in the World". International Business Times.
  32. ^ "Zacatecas" (in Spanish). Secretary of the Economy, Mexico. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  33. ^ "Fiestas y Festivales" (in Spanish). Secretaria de Turismo, Zacatecas. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  34. ^ a b c "Arqueología" (in Spanish). Secretaria de Turismo, Zacatecas. Retrieved November 18, 2013.

External links

Aguascalientes

Aguascalientes (Spanish pronunciation: [ˌa.ɣwas.kaˈljen.tes] (listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes, literally: Hot Waters), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes.

It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Zacatecas to the north and Jalisco to the south. Its name means "hot waters" in Spanish and originated from the abundance of hot springs in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is hidrocálido or aguascalentense.

Alejandro Tello Cristerna

Alejandro Tello Cristerna (born 30 May 1971) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. He is the current Governor of Zacatecas and also represented the state as a senator during the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress and first four months of the LXIII Legislature.

Ascenso MX

The Ascenso MX is the second professional level of the Mexican football league system. The champion of the competition is promoted to Liga MX (top-flight division). The bottom team gets relegated to Liga Premier (the third tier). It is currently sponsored by BBVA through its Mexican subsidiary BBVA Bancomer, and thus officially known as Ascenso BBVA Bancomer.

Formerly known as Primera División A (First Division A) the league changed its name and competition format in 2009 to Liga de Ascenso. It was rebranded as Ascenso MX in 2012. The main changes are that clubs now do not need a FMF certification to get promoted and that the competition does not use group stages.

Benjamín Galindo

Benjamín Galindo Marentes (born December 11, 1960 in Tierra Blanca, Zacatecas), nicknamed El Maestro (The Master), is a Mexican former footballer. He participated with the national team in the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

Bonilla observation

On August 12, 1883, the astronomer José Bonilla reported that he saw more than 300 dark, unidentified objects crossing before the Sun while observing sunspot activity at Zacatecas Observatory in Mexico. He was able to take several photographs, exposing wet plates at 1/100 second. These represent the earliest photos of an unidentified flying object. It was later suggested that the objects were high-flying geese, while some ufological literature interpreted the objects as either alien spacecraft or an unsolved mystery.In 2011, researchers from the National Autonomous University of Mexico suggested that the unidentified objects may have been fragments of a billion-ton comet passing within a few hundred kilometers of Earth.

Centralist Republic of Mexico

The Centralist Republic of Mexico (Spanish: República Centralista de México), or in the anglophone scholarship, the Central Republic, was officially the Mexican Republic (Spanish: República Mexicana). It was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution known as the Seven Laws after the repeal of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Mexican conservatives attributed the political chaos of the federal era to the empowerment of states over the federal government, participation of non-elite men in the political system through universal male suffrage, rebellions, and economic stagnation to the weakness of the federal government. Conservative elites saw the solution to the problem as abolishing the federal system and creating a centralized one, reminiscent of the colonial era. Federalism had given a range of powers to Mexican states, their legislatures and municipalities. It was favored by the states outside the center of Mexico. Those favoring a centralized state were the conservative urban elites. Mexican conservatives saw federalism as a failure and Mexico not prepared for such a system. They considered the ideal form of government as a centralized, administrative republic, with the states losing power to the central government. Conservatives with the support of the Mexican army created the Central Republic, which lasted eleven years, 1835–46. The unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the Siete Leyes. However, the Seven Laws proved unworkable and were abandoned four and a half years later, and replaced by a military dictatorship under Antonio López de Santa Anna. On August 22, 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and, with this, the return to federalism.

The conservatives' attempt to impose a unitary state produced armed resistance in regions that had most favored federalism. Centralism generated severe political instability, armed uprisings and secessions: The rebellions in Zacatecas, the Texas revolution, the separation of Tabasco, the independence of Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas that formed the Republic of the Rio Grande, and finally the independence of the state of Yucatán.

The Centralist Mexican Republic was governed by eleven presidents. None were to finish their term before the Republic's dissolution.

During this period there were two international conflicts: the Pastry War, caused by French citizens' economic claims against the Mexican government; and the Mexican–American War, as a consequence of the annexation of Texas by the United States.

Chihuahuan Desert

The Chihuahuan Desert (Spanish: Desierto de Chihuahua) is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of West Texas, parts of the middle and lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower Pecos Valley in New Mexico, and a portion of southeastern Arizona, as well as the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau. It is bordered on the west by the extensive Sierra Madre Occidental range, along with northwestern lowlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental range. On the Mexican side, it covers a large portion of the state of Chihuahua, along with portions of Coahuila, north-eastern Durango, the extreme northern part of Zacatecas, and small western portions of Nuevo León. With an area of about 362,000 km2 (139,769 sq mi), it is the third largest desert of the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in North America, after the Great Basin Desert.

Fresnillo

Fresnillo /fres'nijo/ (2005 census pop. 110,892), founded in 1554 by Francisco de Ibarra, is the second largest city in Zacatecas state, north central Mexico and the seat of Fresnillo municipality. As a rail and highway junction, Fresnillo is the center of a rich mining area known especially for silver, and the location of one of the world's richest silver mines, the Mina Proaño or Fresnillo Mine, which belongs to the Peñoles mining company. It has a mining school, and agriculture (cereals, beans) and cattle raising are other important economic activities. Fresnillo is also the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name which surrounds it. The municipality had a population of 196,538 and an areal extent of 4,947 square kilometres (1,910 sq mi).

It is the location of religious pilgrimages to see the famous Santo Niño de Atocha ("Holy Child of Atocha"), a Roman Catholic devotional statue brought to Mexico from Spain.

List of states of Mexico

The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States. There are 31 states and one federal entity in Mexico. Mexico City is a federal entity with a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state, but is not a state itself.The states are further divided into municipalities.

List of television stations in Zacatecas

The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of Zacatecas. There are 17 television stations in Zacatecas which are either independent or affiliated to at least one Televisa or TV Azteca network.

Mexican Federal Highway 25

Federal Highway 25 (Spanish: Carretera Federal 25, Fed. 25) is a free part of the federal highways corridors (Spanish: los corredores carreteros federales). It starts in Viñedos Rivier, Aguascalientes, runs east, then runs northeast to San Marcos, Zacatecas, just past Loreto, Zacatecas.

Mexican Federal Highway 49

Federal Highway 49 ( La Carretera Federal 49 ) (Fed. 49) is a free (libre) part of the federal highways corridors () of Mexico. The highway runs northwest-southeast in the western regions of the Mexican Plateau.

Fed. 49 has two separate improved segments: The first segment runs from Ciudad Jiménez, Chihuahua to just northwest of Fresnillo, Zacatecas. The highway is co-signed with Fed. 40 for 104.6 km (65 mi) from Gómez Palacio to Cuencamé.The second segment runs from Las Arcinas, Zacatecas to San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí.

Mexican Federal Highway 71

Federal Highway 71 ( La Carretera Federal 71 ) (Fed. 71) is a free (libre) part of the federal highways corridors () of Mexico. Fed. 71 exists in two separate segments; the first runs from Fed. 45 at Luis Moya, Zacatecas in the north to Providencia, Aguascalientes in the south. The second segment runs from San Felipe, Aguascalientes in the north to Villa Hidalgo, Jalisco in the south. The highway continues on from Villa Hidalgo to Teocaltiche as Jal 211.

Mineros de Zacatecas

Club Deportivo Mineros de Zacatecas is a Mexican football club from Zacatecas that compete in the Mexican Ascenso MX. They are currently managed by Andrés Carevic.

XHZHZ-TDT

XHZHZ-TDT is a television station on channel 24 in Zacatecas, Zacatecas, operated by the Sistema Zacatecano de Radio y Televisión (Sizart), a branch of the state government.The station is colocated with XHZH-FM 97.9 at the Instituto Zacatecano de la Cultura, with its transmitter on a tower shared with the SPR on Cerro de la Virgen.

Zacatecas City

Zacatecas (Spanish pronunciation: [sakaˈtekas]) is a city and municipality in Mexico, and the capital and largest city of the state of Zacatecas. Located in north-central Mexico, the city had its start as a Spanish mining camp in the mid-16th century. Native Americans had already known about the area's rich deposits of silver and other minerals. Due to the wealth that the mines provided, Zacatecas quickly became one of the most important cities in New Spain, with much of its silver enriching the Spanish crown. The area saw battles during the turbulent 19th century, but the next major event was the Battle of Zacatecas during the Mexican Revolution when Francisco Villa captured the town, an event still celebrated every anniversary. Today, the colonial part of the city is a World Heritage Site, due to the Baroque and other structures built during its mining days. Mining still remains an important industry. The name Zacatecas is derived from the Zacateco people and has its roots in Nahuatl. The name means "people of the grasslands".

Zacatecas International Airport

General Leobardo C. Ruiz International Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional General Leobardo C. Ruiz, IATA: ZCL, ICAO: MMZC), also known as Zacatecas International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de Zacatecas), is an international airport located in Morelos, Zacatecas, Mexico.

In 2017, the airport handled 349,453 passengers, and in 2018 it handled 366,871 passengers.

Zacatecas harvest mouse

The Zacatecas harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys zacatecae) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.

It is found only in Mexico.

Zacatecas shrew

The Zacatecas shrew (Sorex emarginatus) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae. It is endemic to Mexico.

Zacatecas State of Zacatecas
Municipalities
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(municipal seats)

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